Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 33
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23350, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702101

RESUMO

Water connects the environment, culture, and biology, yet only recently has it emerged as a major focus for research in human biology. To facilitate such research, we describe methods to measure biological, environmental, and perceptual indicators of human water needs. This toolkit provides an overview of methods for assessing different dimensions of human water need, both well-established and newly-developed. These include: (a) markers of hydration (eg, urine specific gravity, doubly labeled water) important for measuring the impacts of water need on human biological functioning; (b) methods for measuring water quality (eg, digital colorimeter, membrane filtration) essential for understanding the health risks associated with exposure to microbiological, organic, metal, inorganic nonmental, and other contaminants; and (c) assessments of household water insecurity status that track aspects of unmet water needs (eg, inadequate water service, unaffordability, and experiences of water insecurity) that are directly relevant to human health and biology. Together, these methods can advance new research about the role of water in human biology and health, including the ways that insufficient, unsafe, or insecure water produces negative biological and health outcomes.

2.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23345, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697009

RESUMO

Water insecurity-the lack of adequate and safe water for a healthy and productive life-is one of the greatest threats facing humans in the coming century. By 2030, half of the world is expected to be living in water-stressed conditions, given current climate change scenarios. A key goal of the UN Water Action Decade and Sustainable Development Goal 6 is to improve water security for the three billion people globally affected, but the future looks grim. For many communities, from Cape Town, South Africa to Flint, United States, the imagined dystopian future of severe water shortages has already arrived-shaped not so much by lack of water, but by aging infrastructure, underfunded utilities, social exclusion, politicized commodification, and environmental racism. Stepping off from my biocultural research in Cochabamba, Bolivia, I discuss how recent research is dramatically advancing our understanding of water insecurity, such as new findings around the biocultural causes and consequences of dehydration, contamination, and water stress. But, much more needs be done to support local communities in creating fair and just water systems. I discuss how human biologists can make crucial contributions toward the advancement of a much-needed science of water insecurity, while highlighting some practical and ethical challenges to advancing a core mission of providing safe, sufficient water to all.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 238: 112520, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473576

RESUMO

Living in poverty significantly elevates risk of common mental disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly specified. The stress of coping with household food insecurity is posed as one fundamental driver. While much less tested, the stress of failing to meet household water needs may also matter. We test (a) a hypothesized direct influence of household water insecurity (as household access to water sources and quality/quantity of water available in the household) on anxiety and depression symptoms. We also test (b) if there are indirect (mediated) effects of these aspects of water insecurity on common mental disorder symptom levels via household food insecurity, and (c) via their association with sanitation insecurity (lack of toilet). Data were collected in Haiti in June-July 2016 from 4,055 geographically-sampled households representing three distinct low-resource communities, purposefully differentiated as urban, town, and rural. We confirm that household water insecurity exerts a direct, strong independent effect on anxiety and depression levels, even once food insecurity and household assets are taken into account. Additionally, household water insecurity appears to have an indirect effect on anxiety and depression levels through its influence on household food insecurity. In the rural community sample, there is also support for the proposition of additional influence of household water on anxiety through its association with lack of sanitation. This Haitian case supports theories posing a central, influential role for household water insecurity as a potential driver of common mental illness in low-resource households via direct and indirect (food insecurity, sanitation) pathways.

4.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23309, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Food and water insecurity have both been demonstrated as acute and chronic stressors and undermine human health and development. A basic untested proposition is that they chronically coexist, and that household water insecurity is a fundamental driver of household food insecurity. METHODS: We provide a preliminary assessment of their association using cross-sectional data from 27 sites with highly diverse forms of water insecurity in 21 low- and middle-income countries across Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and the Americas (N = 6691 households). Household food insecurity and its subdomains (food quantity, food quality, and anxiety around food) were estimated using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale; water insecurity and subdomains (quantity, quality, and opportunity costs) were estimated based on similar self-reported data. RESULTS: In multilevel generalized linear mixed-effect modeling (GLMM), composite water insecurity scores were associated with higher scores for all subdomains of food insecurity. Rural households were better buffered against water insecurity effects on food quantity and urban ones for food quality. Similarly, higher scores for all subdomains of water insecurity were associated with greater household food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the diversity of sites included in the modeling, the patterning supports a basic theory: household water insecurity chronically coexists with household food insecurity. Water insecurity is a more plausible driver of food insecurity than the converse. These findings directly challenge development practices in which household food security interventions are often enacted discretely from water security ones.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220682, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415599

RESUMO

Risk management is a problem humans have faced throughout history and across societies. One way to manage risk is to transfer it to other parties through formal and informal insurance systems. One informal method of self-insurance is limited risk pooling, where individuals can ask for help only when in need. Models suggest that need-based transfer systems may require coordination and common knowledge to be effective. To explore the impact of common knowledge on social coordination and risk pooling in volatile environments, we designed and ran a Risk Pooling Game. We compared participants who played the game with no advance priming or framing to participants who read one of two texts describing real-world systems of risk pooling. Players in the primed games engaged in more repetitive asking and repetitive giving than those in the control games. Players in the primed games also gave more in response to requests and were more likely to respond positively to requests than players in the control games. In addition, players in the primed games were more tolerant of wide differences between what the two players gave and received. These results suggest that the priming texts led players to pay less attention to debt and repayment and more attention to the survival of the other player, and thus to more risk pooling. These results are consistent with findings from fieldwork in small-scale societies that suggest that humans use need-based transfer systems to pool risk when environmental volatility leads to needs with unpredictable timing. Models suggest that the need-based transfer strategy observed in this experiment can outperform debt-based strategies. The results of the present study suggest that the suite of behaviors associated with need-based transfers is an easily triggered part of the human behavioral repertoire.

6.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23290, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Stigma-the process by which people become socially discredited because they hold a characteristic that is classified as unacceptable or undesirable-has barely been considered in biocultural analyses. Yet, it provides an acute point of articulation for evolutionary and political-economic perspectives on human variation, including the biocultural production of health disparities. To explain the theoretical integration of the two perspectives to stigma, we first lay out some operationalizable definitions of stigma, and review feasible methods to capture them in the field. We then test the roles of predictors suggested from evolutionary (respondent's level of disgust, fear of contagion) and political-economic (respondent's perceived social standing and negative social labeling of those who violate hygiene norms) theories of stigma. METHODS: We used survey, interview, and behavioral report data from a study of hygiene behaviors at four local community sites in Guatemala, Fiji, New Zealand, and the United States (N = 300). We applied a hierarchical GLMM design that treats site as a random effect. RESULTS: The independent influences of both variable sets are evident in publicly visible forms of reported hygiene behaviors, specifically the exhibition of clean bodies, clothes, and homes. CONCLUSION: We propose that the study of stigma provides a productive operationalizable space to engage the promise of the biocultural synthesis to integrate evolutionary and political-economic models of health and human variation.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217618, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141560

RESUMO

FAT TALK AND CITIZEN SCIENCE: Fat talk is a spontaneous verbal interaction in which interlocutors make self-disparaging comments about the body, usually as a request for assessment. Fat talk often reflects concerns about the self that stem from broader sociocultural factors. It is therefore an important target for sociocultural linguistics. However, real-time studies of fat talk are uncommon due to the resource and time burdens required to capture these fleeting utterances. This limits the scope of data produced using standard sociolinguistic methods. Citizen science may alleviate these burdens by producing a scale of social observation not afforded via traditional methods. Here we present a proof-of-concept for a novel methodology, citizen sociolinguistics. This research approach involves collaborations with citizen researchers to capture forms of conversational data that are typically inaccessible, including fat talk. AIMS AND OUTCOMES: This study had two primary aims. Aim 1 focused on scientific output, testing a novel research strategy wherein citizen sociolinguists captured fat talk data in a diverse metropolitan region (Southwestern United States). Results confirm that citizen sociolinguistic research teams captured forms of fat talk that mirrored the scripted responses previously reported. However, they also capture unique forms of fat talk, likely due to greater diversity in sample and sampling environments. Aim 2 focused on the method itself via reflective exercises shared by the citizen sociolinguists throughout the project. In addition to confirming that the citizen sociolinguistic method produces reliable, scientifically valid data, we contend that citizen sociolinguist inclusion has broader scientific benefits which include applied scientific training, fostering sustained relationships between professional researchers and the public, and producing novel, meaningful scientific output that advances professional discourse.

8.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(3): e23234, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aims to test novel proposed biocultural pathways linking the stressful lived experience of water insecurity to elevated blood pressure, a risk factor for chronic disease. Using the case of Nepal, where women have primary responsibility for managing household water, allows testing for potentially gendered mechanisms that exacerbate negative physiological consequences of water insecurity for women relative to men. METHODS: Data are from the nationally representative 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), N = 8633 women and 6209 men. Multiple regression models tested effects of low household water access on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as stress biomarkers, comparing women to men. Key covariates included HFIAS food insecurity scores, household wealth class (high, medium, low), and body mass index. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, low water access was consistently associated with higher women's systolic and diastolic blood pressure across all wealth levels. The strongest results were for the lowest wealth households, where low water access is concentrated. Higher food insecurity was also associated with higher systolic blood pressure values in women in these households. Men showed no such effects. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a consistent and direct association between living with water insecurity and elevated blood pressure measures. Findings support the proposition that the stress of living with water insecurity could manifest as chronic disease risk. In the Nepali case, the proposed mechanism appears highly gendered, reflecting the culturally prescribed responsibilities women particularly face for managing household water. Living with food insecurity compounds further the apparent effects.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e023558, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782708

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A wide range of water-related problems contribute to the global burden of disease. Despite the many plausible consequences for health and well-being, there is no validated tool to measure individual- or household-level water insecurity equivalently across varying cultural and ecological settings. Accordingly, we are developing the Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale to measure household-level water insecurity in multiple contexts. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: After domain specification and item development, items were assessed for both content and face validity. Retained items are being asked in surveys in 28 sites globally in which water-related problems have been reported (eg, shortages, excess water and issues with quality), with a target of at least 250 participants from each site. Scale development will draw on analytic methods from both classical test and item response theories and include item reduction and factor structure identification. Scale evaluation will entail assessments of reliability, and predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the assessment of differentiation between known groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study activities received necessary ethical approvals from institutional review bodies relevant to each site. We anticipate that the final HWISE Scale will be completed by late 2018 and made available through open-access publication. Associated findings will be disseminated to public health professionals, scientists, practitioners and policymakers through peer-reviewed journals, scientific presentations and meetings with various stakeholders. Measures to quantify household food insecurity have transformed policy, research and humanitarian aid efforts globally, and we expect that an analogous measure for household water insecurity will be similarly impactful.

10.
Int Health ; 11(3): 163-165, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576501

RESUMO

Water insecurity massively undermines health, especially among impoverished and marginalized communities. Emerging evidence shows that household-to-household water sharing is a widespread coping strategy in vulnerable communities. Sharing can buffer households from the deleterious health effects that typically accompany seasonal shortages, interruptions of water services and natural disasters. Conversely, sharing may also increase exposure to pathogens and become burdensome and distressing in times of heightened need. These water sharing systems have been almost invisible within global health research but need to be explored, because they can both support and undermine global public health interventions, planning and policy.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Saúde Global , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 220: 12-21, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390470

RESUMO

Community sanitation interventions increasingly leverage presumed innate human disgust emotions and desire for social acceptance to change hygiene norms. While often effective at reducing open defecation and encouraging handwashing, there are growing indications from ethnographic studies that this strategy might create collateral damage, such as reinforcing stigmatized identities in ways that can drive social or economic marginalization. To test fundamental ethnographic propositions regarding the connections between hygiene norm violations and stigmatized social identities, we conducted 267 interviews in four distinct global sites (in Guatemala, Fiji, New Zealand, USA) between May 2015 and March 2016. Based on 148 initial codes applied to 23,278 interview segments, text-based analyses show that stigmatizing labels and other indices of contempt readily and immediately attach to imagined hygiene violators in these diverse social settings. Moral concerns are much more salient at all sites than disease/contagion ones, and hygiene violators are extended little empathy. Contrary to statistical predictions, however, non-empathetic moral reactions to women hygiene violators are no harsher than those of male violators. This improved evidentiary base illuminates why disgust- and shame-based sanitation interventions can so easily create unintended social damage: hygiene norm violations and stigmatizing social devaluations are consistently cognitively connected.

12.
BMC Obes ; 5: 18, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988619

RESUMO

Background: People living with severe obesity report high levels of weight-related stigma. Theoretically, this stigma undermines weight loss efforts. The objective of this study is to test one proposed mechanism to explain why weight loss is so difficult once an individual becomes obese: that weight-related stigma inhibits physical activity via demotivation to exercise. Methods: The study focused on individuals who had bariatric surgery within the past 5 years (N = 298) and who report a post-surgical body mass index (BMI) ranging from 16 to 70. Exercise avoidance motivation (EAM) and physical activity (PA) were modeled as latent variables using structural equation modeling. Two measures of weight stigma, the Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI) and the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) were modified for people with a long history of extreme obesity for use as observed predictors. Results: Exercise avoidance motivation (EAM) significantly mediated the association between both experienced (SSI) and internalized (WBIS) weight stigma and physical activity (PA) in this population. Conclusion: Exercise avoidance motivation, influenced by weight stigma, may be a significant factor explaining the positive relationship between higher body weights with lower levels of physical activity.

13.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881930

RESUMO

South Asia accounts for the majority of the world's suicide deaths, but typical psychiatric or surveillance-based research approaches are limited due to incomplete vital surveillance. Despite rich anthropological scholarship in the region, such work has not been used to address public health gaps in surveillance and nor inform prevention programs designed based on surveillance data. Our goal was to leverage useful strategies from both public health and anthropological approaches to provide rich narrative reconstructions of suicide events, told by family members or loved ones of the deceased, to further contextualize the circumstances of suicide. Specifically, we sought to untangle socio-cultural and structural patterns in suicide cases to better inform systems-level surveillance strategies and salient community-level suicide prevention opportunities. Using a mixed-methods psychological autopsy approach for cross-cultural research (MPAC) in both urban and rural Nepal, 39 suicide deaths were examined. MPAC was used to document antecedent events, characteristics of persons completing suicide, and perceived drivers of each suicide. Patterns across suicide cases include (1) lack of education (72% of cases); (2) life stressors such as poverty (54%), violence (61.1%), migrant labor (33% of men), and family disputes often resulting in isolation or shame (56.4%); (3) family histories of suicidal behavior (62%), with the majority involving an immediate family member; (4) gender differences: female suicides were attributed to hopeless situations, such as spousal abuse, with high degrees of social stigma. In contrast, male suicides were most commonly associated with drinking and resulted from internalized stigma, such as financial failure or an inability to provide for their family; (5) justifications for suicide were attributions to 'fate' and personality characteristics such as 'stubbornness' and 'egoism'; (5) power dynamics and available agency precluded some families from disputing the death as a suicide and also had implications for the condemnation or justification of particular suicides. Importantly, only 1 out of 3 men and 1 out of 6 women had any communication to family members about suicidal ideation prior to completion. Findings illustrate the importance of MPAC methods for capturing cultural narratives evoked after completed suicides, recognizing culturally salient warning signs, and identifying potential barriers to disclosure and justice seeking by families. These findings elucidate how suicide narratives are structured by family members and reveal public health opportunities for creating or supplementing mortality surveillance, intervening in higher risk populations such as survivors of suicide, and encouraging disclosure.

14.
Prev Med Rep ; 10: 144-149, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755933

RESUMO

Obesity is socially stigmatized in the U.S., especially for women. Significant research has focused on the role that the social and built environments of neighborhoods play in shaping obesity. However, the role of obesity in shaping neighborhood social structure has been largely overlooked. We test the hypothesis that large body size inhibits an individual's engagement in his or her neighborhood. Our study objectives are to assess if (1) body size (body mass index) interacts with gender to predict engagement in one's neighborhood (neighborhood engagement) and (2) if bonding social capital interacts with gender to predict neighborhood engagement independent of body size. We used data collected from the cross-sectional 2011 Phoenix Area Social Survey (PASS), which systematically sampled residents across four neighborhood types (core urban, urban fringe, suburban, retirement) across the Phoenix Metopolitian Area. Survey data was analyzed using logistic regression for 804 participants, including 35% for whom missing data was computed using multiple imputation. We found that as body size increases, women-but not men-have reduced engagement in their neighborhood, independent of bonding social capital and other key covariates (objective 1). We did not observe the interaction between gender and bonding social capital associated with neighborhood engagement (objective 2). Prior scholarship suggests obesity clusters in neighborhoods due to processes of social, economic, and environmental disadvantage. This finding suggests bi-directionality: obesity could, in turn, undermine neighborhood engagement through the mechanism of weight stigma and discrimination.

15.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(8): 1455-1464, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Differences in bottled v. tap water intake may provide insights into health disparities, like risk of dental caries and inadequate hydration. We examined differences in plain, tap and bottled water consumption among US adults by sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. We used 24 h dietary recall data to test differences in percentage consuming the water sources and mean intake between groups using Wald tests and multiple logistic and linear regression models. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2014. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 20 676 adults aged ≥20 years. RESULTS: In 2011-2014, 81·4 (se 0·6) % of adults drank plain water (sum of tap and bottled), 55·2 (se 1·4) % drank tap water and 33·4 (se 1·4) % drank bottled water on a given day. Adjusting for covariates, non-Hispanic (NH) Black and Hispanic adults had 0·44 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·53) and 0·55 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66) times the odds of consuming tap water, and consumed B=-330 (se 45) ml and B=-180 (se 45) ml less tap water than NH White adults, respectively. NH Black, Hispanic and adults born outside the fifty US states or Washington, DC had 2·20 (95 % CI 1·79, 2·69), 2·37 (95 % CI 1·91, 2·94) and 1·46 (95 % CI 1·19, 1·79) times the odds of consuming bottled water than their NH White and US-born counterparts. In 2007-2010, water filtration was associated with higher odds of drinking plain and tap water. CONCLUSIONS: While most US adults consumed plain water, the source (i.e. tap or bottled) and amount differed by race/Hispanic origin, nativity status and education. Water filters may increase tap water consumption.

16.
Global Health ; 14(1): 20, 2018 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on studies conducted in the global north, it is well documented that those who feel stigmatized by overweight/obesity can suffer extreme emotional distress, be subject to (often legal and socially-acceptable) discrimination, and adjust diet and exercise behaviors. These lead to significant negative health impacts, including depression and further weight gain. To date, weight-related stigma has been conceptualized as a problem particular to the highest income, industrialized, historically thin-valorizing societies like the US, Australasia, and Western Europe. MAIN BODY: There is limited but highly suggestive evidence that obesity stigma is an emergent phenomenon that affects populations across the global south. Emergent evidence includes: implicit and explicit measures showing very high levels of weight stigma in middle and low-income countries, complex ethnographic evidence of widespread anti-fat beliefs even where fat-positivity endures, the globalization of new forms of "fat talk," and evidence of the emotional and material damage of weight-related rejection or mistreatment even where severe undernutrition is still a major challenge. CONCLUSION: Recognizing weight stigma as a global health problem has significant implications for how public health conceives and implements appropriate responses to the growing "obesity epidemic" in middle and lower income settings.

17.
Anthropol Med ; 24(1): 96-110, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292205

RESUMO

Cultural notions equating greater morality and virtue with hard work and productive output are deeply embedded in American value systems. This is exemplified in how people understand and execute personal body projects, including efforts to become slim. Bariatric surgery is commonly viewed as a 'low-effort' means of losing weight, and individuals who opt for this surgery are often perceived to be 'cheating.' This extended ethnographic study within one bariatric program in the Southwestern United States shows how patients conscientiously perform this productivity. By prioritizing discourses that focus on their own hard work and the inherent value and necessity of their surgery, patients and practitioners alike contest the dominant public views of surgically-induced weight loss.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Antropologia Médica , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Percepção , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Perda de Peso
18.
Med Anthropol ; 36(5): 500-514, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300433

RESUMO

In this article, we explore the processes by which surveillance of eating and weight is coupled with popular and medical ideas about discipline, responsibility, and moral worth for individuals identified as fat/obese. We then follow these individuals through bariatric surgery and weight loss, paying attention to what discourses and practices shift and what remain unchanged. We argue that weight loss does not temper the intensity and constancy of surveillance, because it is at the core of ideas concerning good citizenship and personal responsibility. Accompanying judgments do shift, however, as the perceptions of failure at disciplined "healthy" eating associated with fatness give way to more diverse attitudes post surgery. This analysis also highlights the fact that public and clinical perceptions of "troubled eating" often rely not on eating practices but on the types of bodies that are doing the consuming.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Obesidade , Adulto , Antropologia Médica , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
19.
Water Secur ; 2: 1-10, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532811

RESUMO

Household water insecurity has serious implications for the health, livelihoods and wellbeing of people around the world. Existing methods to assess the state of household water insecurity focus largely on water quality, quantity or adequacy, source or reliability, and affordability. These methods have significant advantages in terms of their simplicity and comparability, but are widely recognized to oversimplify and underestimate the global burden of household water insecurity. In contrast, a broader definition of household water insecurity should include entitlements and human capabilities, sociocultural dynamics, and political institutions and processes. This paper proposes a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods that can be widely adopted across cultural, geographic, and demographic contexts to assess hard-to-measure dimensions of household water insecurity. In doing so, it critically evaluates existing methods for assessing household water insecurity and suggests ways in which methodological innovations advance a broader definition of household water insecurity.

20.
Med Anthropol Q ; 31(2): 257-276, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272066

RESUMO

Living with extreme weight in the United States is associated with discrimination and self-stigma, creating structural exclusions, embodied stress, and undermining health and wellbeing. Here we combine ethnographic interviews and surveys from those with experiences of living with extreme weight to better explain how this vulnerability is created and reinforced by public cues, both physical (e.g., seatbelts) and social (the reactions of strangers). "Misfitting" is a major theme in interviews, as is the need to plan and scan constantly while navigating too-small public spaces. The most distressing events combine physical misfitting with unsympathetic reactions from strangers. Sensitivity to stigmatizing public cues reduces with weight loss, but does not disappear. This study explains one basic mechanism that underlies the creation of felt stigma related to weight even after weight loss: the lack of accommodation for size and the lack of empathy from others that characterize modern urban spaces.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Idoso , Antropologia Médica , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Logradouros Públicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA