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1.
J Geophys Res Oceans ; 124(1): 59-74, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854275

RESUMO

We provide a large data set on salinity anomalies in the ocean's skin layer together with temperature anomalies and meteorological forcing. We observed an average salinity anomaly of 0.40 ± 0.41 practical salinity unity (n = 23,743), and in 83% of the observations the salinity anomaly was positive; that is, the skin layer was more saline. Temperature anomalies determined by an infrared camera were -0.23 ± 0.28 °C (upper 20-µm layer in reference to nominal 1-mm depth) and slightly warmer with -0.19 ± 0.25 °C in an upper 80-µm layer in reference to 1-m depth. In 75% of the observations, our data confirmed the presence of a cooler skin layer. Light rain rates (<4 mm/hr) induced an immediate freshening by 0.25 practical salinity unit in the skin layer without any effect in the mixed layer at 1-m depth. Vertical mixing by strong winds (12 m/s) masked freshening during a heavy rain fall (47 mm/hr) by the intrusion of saltier deeper waters, but a freshening was observed after the wind and rain calmed down. We computed density anomalies, which suggest that denser skin layers can remain afloat up to a density anomaly of 1.3 g/L, likely due to the interfacial tension between the skin layer and underlying bulk water. It implies that salinization by evaporation regulates buoyancy fluxes, a key process for the exchange of climate-relevant gases and heat between the ocean and atmosphere.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13122, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177725

RESUMO

For decades, researchers assumed that enrichment of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sea surface microlayer (SML) is solely controlled by changes in the DOM concentration at this uppermost thin boundary layer between the ocean and the atmosphere. We conducted high-resolution observations of fluorescent-DOM (FDOM) at 13 stations in the coastal and open Atlantic Ocean to understand the enrichment processes. Results show that FDOM enrichment in the SML varied between 0.8 and 2.0 (in comparison to the concentrations in the underlying water; ULW), and FDOM enrichment is a common feature of the SML despite the varied distances to the terrestrial sources. At six stations, the FDOM concentration in the SML was less variable over the sampling period (>5 h) compared to FDOM concentrations in the ULW characterized with sudden changes. Even so we observed slightly lower enrichments with increasing wind speeds and solar radiation, changes in ULW concentrations forced the enrichment to change. In addition, we found evidences for the occurrence of photochemical degradation of FDOM in near-shore SML with implications on coastal carbon cycling. Overall, the results show that the processes leading to the enrichment of DOM in the SML are more complex than previously assumed. Given the importance of the organic-rich SML as a diffusion layer in the air-sea exchange of climate-relevant gases and heat, understanding the layer's enrichment processes is crucial.

3.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 93(5)2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369320

RESUMO

The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air-sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability. We found that enrichment of bacteria in the SML occurred solely at a U10 wind speed of ≤5.6 m s-1 in the tunnel and ≤4.1 m s-1 in the Baltic Sea. High pCO2 levels further intensified the bacterial enrichment in the SML during low wind speed. In addition, low wind speed and pCO2 induced the formation of a distinctive bacterial community as revealed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and influenced the presence or absence of individual taxonomic units within the SML. We conclude that physical stability of the SML below a system-specific wind speed threshold induces specific bacterial communities in the SML entailing strong implications for ecosystem functioning by wind-driven impacts on habitat properties, gas exchange and matter cycling processes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Atmosfera , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Países Bálticos , Dióxido de Carbono , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ecossistema , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vento
4.
Limnol Oceanogr Methods ; 15(5): 503-517, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828269

RESUMO

We developed an effective fluorometric technique to quantify extracellular carbonic anhydrase (eCA) present in natural seawater samples. The technique includes the separation of eCA from cells to achieve low detection limits through high signal : noise ratios. eCA was efficiently extracted from cell membranes by treatment with 0.1 M phosphate buffer containing 2.5 M NaCl. The free eCA specifically forms a fluorescent complex with dansylamide, and the detection limit of the complex is below 0.1 nM. We applied the technique to samples from different culture solutions and natural seawater collected from the Baltic Sea. We observed eCA concentrations to be in the range of 0.10-0.67 nM in natural seawater. The data indicated that this technique is very sensitive, accurate, and feasible for routine and shipboard measurement of eCA from natural seawater. It is therefore an effective and rapid tool to investigate the carbon acquisition of phytoplankton both in mono culture as well natural communities.

5.
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 387(1-3): 283-8, 2007 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17765946

RESUMO

This report focused on the development of a technique to measure dry deposition fluxes of PCBs in tropical environments. Temperature resistant double-adhesive tape has been used as a new surrogate surface for collection of deposited PCBs. The new technique includes the measurement of field blanks for the entire sampling period. A sonication-assisted extraction procedure has been validated for the extraction of PCBs from the tape. The new technique has been used in the field for a period of 4 months in the tropical region of Singapore. The average dry deposition flux measured for total PCBs was 15.3 ng m(-2) day(-1) and, on a global scale, this can be considered to be low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estações do Ano , Singapura , Clima Tropical
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 54(8): 1212-9, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17553533

RESUMO

Sea-surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface seawater samples (SSW) collected from Singapore's coastal environment were analyzed for 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the dissolved (DP) and suspended particulate phase (SPM). Samples were collected prior to and after rainfall events to ascertain the contribution of wet atmospheric deposition of PAH enrichment to the SML. The concentration ranges of summation operatorPAHs in the SML before rain and after wet deposition were 2.6-46.2 ngL(-1) and 4.3-278.0 ngL(-1), respectively, for the DP and 3.8-31.4 ngL(-1) and 12.8-1280 ngL(-1), respectively, for the SPM. Load factors (i.e. concentration after wet deposition relative to before wet deposition) of the atmospheric wet deposition for DP and SPM ranged from 1.4 to 42.9 and 1.2 to 337, respectively. This study provides the first data on PAH concentration, enrichment (i.e. concentration of PAHs in SML relative to subsurface water) and load factors in the SML before and after wet deposition to the ocean surface.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Chuva/química , Singapura
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 369(1-3): 333-43, 2006 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16806403

RESUMO

Simultaneous measurements of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in seawater, the sea-surface microlayer and the atmosphere were conducted in June-July 2004 in the coastal marine environment of Singapore. Together, these measurements represent the first data on the flux of OCs between the ocean and atmosphere reported in the scientific literature that take into account the implication of the sea surface microlayer (SML) as a controlling boundary layer for the exchange of OCs. The average fluxes of SigmaPCBs and SigmaHCHs were 127.5 and -32.8 ng m(-2) day(-1) respectively using a modified two-layer model (negative flux indicates adsorption by the ocean). The average fluxes using a conventional approach, ignoring the SML as boundary layer (classical two-layer model), were 67.2 and -43.1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for SigmaPCBs and SigmaHCHs, respectively. However, the maximum difference in the flux calculation between the two approaches was up to 15-fold for individual compounds at high enrichment in the SML. It is shown that the SML plays an important role in the control of air-sea gas exchange of OCs, particular under a low prevailing wind regime and with an enrichment of OCs in the SML. The physical and chemical properties of OCs are critical factors in the control of the air-sea gas exchange process, and the effect of the SML on this process is more significant for more hydrophobic OCs.


Assuntos
Hexaclorocicloexano/química , Inseticidas/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ar/análise , Gases/análise , Gases/química , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Isomerismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Volatilização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 40(5): 1454-61, 2006 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16568756

RESUMO

Twelve air samples collected over the Indian Ocean by a high volume air sampler between August 2004 and August 2005 were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides. The region of the Indian Ocean and adjacent countries is likely to be acting as a source of selected POPs to the global environment. Data were compared with those reported for the last 30 years to examine historical trends of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Indian Ocean. Compound concentrations were influenced by the proximity to land and air mass origins. Higher concentrations of atmospheric sigmaPCBs (50-114 pg m(-3)) were found on the remote islands of Chagos Archipelago and Gan, Maldives, and in the proximity of Jakarta, Indonesia, and Singapore. Military activities and unregulated waste combustion were identified as possible sources for atmospheric PCB contaminations at the more remote areas. The highest concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were found adjacent to the coastline of Sumatra and Singapore, where sigmaDDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and sigmaHCHs (hexacyclohexanes) were as high as 30 and 100 pg m(-3), respectively. A comparison study for the last 30 years over six regions of the Indian Ocean showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides have declined significantly, by a magnitude of two, since the mid 1970s, but were highest at the beginning of the 1990s. The time trend of PCB contamination in the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean is less apparent. The decline of atmospheric POPs over the Indian Ocean may be due to international regulation of the use of these compounds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Atmosfera , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Qualidade
10.
Chemosphere ; 65(9): 1660-6, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16564561

RESUMO

This study reports the first data on the concentration and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the sea-surface microlayer (SML), and their enrichment relative to bulk seawater, for coastal waters in the marine environment of Hong Kong, China. Samples were collected in March 2005 at five sample locations and analysed for eight congeners of primary interest, i.e. BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 156, 183 and 209. Concentration ranges of summation operatorPBDE in the dissolved phase (DP, defined as sum of truly dissolved and colloidal phase) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of seawater were 31.1-118.7 pg/l (mean 70.7 pg/l), and 25.7-32.5 pg/l (mean 28.1 pg/l), respectively. Concentrations in the SML were generally higher by factor of 1.3-3.6 in the DP (concentration range from 40.2 to 228.2 pg/l, mean 149.2 pg/l) and by 0.3-2.1 in the SPM (concentration range 8.1-69.1 pg/l, mean 38.2 pg/l). Concentrations of PBDEs were general low and below detection limits in samples of an oceanic character and highest in the sheltered waters of Victoria Harbour. The congeners BDE 28, 47, 100 and 183 were most abundant, where BDE 209 was detected only in trace amounts. It is suggested that Hong Kong's marine waters show relatively low levels of PBDE contamination, and these compounds may originate from the disposal of electronic waste in southern China, as well as untreated discharge of wastewater locally.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Fenílicos/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hong Kong
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 52(7): 768-77, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16403537

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the dissolved and suspended particulate phase in the sea-surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface water (SSW) collected from Hong Kong's coastal environment. The concentration ranges (pg/L) for summation sigmaHCHs, summation sigmaDDTs and summation sigmaPCBs in the SSW dissolved phase (DP i.e. sum of truly dissolved and colloidal phase) were 409-940 (mean 602), 774-5583 (mean 1908) and 266-433 (mean 278), respectively. The concentration ranges (pg/L) for summation sigmaHCHs, summation sigmaDDTs and summation sigmaPCBs in SSW suspended particulate matter (SPM) were <5-85 (mean 59), 358-1369 (mean 787) and 85.6-273 (mean 172), respectively. The enrichment factor of PCBs and OCPs in the SML varied between 1.1 and 4.5 for the DP, and 0.4-8.2 for the SPM. The distribution of contaminants between DP and SPM in both the SML and SSW indicates that particulate matter plays an important role in the distribution and fate of DDTs and PCBs, but not for HCH isomers. The Pearl River Estuary is likely to be a major source of contaminants transported to Hong Kong.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arocloros/análise , Hong Kong , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Rios , Suspensões/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 62(7): 1105-15, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16054193

RESUMO

Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenylethanes (DDTs) and 38 PCB congeners were determined in the water column (sea-surface microlayer, subsurface, mid-depth and bottom water) and sediments from Singapore's coastal environment. The concentration ranges for summationHCHs, summationDDTs and summationPCBs in the seawater dissolved phase (DP) were 101-6110 (mean 1833), <5-405 (mean 76) and 60-6979 (mean 1611)pg/l, respectively. The concentration ranges for summationHCHs, summationDDTs and summationPCBs in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 26-2395 (mean 243), <5-124 (mean 19) and 38-3793 (mean 715) pg/l, respectively. Concentration levels in sediments ranged between 521 and 1758 (mean 1094), 50 and 290 (mean 88) and 339 and 1356 (mean 858) pg/g for summationHCHs, summationDDTs and summationPCBs, respectively. It was shown that the interfaces of the sea-surface microlayer (SML) and near bottom water are important compartments for the distribution of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the water column. In comparison with data from China, the concentration levels in the water column and sediments of Singapore can be considered as low, but the reported levels were higher compared to available data from Europe.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Singapura , Movimentos da Água
14.
Chemosphere ; 61(3): 303-13, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16182847

RESUMO

In this study, persistent organic pollutants were quantified in sediments, subsurface seawater, sea-surface microlayer and twenty-four biota species collected at two separate mangrove habitats in Singapore. Data confirmed the ubiquity of POPs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the marine environment of Singapore. A biomagnification phenomenon was observed amongst the species collected and analysed from both mangrove sites studied. Thunder crabs and fish displayed the highest POP levels. Congener profiles of PBDEs varied amongst mangrove biota species and suggested different metabolic pathways exist for flame retardants. Similarly, crab species showed an ability to metabolize chlordane insecticide.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/farmacocinética , Invertebrados , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Rhizophoraceae , Singapura
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 50(11): 1233-43, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15893335

RESUMO

Sea-surface microlayer (SML) and seawater samples collected from Singapore's coastal marine environment were analyzed for selected chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The SML is a potential site of enrichment of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) compared to the underlying water column. The concentration ranges of SigmaHCH, SigmaDDT and SigmaPCB in subsurface (1 m depth) seawater were 0.4-27.2 ng/l (mean 4.0 ng/l), 0.01-0.6 ng/l (mean 0.1 ng/l) and 0.05-1.8 ng/l (mean 0.5 ng/l) respectively. In the SML, the concentration ranges of SigmaHCH, SigmaDDT and SigmaPCB were 0.6-64.6 ng/l (mean 9.9 ng/l), 0.01-0.7 ng/l (mean 0.2 ng/l) and 0.07-12.4 ng/l (mean 1.3 ng/l) respectively. High spatial and temporal distribution was observed for all POPs measured. However, overall levels measured in the SML were lower than levels reported in the literature for SML samples from temperate coastal regions-possibly due to loss of semi-volatile compounds in the tropical climate of Singapore. Atmospheric wet deposition during the monsoon season may be an important source of POPs to the SML. This study provides the first scientific data on POP concentrations and enrichment factors in the SML for Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Singapura
16.
Chemosphere ; 58(7): 925-33, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15639264

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment, particular in coastal areas affected by industry and shipping traffic. POPs are known for their recalcitrance and toxicity in the environment, and there is increasing concern over their global distribution and impact upon wildlife. Marine surface sediment samples taken within 6 km of the coastline of Singapore were analyzed to determine prevailing concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Total PCB concentrations varied widely from 1.4 to 329.6 ng/g (average 73.9 ng/g), where high concentrations were detected at sample locations closest to industrial areas with intensive shipping traffic. Total DDT concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 11.9 ng/g (average 6.7 ng/g) and were lower than the concentration range of 3.3-46.2 ng/g measured for total HCH (average 18.1 ng/g). Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in sediments do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Singapore's marine environment, but high concentrations of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH show evidence for the usage of HCHs in Southeast Asia. Peak concentrations of cis- and trans-Chlordane were 10 ng/g. Among the PBDE congeners BDE 47, 99, and 100 only BDE 47 could be detected at a range of 3.4-13.8 ng/g (average 6.2 ng/g). The levels of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs were compared to available data for other countries in Asia, and indicated relatively moderate levels of contamination. Peak concentrations of PCBs, HCH isomers, Chlordane, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Dieldrin have the potential to induce ecotoxicological impacts based on levels specified in the sediment quality standards of the USEPA and Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Controle de Qualidade , Medição de Risco , Singapura
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 48(11-12): 1016-30, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15172807

RESUMO

Boundary layers between different environmental compartments represent critical interfaces for biological, chemical and physical processes. The sea-surface microlayer (uppermost 1-1000 microm layer) forms the boundary layer interface between the atmosphere and ocean. Environmental processes are controlled by the SML, and it is known to play a key role in the global distribution of anthropogenic pollutants. Due to its unique chemical composition, the upper organic film of the SML represents both a sink and a source for a range of pollutants including chlorinated hydrocarbons, organotin compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. These pollutants can be enriched in the SML by up to 500 times relative to concentrations occurring in the underlying bulk water column. The SML is also a unique ecosystem, serving as an important habitat for fish eggs and larvae. Concentration ranges and enrichment factors of pollutants in the SML in different areas of the world's oceans have been critically reviewed, together with available toxicity data for marine biota found within the SML. Overall, the SML is highly contaminated in many urban and industrialized areas of the world, resulting in severe ecotoxicological impacts. Such impacts may lead to drastic effects on the marine food web and to fishery recruitment in coastal waters. Studies of the toxicity of fish eggs and larvae exposed to the SML contaminants have shown that the SML in polluted areas leads to significantly higher rates of mortality and abnormality of fish embryos and larvae.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/análise , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/toxicidade , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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