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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

4.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 17: 121-126, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder with endothelial dysfunction. Impaired cerebral autoregulation may lead to symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion, which sometimes manifests not until after delivery. This study investigated, whether cerebral autoregulation was altered after delivery in healthy and preeclamptic women, and whether this associated with cerebral hyperperfusion. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 35 preeclamptic and 35 healthy women were examined with transcranial Doppler within 10 days postpartum and 6 months later. Continuous arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) in the middle (MCA) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) were recorded at rest. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed upon regular breathing at 0.1 Hz via transfer function phase and gain between arterial blood pressure and CBFV oscillations. RESULTS: In preeclamptic women, phase was reduced after delivery in both, MCA and PCA. During the postpartum period, CBFV of the MCA, but not PCA, correlated with higher arterial blood pressure and poorer dynamic cerebral autoregulation. In healthy women with only moderately altered cerebral autoregulation, CBFV remained in the normal range. At both measurements, arterial blood pressure was higher in preeclamptic compared to healthy women. CONCLUSIONS: Women with preeclampsia had poorer cerebral autoregulation and an increased risk of transient cerebral hyperperfusion after delivery.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3842, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), contributes to global morbidity and mortality. Here we conduct a transethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of eGFR in 280,722 participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP), with replication in 765,289 participants from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics (CKDGen) Consortium. We identify 82 previously unreported variants, confirm 54 loci, and report interesting findings including association of the sickle cell allele of betaglobin among non-Hispanic blacks. Our transcriptome-wide association study of kidney function in healthy kidney tissue identifies 36 previously unreported and nine known genes, and maps gene expression to renal cell types. In a Phenome-Wide Association Study in 192,868 MVP participants using a weighted genetic score we detect associations with CKD stages and complications and kidney stones. This investigation reinterprets the genetic architecture of kidney function to identify the gene, tissue, and anatomical context of renal homeostasis and the clinical consequences of dysregulation.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
7.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

8.
Pediatr Res ; 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in healthy populations have identified variants associated with erythrocyte traits, but genetic causes of hemoglobin variation in children with CKD are incompletely understood. METHODS: The Pediatric Investigation of Genetic Factors Linked with Renal Progression (PediGFR) Consortium comprises three pediatric CKD cohorts: Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD), Effect of Strict Blood Pressure Control and ACE Inhibition on the Progression of CRF in Pediatric Patients (ESCAPE), and Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C). We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal association studies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1125 patients. RESULTS: Children of European (n = 725) or Turkish (n = 400) ancestry (EA or TA) were included. In cross-sectional analysis, two SNPs (rs10758658 and rs12718597) previously associated with RBC traits were significantly associated with hemoglobin levels in children of EA and TA. In longitudinal analysis, SNP rs2540917 was nominally associated with hemoglobin in EA and TA children. CONCLUSIONS: SNPs associated with erythrocyte traits in healthy populations were marginally significant for an association with hemoglobin. Further analyses/replication studies are needed in larger CKD cohorts to investigate SNPs of unknown significance associated with hemoglobin. Functional studies will be required to confirm that the observed associations between SNPs and clinical phenotype are causal.

9.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 559-571, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632382

RESUMO

We aggregated coding variant data for 81,412 type 2 diabetes cases and 370,832 controls of diverse ancestry, identifying 40 coding variant association signals (P < 2.2 × 10-7); of these, 16 map outside known risk-associated loci. We make two important observations. First, only five of these signals are driven by low-frequency variants: even for these, effect sizes are modest (odds ratio ≤1.29). Second, when we used large-scale genome-wide association data to fine-map the associated variants in their regional context, accounting for the global enrichment of complex trait associations in coding sequence, compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent 'false leads' with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex diseases and identification of validated therapeutic targets; however, appropriate mechanistic inference requires careful specification of their causal contribution to disease predisposition.

10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(5): 1513-1524, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545352

RESUMO

Background The kidneys have a central role in the generation, turnover, transport, and excretion of metabolites, and these functions can be altered in CKD. Genetic studies of metabolite concentrations can identify proteins performing these functions.Methods We conducted genome-wide association studies and aggregate rare variant tests of the concentrations of 139 serum metabolites and 41 urine metabolites, as well as their pairwise ratios and fractional excretions in up to 1168 patients with CKD.Results After correction for multiple testing, genome-wide significant associations were detected for 25 serum metabolites, two urine metabolites, and 259 serum and 14 urinary metabolite ratios. These included associations already known from population-based studies. Additional findings included an association for the uremic toxin putrescine and variants upstream of an enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deamination of polyamines (AOC1, P-min=2.4×10-12), a relatively high carrier frequency (2%) for rare deleterious missense variants in ACADM that are collectively associated with serum ratios of medium-chain acylcarnitines (P-burden=6.6×10-16), and associations of a common variant in SLC7A9 with several ratios of lysine to neutral amino acids in urine, including the lysine/glutamine ratio (P=2.2×10-23). The associations of this SLC7A9 variant with ratios of lysine to specific neutral amino acids were much stronger than the association with lysine concentration alone. This finding is consistent with SLC7A9 functioning as an exchanger of urinary cationic amino acids against specific intracellular neutral amino acids at the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells.Conclusions Metabolomic indices of specific kidney functions in genetic studies may provide insight into human renal physiology.

11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 71(3): 441-445, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198386

RESUMO

Alport syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder caused by rare variants in 1 of 3 genes encoding for type IV collagen. Rare variants in COL4A5 on chromosome Xq22 cause X-linked Alport syndrome, which accounts for ∼80% of the cases. Alport syndrome has a variable clinical presentation, including progressive kidney failure, hearing loss, and ocular defects. Exome sequencing performed in 2 affected related males with an undefined X-linked glomerulopathy characterized by global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity, and vague basement membrane immune complex deposition revealed a COL4A5 sequence variant, a substitution of a thymine by a guanine at nucleotide 665 (c.T665G; rs281874761) of the coding DNA predicted to lead to a cysteine to phenylalanine substitution at amino acid 222, which was not seen in databases cataloguing natural human genetic variation, including dbSNP138, 1000 Genomes Project release version 01-11-2004, Exome Sequencing Project 21-06-2014, or ExAC 01-11-2014. Review of the literature identified 2 additional families with the same COL4A5 variant leading to similar atypical histopathologic features, suggesting a unique pathologic mechanism initiated by this specific rare variant. Homology modeling suggests that the substitution alters the structural and dynamic properties of the type IV collagen trimer. Genetic analysis comparing members of the 3 families indicated a distant relationship with a shared haplotype, implying a founder effect.

12.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13944, 2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066732

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with a genetic component. Genome-wide association studies have identified variants associated with specific CKD etiologies, but their genetic overlap has not been well studied. This study examined SNP associations across different CKD etiologies and CKD stages using data from 5,034 CKD patients of the German Chronic Kidney Disease study. In addition to confirming known associations, a systemic lupus erythematosus-associated risk variant at TNXB was also associated with CKD attributed to type 1 diabetes (p = 2.5 × 10-7), a membranous nephropathy-associated variant at HLA-DQA1 was also associated with CKD attributed to systemic lupus erythematosus (p = 5.9 × 10-6), and an IgA risk variant at HLA-DRB1 was associated with both CKD attributed to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (p = 2.0 × 10-4) and to type 1 diabetes (p = 4.6 × 10-11). Associations were independent of additional risk variants in the respective genetic regions. Evaluation of CKD stage showed a significant association of the UMOD risk variant, previously identified in population-based studies for association with kidney function, for advanced (stage ≥G3b) compared to early-stage CKD (≤stage G2). Shared genetic associations across CKD etiologies and stages highlight the role of the immune response in CKD. Association studies with detailed information on CKD etiology can reveal shared genetic risk variants.

13.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 32(2): 325-332, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27333618

RESUMO

Background: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 300 000 genotyped variants identified MN-associated loci at HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1. Methods: We used a combined approach of genotype imputation, GWAS, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) imputation and extension to other aetiologies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to investigate genetic MN risk variants more comprehensively. GWAS using 9 million high-quality imputed genotypes and classical HLA alleles were conducted for 323 MN European-ancestry cases and 345 controls. Additionally, 4960 patients with different CKD aetiologies in the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study were genotyped for risk variants at HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1. Results: In GWAS, lead variants in known loci [rs9272729, HLA-DQA1, odds ratio (OR) = 7.3 per risk allele, P = 5.9 × 10-27 and rs17830558, PLA2R1, OR = 2.2, P = 1.9 × 10-8] were significantly associated with MN. No novel signals emerged in GWAS of X-chromosomal variants or in sex-specific analyses. Classical HLA alleles (DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 haplotype) were associated with MN but provided little additional information beyond rs9272729. Associations were replicated in 137 GCKD patients with MN (HLA-DQA1: P = 6.4 × 10-24; PLA2R1: P = 5.0 × 10-4). MN risk increased steeply for patients with high-risk genotype combinations (OR > 79). While genetic variation in PLA2R1 exclusively associated with MN across 19 CKD aetiologies, the HLA-DQA1 risk allele was also associated with lupus nephritis (P = 2.8 × 10-6), type 1 diabetic nephropathy (P = 6.9 × 10-5) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (P = 5.1 × 10-5), but not with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Conclusions: PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 are the predominant risk loci for MN detected by GWAS. While HLA-DQA1 risk variants show an association with other CKD aetiologies, PLA2R1 variants are specific to MN.

14.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 12(9): 549-62, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477491

RESUMO

Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Humanos
15.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 11(7): 1145-53, 2016 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27313313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in children with CKD. We sought to investigate the association of genetic disposition, environmental factors, vitamin D supplementation, and renal function on vitamin D status in children with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D concentrations were measured cross-sectionally in 500 children from 12 European countries with CKD stages 3-5. All patients were participants of the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Study, had CKD stage 3-5, and were age 6-18 years old. Patients were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding 25-hydroxylase, vitamin D binding protein, 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, and 24-hydroxylase. Associations of genetic status, season, local solar radiation, oral vitamin D supplementation, and disease-associated factors with vitamin D status were assessed. RESULTS: Two thirds of patients were vitamin D deficient (25-hydroxy-vitamin D <16 ng/ml). 25-Hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations varied with season and were twofold higher in vitamin D-supplemented patients (21.6 [14.1] versus 10.4 [10.1] ng/ml; P<0.001). Glomerulopathy, albuminuria, and girls were associated with lower 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels. 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were closely correlated with 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (r=0.87 and r=0.55; both P<0.001). 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D concentrations were higher with higher c-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 and inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone. Whereas 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels were independent of renal function, 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were lower with lower eGFR. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in Turkey than in other European regions independent of supplementation status and disease-related factors. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D binding protein gene were independently associated with lower 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and higher 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: Disease-related factors and vitamin D supplementation are the main correlates of vitamin D status in children with CKD. Variants in the vitamin D binding protein showed weak associations with the vitamin D status.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Luz Solar , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Albuminúria/etiologia , Criança , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
16.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 31(2): 262-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is characterized by rapid progression and a high incidence of end-stage renal disease and therefore constitutes an important health problem. While unbiased genetic screens have identified common risk variants influencing renal function and CKD in adults, the presence and identity of such variants in pediatric CKD are unknown. METHODS: The international Pediatric Investigation for Genetic Factors Linked with Renal Progression (PediGFR) Consortium comprises three pediatric CKD cohorts: Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD), Effect of Strict Blood Pressure Control and ACE Inhibition on the Progression of CRF in Pediatric Patients (ESCAPE) and Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C). Clean genotype data from > 10 million genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available for 1136 patients with measurements of serum creatinine at study enrollment. Genome-wide association studies were conducted to relate the SNPs to creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR crea) and proteinuria (urinary albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 300 and ≥ 500 mg/g, respectively). In addition, European-ancestry PediGFR patients (cases) were compared with 1347 European-ancestry children without kidney disease (controls) to identify genetic variants associated with the presence of CKD. RESULTS: SNPs with suggestive association P-values < 1 × 10(-5) were identified in 10 regions for eGFR crea, four regions for proteinuria and six regions for CKD including some plausible biological candidates. No SNP was associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Investigation of the candidate genes for proteinuria in adults from the general population provided support for a region on chromosome 15 near RSL24D1/UNC13C/RAB27A. Conversely, targeted investigation of genes harboring GFR-associated variants in adults from the general population did not reveal significantly associated SNPs in children with CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that larger collaborative efforts will be needed to draw reliable conclusions about the presence and identity of common variants associated with eGFR, proteinuria and CKD in pediatric populations.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 31(8): 1241-52, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26490952

RESUMO

The genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become an established scientific method that provides an unbiased screen for genetic loci potentially associated with phenotypes of clinical interest, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, GWAS provides opportunities to gain new perspectives regarding the genetic architecture of CKD progression by identifying new candidate genes and targets for intervention. As such, it has become an important arm of translational science providing a complementary line of investigation to identify novel therapeutics to treat CKD. In this review, we describe the method and the challenges of performing GWAS in the pediatric CKD population. We also provide an overview of successful GWAS for kidney disease, and we discuss the established pediatric CKD cohorts in North America and Europe that are poised to identify genetic risk variants associated with CKD progression.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Criança , Humanos
18.
Clin Kidney J ; 8(6): 690-4, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26613025

RESUMO

COL4A5 mutations are a known cause of Alport syndrome, which typically manifests with haematuria, hearing loss and ocular symptoms. Here we report on a 16-year-old male patient with a negative family history who presented with proteinuria, progressive renal failure and haemolysis, but without overt haematuria or hearing loss. A renal biopsy revealed features of atypical IgA nephropathy, while a second biopsy a year later showed features of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but was finally diagnosed as chronic thrombotic microangiopathy. Targeted sequencing of candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and congenital thrombotic microangiopathy was negative. Despite all therapeutic efforts, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, immunosuppressive therapy, plasma exchanges and rituximab, the patient progressed to end-stage renal disease. When a male cousin presented with nephrotic syndrome years later, whole-exome sequencing identified a shared disruptive COL4A5 mutation (p.F222C) that showed X-linked segregation. Thus, mutations in COL4A5 give rise to a broader spectrum of clinical presentation than commonly suspected, highlighting the benefits of comprehensive rather than candidate genetic testing in young patients with otherwise unexplained glomerular disease. Our results are in line with an increasing number of atypical presentations of single-gene disorders identified through genome-wide sequencing.

19.
J Clin Invest ; 125(5): 2171-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is frequent uncertainty in the identification of specific etiologies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Recent studies indicate that chromosomal microarrays can identify rare genomic imbalances that can clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental and cardiac disorders in children; however, the contribution of unsuspected genomic imbalance to the incidence of pediatric CKD is unknown. METHODS: We performed chromosomal microarrays to detect genomic imbalances in children enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study, a longitudinal prospective multiethnic observational study of North American children with mild to moderate CKD. Patients with clinically detectable syndromic disease were excluded from evaluation. We compared 419 unrelated children enrolled in CKiD to multiethnic cohorts of 21,575 children and adults that had undergone microarray genotyping for studies unrelated to CKD. RESULTS: We identified diagnostic copy number disorders in 31 children with CKD (7.4% of the cohort). We detected 10 known pathogenic genomic disorders, including the 17q12 deletion HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B) and triple X syndromes in 19 of 419 unrelated CKiD cases as compared with 98 of 21,575 control individuals (OR 10.8, P = 6.1 × 10⁻²°). In an additional 12 CKiD cases, we identified 12 likely pathogenic genomic imbalances that would be considered reportable in a clinical setting. These genomic imbalances were evenly distributed among patients diagnosed with congenital and noncongenital forms of CKD. In the vast majority of these cases, the genomic lesion was unsuspected based on the clinical assessment and either reclassified the disease or provided information that might have triggered additional clinical care, such as evaluation for metabolic or neuropsychiatric disease. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of children with CKD have an unsuspected genomic imbalance, suggesting genomic disorders as a risk factor for common forms of pediatric nephropathy. Detection of pathogenic imbalances has practical implications for personalized diagnosis and health monitoring in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00327860. FUNDING: This work was supported by the NIH, the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adolescente , Causalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cromossômicos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Deleção de Sequência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 65(2): 217-22, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465167

RESUMO

Prior to conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of renal traits and diseases, systematic checks to ensure data integrity and analytical work flow should be conducted. Using positive controls (ie, known associations between a single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] and a corresponding trait) allows for identifying errors that are not apparent solely from global evaluation of summary statistics. Strong genetic control associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as derived from GWAS, are lacking in the non-African ancestry CKD population; thus, in this perspective, we provide examples of and considerations for using positive controls among patients with CKD. Using data from individuals with CKD who participated in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study or PediGFR (Pediatric Investigation for Genetic Factors Linked to Renal Progression) Consortium, we evaluated 2 kinds of positive control traits: traits unrelated to kidney function (bilirubin level and body height) and those related to kidney function (cystatin C and urate levels). For the former, the proportion of variance in the control trait that is explained by the control SNP is the main determinant of the strength of the observable association, irrespective of adjustment for kidney function. For the latter, adjustment for kidney function can be effective in uncovering known associations among patients with CKD. For instance, in 1,092 participants in the PediGFR Consortium, the P value for the association of cystatin C concentrations and rs911119 in the CST3 gene decreased from 2.7×10(-3) to 2.4×10(-8) upon adjustment for serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate. In this perspective, we give recommendations for the appropriate selection of control traits and SNPs that can be used for data checks prior to conducting GWAS among patients with CKD.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Nefrologia/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/normas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Humanos , Nefrologia/normas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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