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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The INBUILD trial investigated the efficacy and safety of nintedanib versus placebo in patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We aimed to establish the effects of nintedanib in subgroups based on ILD diagnosis. METHODS: The INBUILD trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial done at 153 sites in 15 countries. Participants had an investigator-diagnosed fibrosing ILD other than IPF, with chest imaging features of fibrosis of more than 10% extent on high resolution CT (HRCT), forced vital capacity (FVC) of 45% or more predicted, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco) of at least 30% and less than 80% predicted. Participants fulfilled protocol-defined criteria for ILD progression in the 24 months before screening, despite management considered appropriate in clinical practice for the individual ILD. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 by means of a pseudo-random number generator to receive nintedanib 150 mg twice daily or placebo for at least 52 weeks. Participants, investigators, and other personnel involved in the trial and analysis were masked to treatment assignment until after database lock. In this subgroup analysis, we assessed the rate of decline in FVC (mL/year) over 52 weeks in patients who received at least one dose of nintedanib or placebo in five prespecified subgroups based on the ILD diagnoses documented by the investigators: hypersensitivity pneumonitis, autoimmune ILDs, idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and other ILDs. The trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02999178. FINDINGS: Participants were recruited between Feb 23, 2017, and April 27, 2018. Of 663 participants who received at least one dose of nintedanib or placebo, 173 (26%) had chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, 170 (26%) an autoimmune ILD, 125 (19%) idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, 114 (17%) unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and 81 (12%) other ILDs. The effect of nintedanib versus placebo on reducing the rate of FVC decline (mL/year) was consistent across the five subgroups by ILD diagnosis in the overall population (hypersensitivity pneumonitis 73·1 [95% CI -8·6 to 154·8]; autoimmune ILDs 104·0 [21·1 to 186·9]; idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia 141·6 [46·0 to 237·2]; unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 68·3 [-31·4 to 168·1]; and other ILDs 197·1 [77·6 to 316·7]; p=0·41 for treatment by subgroup by time interaction). Adverse events reported in the subgroups were consistent with those reported in the overall population. INTERPRETATION: The INBUILD trial was not designed or powered to provide evidence for a benefit of nintedanib in specific diagnostic subgroups. However, its results suggest that nintedanib reduces the rate of ILD progression, as measured by FVC decline, in patients who have a chronic fibrosing ILD and progressive phenotype, irrespective of the underlying ILD diagnosis. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As prognosis in sarcoidosis is determined by cardiac involvement, the objective was to study the added value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in risk stratification. METHODS: In 114 patients (48 ± 12 years/52% male) with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, we studied the value of clinical and CMR-derived parameters to predict future events, using sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, aborted cardiac death, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement with appropriate shocks, hospitalization for heart failure, and death as composite endpoint. Median follow-up after CMR was 3.1 years (1.1-5.7 years). RESULTS: The ejection fraction (EF) was 58.2 ± 9.1% and 54.7 ± 10.8% for left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively. LV late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 40 patients (35%) involving 5.1% of the LV mass (IQR, 3.0-12.0%), with concomitant RV involvement in 12 patients (11%). T2-weighting imaging and/or T2 mapping showed active disease in 14 patients. The composite endpoint was reached in 34 patients, with 7 deaths in the LGE-positive group (17.5%), versus two deaths in the LGE-negative group (2.7%) (p = 0.015). At univariate analysis, RVEF (p = 0.009), pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.002), and presence of LGE (p < 0.001) and LGE (% of LV) (p < 0.001) were significant. At multivariate analysis, only presence of LGE and LGE (% of LV) was significant (both p = 0.03). At Kaplan-Meier, presence of LGE and an LGE of 3% predicted event-free survival and patient survival. We found no difference in active versus inactive disease with regard to patient survival. CONCLUSION: Myocardial enhancement at LGE-CMR adds independent prognostic value in risk stratification sarcoidosis patients. In contrast, clinical as well as functional cardiac parameters lack discriminative power. KEY POINTS: • Sarcoidosis often affects the heart. • Comprehensive CMR, including T2 imaging and LGE enhancement CMR, allows to depict both active and inactive myocardial damage. • Patient prognosis in sarcoidosis is determined by the presence and severity of myocardial involvement at LGE CMR.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060068

RESUMO

AIM: Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) is an often deadly complication of IPF. No focused international guidelines for the management of AE-IPF exist. The aim of this international survey was to assess the global variability in prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies for AE-IPF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pulmonologists with ILD expertise were invited to participate in a survey designed by an international expert panel. RESULTS: 509 pulmonologists from 66 countries responded. Significant geographical variability in approaches to manage AE-IPF was found. Common preventive measures included antifibrotic drugs and vaccination. Diagnostic differences were most pronounced regarding use of KL-6 and viral testing, while HRCT, BNP and D-Dimer are generally applied. High dose steroids are widely administered (94%); the use of other immunosuppressant and treatment strategies is highly variable. Very few (4%) responders never use immunosuppression. Antifibrotic treatments are initiated during AE-IPF by 67%. Invasive ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are mainly used as a bridge to transplantation. Most physicians educate patients comprehensively on the severity of AE-IPF (82%) and consider palliative care (64%). CONCLUSION: Approaches to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AE-IPF vary worldwide. Global trials and guidelines to improve the prognosis of AE-IPF are needed.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The observation that patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can have higher than normal expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes led to the conclusion that the airways are spared in IPF. This study aimed to re-examine the hypothesis that airways are spared in IPF using a multiresolution imaging protocol that combines multidetector CT (MDCT), with micro-CT and histology. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study comparing explanted lungs from patients with severe IPF treated by lung transplantation with a cohort of unused donor (control) lungs. The donor control lungs had no known lung disease, comorbidities, or structural lung injury, and were deemed appropriate for transplantation on review of the clinical files. The diagnosis of IPF in the lungs from patients was established by a multidisciplinary consensus committee according to existing guidelines, and was confirmed by video-assisted thoracic surgical biopsy or by pathological examination of the contralateral lung. The control and IPF groups were matched for age, sex, height, and bodyweight. Samples of lung tissue were compared using the multiresolution imaging approach: a cascade of clinical MDCT, micro-CT, and histological imaging. We did two experiments: in experiment 1, all the lungs were randomly sampled; in experiment 2, samples were selected from regions of minimal and established fibrosis. The patients and donors were recruited from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Leuven, Belgium) and the University of Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, PA, USA). The study took place at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, BC, Canada). FINDINGS: Between Oct 5, 2009, and July 22, 2016, explanted lungs from patients with severe IPF (n=11), were compared with a cohort of unused donor (control) lungs (n=10), providing 240 samples of lung tissue for comparison using the multiresolution imaging approach. The MDCT specimen scans show that the number of visible airways located between the ninth generation (control 69 [SD 22] versus patients with IPF 105 [33], p=0·0023) and 14th generation (control 9 [6] versus patients with IPF 49 [28], p<0·0001) of airway branching are increased in patients with IPF, which we show by micro-CT is due to thickening of their walls and distortion of their lumens. The micro-CT analysis showed that compared with healthy (control) lung anatomy (mean 5·6 terminal bronchioles per mL [SD 1·6]), minimal fibrosis in IPF tissue was associated with a 57% loss of the terminal bronchioles (mean 2·4 terminal bronchioles per mL [SD 1·0]; p<0·0001), the appearance of fibroblastic foci, and infiltration of the tissue by inflammatory immune cells capable of forming lymphoid follicles. Established fibrosis in IPF tissue had a similar reduction (66%) in the number of terminal bronchioles (mean 1·9 terminal bronchioles per mL [SD 1·4]; p<0·0001) and was dominated by increased airspace size, Ashcroft fibrosis score, and volume fractions of tissue and collagen. INTERPRETATION: Small airways disease is a feature of IPF, with significant loss of terminal bronchioles occuring within regions of minimal fibrosis. On the basis of these findings, we postulate that the small airways could become a potential therapeutic target in IPF. FUNDING: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, US National Institutes of Health, BC Lung Association, and Genentech.

5.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 36, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Phase III INPULSIS® trials, treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with nintedanib significantly reduced the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) versus placebo, consistent with slowing disease progression. However, nintedanib was not associated with a benefit in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed using the St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ). We aimed to further examine the impact of IPF progression on HRQoL and symptoms, and to explore the effect of nintedanib on HRQoL in patients from the INPULSIS® trials stratified by clinical factors associated with disease progression. METHODS: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from the INPULSIS® trials were included in three post hoc analyses. Two analyses used the pooled data set to examine PRO changes from baseline to week 52 according to 1) decline in FVC and 2) occurrence of acute exacerbations. In the third analysis, patients were stratified based on clinical indicators of disease progression (gender, age and physiology [GAP] stage; FVC % predicted; diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLCO] % predicted; composite physiologic index [CPI]; and SGRQ total score) at baseline; median change from baseline was measured at 52 weeks and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon two-sample test. RESULTS: Data from 1061 patients (638 nintedanib, 423 placebo) were analyzed. Greater categorical decline from baseline in FVC % predicted over 52 weeks was associated with significant worsening of HRQoL and symptoms across all PRO measures. Acute exacerbations were associated with deterioration in HRQoL and worsened symptoms. In general, patients with advanced disease at baseline (defined as GAP II/III, FVC ≤ 80%, DLCO ≤ 40%, CPI >  45, or SGRQ > 40) experienced greater deterioration in PROs than patients with less-advanced disease. Among patients with advanced disease, compared with placebo, nintedanib slowed deterioration in several PROs; benefit was most apparent on the SGRQ (total and activity scores). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced IPF, compared with placebo, nintedanib slowed deterioration in HRQoL and symptoms as assessed by several PROs. HRQoL measures have a higher responsiveness to change in advanced disease and may lack sensitivity to capture change in patients with less-advanced IPF.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108050

RESUMO

Lymphangio-leio-myomatosis (LAM) is a rare, cystic lung disease with progressive pulmonary function loss caused by progressively proliferating LAM cells. The degree of airway obstruction has not been well investigated within the pathogenesis of LAM.Using a combination of ex vivo CT, microCT and histology, the site and nature of airway obstruction in LAM explant lungs was compared to matched control lungs (n=5 each). The total number of airways per generation, total airway counts, terminal bronchioles number and surface density were compared in LAM versus control.Ex vivo CT analysis demonstrated a reduced number of airways from generation 7 on (p<0.0001) in LAM compared to control, whereas whole lung microCT analysis confirmed the 3 to 4 fold reduction in the number of airways. Specimen microCT analysis further demonstrated a four-fold decrease in the number of terminal bronchioles (p=0.0079) and a decreased surface density (p=0.0079). Serial microCT and histology images directly showed the loss of functional airways by collapse of airways on the cysts and filling of the airway by exudate.LAM lungs show a 3 to 4 fold decrease in the number of (small) airways, caused by cystic destruction which is the likely culprit for the progressive loss of pulmonary function.

8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 3, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The two 52-week INPULSIS trials investigated nintedanib versus placebo in patients with IPF, FVC ≥50% predicted and DLco 30-79% predicted. The 24-week INSTAGE trial investigated nintedanib plus sildenafil versus nintedanib alone in patients with IPF and DLco ≤35% predicted. We used data from INPULSIS and INSTAGE to compare the effects of nintedanib in patients with IPF with less versus more severe impairment in gas exchange at baseline. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in patients treated with nintedanib alone in the INPULSIS and INSTAGE trials and in patients treated with placebo in the INPULSIS trials. Outcomes included the rate of decline in FVC over 24 weeks, the proportions of patients who had a confirmed or suspected idiopathic acute exacerbation over 24 weeks, deaths over 24 weeks, and adverse events. Analyses were descriptive. RESULTS: In total, 638 and 136 patients received nintedanib alone in the INPULSIS and INSTAGE trials, respectively, and 423 patients received placebo in the INPULSIS trials. Rates of FVC decline were - 52.3 and - 66.7 mL/24 weeks in patients treated with nintedanib alone in INPULSIS and INSTAGE, respectively, and - 102.8 mL/24 weeks in patients treated with placebo in INPULSIS. Confirmed or suspected idiopathic acute exacerbations were reported in 0.6 and 3.7% of patients treated with nintedanib alone in INPULSIS and INSTAGE, respectively, and 2.1% of patients treated with placebo in INPULSIS. Deaths occurred in 2.0, 11.0 and 1.9% of patients in these groups, respectively. Diarrhoea adverse events were reported in 52.5 and 48.5% of patients treated with nintedanib alone in INPULSIS and INSTAGE, respectively, and 16.1% of patients treated with placebo in INPULSIS. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data from the INSTAGE and INPULSIS trials, nintedanib had a similar effect on FVC decline over 24 weeks, and a similar safety and tolerability profile, in patients with IPF and more versus less severe impairment in gas exchange. These data support the use of nintedanib in patients with IPF who have advanced disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: INPULSIS (NCT01335464 and NCT01335477); INSTAGE (NCT02802345).

9.
Respiration ; 99(1): 73-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830755

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease that is, by definition, progressive. Progression of IPF is reflected by a decline in lung function, worsening of dyspnea and exercise capacity, and deterioration in health-related quality of life. In the short term, the course of disease for an individual patient is impossible to predict. A period of relative stability in forced vital capacity (FVC) does not mean that FVC will remain stable in the near future. Frequent monitoring using multiple assessments, not limited to pulmonary function tests, is important to evaluate disease progression in individual patients and ensure that patients are offered appropriate care. Optimal management of IPF requires a multidimensional approach, including both pharmacological therapy to slow decline in lung function and supportive care to preserve patients' quality of life.

10.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(4)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687368

RESUMO

Our study presents findings on a previously developed standard set of clinical outcome data for pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. We aimed to assess whether changes in outcome varied between the different centres and to evaluate the feasibility of collecting the standard set retrospectively. This retrospective observational comparative benchmark study included six interstitial lung disease expert centres based in the Netherlands, Belgium, the UK and the USA. The standard set of outcome measures included 1) mortality, 2) changes in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide), 3) soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) change, 4) weight changes, 5) quality-of-life (QoL) measures, 6) osteoporosis and 7) clinical outcome status (COS). Data collection was considered feasible if the data were collected in ≥80% of all patients. 509 patients were included in the retrospective cohort. In total six patients died, with a mean survival of 38±23.4 months after the diagnosis. Centres varied in mean baseline FVC, ranging from 110 (95% CI 92-124)% predicted to 99 (95% CI 97-123)% pred. Mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of patients in the different centres varied between 27 (95% CI 23.6-29.4) kg·m-2 and 31.8 (95% CI 28.1-35.6) kg·m-2. 310 (60.9%) patients were still on systemic therapy 2 years after the diagnosis. It was feasible to measure mortality, changes in pulmonary function, weight changes and COS. It is not (yet) feasible to retrospectively collect sIL-2R, osteoporosis and QoL data internationally. This study shows that data collection for the standard set of outcome measures for pulmonary sarcoidosis was feasible for four out of seven outcome measures. Trends in pulmonary function and BMI were similar for different hospitals when comparing different practices.

11.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 3(3): ytz099, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660477

RESUMO

Background: Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. Adverse outcome related with cardiac involvement, makes early diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis crucial. Case summary: In a 55-year-old man presenting with recurrent pulmonary infections, computed tomography (CT) showed several enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes and no lung pathology. Subsequent mediastinoscopy revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Further screening for organ involvement showed multifocal cardiac involvement both on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT). Because of the lack of functional deterioration and clinical symptoms, no steroid treatment was initiated and regular follow-up of cardiac abnormalities was performed by CMR. Unremarkable progression of cardiac involvement during the first 2 years of follow-up turned into a dramatic involvement after 4 years, with the increase in the number and size of lesions at late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. Late gadolinium enhancement areas matched the regions of strongly increased 18F-FDG uptake. For the first time, the patient started complaining on shortness of breath, electrocardiography showed an atrioventricular block Grade 1. Cardiac biomarkers and cardiac function were still preserved. Steroid treatment was started. Although an electrophysiology study was negative, Holter monitoring showed ventricular arrhythmia. Cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted. Discussion: This case shows the progression of cardiac sarcoidosis on CMR in an asymptomatic untreated patient over a 4-year period, and rises the awareness of possible severe cardiac damage even in the absence of clinical signs of cardiac involvement. Combination of PET and CMR is appealing to better understand the evolution of cardiac sarcoidosis and may help in the management of such patients.

12.
Adv Ther ; 36(11): 3059-3070, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Forced vital capacity is the only registrational endpoint in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis clinical trials. As most new treatments will be administered on top of standard of care, estimating treatment response will become more challenging. We developed a simulation model to quantify variability associated with forced vital capacity decline. METHODS: The model is based on publicly available clinical trial summary and home spirometry data. A single, illustrative trial setting is reported. Model assumptions are 400 subjects randomised 1:1 to investigational drug or placebo over 52 weeks, 50% of each group receiving standard of care (all-comer population), and a 90-mL treatment difference in annual forced vital capacity decline. Longitudinal profiles were simulated and the impact of varying clinical scenarios evaluated. RESULTS: Power to detect a significant treatment difference was 87-97%, depending on the analysis method. Repeated measures analysis generally outperformed analysis of covariance and mixed linear models, particularly with missing data (as simulated data were non-linear). A 15% yearly random dropout rate led to 0.6-5% power loss. Forced vital capacity decline-related dropout introduced greater power loss (up to 12%), as did subjects starting/stopping standard of care or investigational drug. Power was substantially lower for a 26-week trial due to the smaller assumed treatment effect at week 26 (sample size would need doubling to reach a power similar to that of a 52-week trial). CONCLUSIONS: Our model quantifies forced vital capacity decline and associated variability, with all the caveats of background therapy, permitting robust power calculations to inform future idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis clinical trial design. FUNDING: Galapagos NV (Mechelen, Belgium).

13.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(4)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649949

RESUMO

Introduction: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and its most common form, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), are chronic, progressive diseases resulting in increasing loss of lung function and impaired quality of life and survival. The aim of this joint expert and patient statement was to highlight the most pressing common unmet needs of patients with PF/IPF, putting forward recommendations to improve the quality of life and health outcomes throughout the patient journey. Methods: Two online surveys for patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) were conducted by the European Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Related Disorders Federation (EU-IPFF) in 14 European countries. Results: The surveys were answered by 286 patients and 69 HCPs, including physicians and nurses. Delays in diagnosis and timely access to interstitial lung disease specialists and pharmacological treatment have been identified as important gaps in care. Additionally, patients and HCPs reported that a greater focus on symptom-centred management, adequate information, trial information and increasing awareness of PF/IPF is required. Conclusions: The surveys offer important insights into the current unmet needs of PF/IPF patients. Interventions at different points of the care pathway are needed to improve patient experience.

14.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 231, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PROOF registry is an observational study initiated in October 2013 with the aim to monitor disease progression in a real-world population of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we present longitudinal clinical outcomes from the PROOF registry. METHODS: Patients with IPF were enrolled across eight centers in Belgium and Luxembourg. For all patients, clinical outcomes data were collected, including mortality, lung transplant, acute exacerbations, and pulmonary hypertension. For patients treated with pirfenidone at any time during follow-up (2013-2017), for any duration of treatment (the pirfenidone-treated population): pirfenidone treatment patterns were collected; changes in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC] and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity [DLco]) were reviewed up to 24 months post-inclusion; and time-to-event analyses from the time of registry inclusion were performed. RESULTS: The PROOF registry enrolled a total of 277 patients. During follow-up, 23.1% of patients died, 5.1% received a lung transplant, 5.4% experienced an acute exacerbation, and 6.1% had comorbid pulmonary hypertension. In the pirfenidone-treated population (N = 233, 84.1%), 12.9% of patients had a temporary dose discontinuation and 31.8% had a temporary dose reduction; 4.3% of patients permanently discontinued pirfenidone due to an adverse drug reaction. Mean percent predicted FVC was 81.2% (standard deviation [SD] 19.0) at Month 0 and 78.3% (SD 25.0) at Month 24, and mean percent predicted DLco was 47.0% (SD 13.2) and 45.0% (SD 16.5), respectively. Rates of ≥ 10% absolute decline in percent predicted FVC and ≥ 15% absolute decline in percent predicted DLco over 24 months were 31.0% and 23.2%, respectively. Mean times from registry inclusion to categorical absolute decline in percent predicted FVC and percent predicted DLco were 20.1 (standard error [SE] 0.6) months and 23.4 (SE 0.5) months, respectively; mean time from registry inclusion to death was 31.0 (SE 0.9) months. CONCLUSIONS: The PROOF registry is a source of European data characterizing longitudinal clinical outcomes of patients with IPF. Over 12 months of follow-up, pulmonary function remained largely stable in patients with IPF who received pirfenidone for any duration of treatment. Pulmonary function remained similar at 24 months of follow-up, although patient numbers were lower. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROOF is registered with the relevant authorities in Belgium and Luxembourg, with registration to Comité National d'Éthique et de Recherche (CNER) N201309/03-12 September 2013 and a notification to Comité National de Protection des Données (CNDP) for Luxembourg.

15.
JCI Insight ; 4(22)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600171

RESUMO

To develop a systems biology model of fibrosis progression within the human lung we performed RNA sequencing and microRNA analysis on 95 samples obtained from 10 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 6 control lungs. Extent of fibrosis in each sample was assessed by microCT-measured alveolar surface density (ASD) and confirmed by histology. Regulatory gene expression networks were identified using linear mixed-effect models and dynamic regulatory events miner (DREM). Differential gene expression analysis identified a core set of genes increased or decreased before fibrosis was histologically evident that continued to change with advanced fibrosis. DREM generated a systems biology model (www.sb.cs.cmu.edu/IPFReg) that identified progressively divergent gene expression tracks with microRNAs and transcription factors that specifically regulate mild or advanced fibrosis. We confirmed model predictions by demonstrating that expression of POU2AF1, previously unassociated with lung fibrosis but proposed by the model as regulator, is increased in B lymphocytes in IPF lungs and that POU2AF1-knockout mice were protected from bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Our results reveal distinct regulation of gene expression changes in IPF tissue that remained structurally normal compared with moderate or advanced fibrosis and suggest distinct regulatory mechanisms for each stage.

16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(9): 780-790, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are often complicated by pulmonary hypertension, increasing morbidity and mortality. There are no approved treatments for pulmonary hypertension associated with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (PH-IIP). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of riociguat in patients with PH-IIP. METHODS: RISE-IIP was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study done at 65 pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease centres in 19 countries to evaluate the efficacy and safety of riociguat in patients with PH-IIP. Eligible patients were adults (aged 18-80 years) diagnosed with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (as per American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/Japanese Respiratory Society/Latin American Thoracic Association guidelines), forced vital capacity (FVC) of at least 45%, 6MWD of 150-450 m, WHO functional classes II-IV, precapillary pulmonary hypertension confirmed by right heart catheterisation, systolic blood pressure of at least 95 mm Hg, and no signs or symptoms of hypotension. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) using an interactive voice and web response system to riociguat (0·5-2·5 mg three times daily) or placebo for 26 weeks (main study), after which they could enter an open-label extension in which all patients received riociguat. The primary endpoint was change in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) in the intention-to-treat population. Prespecified safety variables included adverse events and serious adverse events, laboratory parameters, and adverse events of special interest (haemoptysis and symptomatic hypotension), assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02138825. FINDINGS: Between June 4, 2014, and May 5, 2016, we enrolled 229 participants. After the exclusion of 82 participants, 147 were randomly allocated to treatment (73 to riociguat, 74 to placebo). The study was terminated early (median treatment duration 157 days [range 6-203]) at the request of the data monitoring committee owing to increased serious adverse events (main study: 27 [37%] of 73 participants in the riociguat group vs 17 [23%] of 74 in the placebo group) and mortality in patients receiving riociguat, and the absence of efficacy signals in the riociguat group. 11 patients died in the main study (eight in the riociguat group, three in the placebo group), and nine died in the extension phase (one in the riociguat group, eight in the former placebo group; all received riociguat). In the main study, the most common adverse events were peripheral oedema (16 [22%] of 73 in the riociguat group vs seven [9%] of 74 in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (11 [15%] vs seven [9%]). The most common serious adverse events were worsening of interstitial lung disease (main study: six [8%] of 73 in the riociguat group vs five [7%] of 74 in the placebo group) and pneumonia (four [5%] vs one [1%]). Riociguat did not improve 6MWD versus placebo at 26 weeks (least-squares mean difference 21 m; 95% CI -9 to 52). INTERPRETATION: In patients with PH-IIP, riociguat was associated with increased serious adverse events and mortality, and an unfavourable risk-benefit profile. Riociguat should not be used in patients with PH-IIP. FUNDING: Bayer AG and Merck & Co.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2246-2251, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368252

RESUMO

Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a rare congenital disease characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). It shows significant genetic heterogeneity and can be transmitted by autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. Recessive inheritance is associated with mutations of DOCK6 or EOGT; however, only few cases have been published so far. We present two families with EOGT-associated AOS. Due to pseudodominance in one family, the recognition of the recessive inheritance pattern was difficult. We identified two novel AOS-causing mutations (c.404G>A/p.Cys135Tyr and c.311+1G>T). The phenotype in the presented families was dominated by large ACC, whereas TTLD were mostly subtle or even absent and no major malformations occured. Our observations along with the previously published cases indicate that the two types of recessive AOS (EOGT- vs. DOCK6-associated) differ significanty regarding the frequency of neurologic or ocular deficits.

18.
Clin Transplant ; 33(10): e13661, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286560

RESUMO

Lung transplantation remains the only curative treatment option for selected patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease (ILD). Candidate selection is impeded by patient heterogeneity, particularly in the subgroup of non-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (non-IPF) interstitial lung diseases. We performed a descriptive analysis of all non-IPF ILD patients who underwent lung transplantation in our center between July 1991 and November 2016 (n = 129) and searched for pre-transplant variables correlating with graft loss and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Our study cohort was characterized by a significantly affected medical condition, an extensive pre-transplant corticosteroid use (73.8%), and a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (55.7%). Earlier year of transplantation (P = .004), higher bilirubin level (P < .0001), older recipient age (P = .04), and smaller recipient height (P = .02) were found to be associated with earlier graft loss in multivariate analysis. Moreover, pre-transplant corticosteroid treatment tended to be related to earlier graft loss (P = .06), while pulmonary hypertension did not significantly correlate. None of the pre-transplant variables were shown to be associated with CLAD development. Ongoing research is required to further explore this diverse patient population and the pre-transplant variables determining their post-transplant outcome.

19.
Am J Ind Med ; 62(10): 908-913, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between sarcoidosis or sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease and exposure to silica and other inorganic agents have been suggested in several studies. CASES: We describe granulomatous lung disease in two workers of a small production unit making metal-halide lamps. Initially, both were diagnosed with sarcoidosis. However, in both men, birefringent particles were observed in the lung or mediastinal lymph node biopsies. Clipping of glass tubes led to moderate exposure to dust, consisting mainly of amorphous fused silica, with some cristobalite. After removal from exposure, both subjects improved clinically, radiologically, and functionally. CONCLUSION: The present cases support the hypothesis that silica might be a trigger for sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Sarcoidosis should be considered a diagnosis of exclusion and clinicians should carefully collect occupational and environmental exposure histories to identify workplace triggers.

20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 6(1): e000422, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179008

RESUMO

Introduction: While current standard of care (SOC) for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) slows disease progression, prognosis remains poor. Therefore, an unmet need exists for novel, well-tolerated agents that reduce lung function decline and improve quality of life. Here we report the design of two phase III studies of the novel IPF therapy, GLPG1690. Methods and analysis: Two identically designed, phase III, international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre studies (ISABELA 1 and 2) were initiated in November 2018. It is planned that, in each study, 750 subjects with IPF will be randomised 1:1:1 to receive oral GLPG1690 600 mg, GLPG1690 200 mg or placebo, once daily, on top of local SOC, for at least 52 weeks. The primary endpoint is rate of decline of forced vital capacity (FVC) over 52 weeks. Key secondary endpoints are week 52 composite endpoint of disease progression or all-cause mortality (defined as composite endpoint of first occurrence of ≥10% absolute decline in per cent predicted FVC or all-cause mortality at week 52); time to first respiratory-related hospitalisation until end of study; and week 52 change from baseline in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (a quality-of-life measure). Ethics and dissemination: Studies will be conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines, Declaration of Helsinki principles, and local ethical and legal requirements. Results will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration numbers: NCT03711162; NCT03733444.

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