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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6639, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758319

RESUMO

Fungi belonging to the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex (CNGSC) are pathogens causing severe infections in humans and animals, that for humans may result in a mortality rate ranging up to 70%. The CNGSC is divided into eight major molecular types, that may differ in their virulence and susceptibility. In order to fully understand the epidemiology of cryptococcosis, it is important to study the world distribution and population structure of these pathogens. The present study is the first presenting a population of strains isolated in Poland and one of the few using a multi-species animal group as a source of the specimen. The pathogen was present in 2.375% of the tested animals. The URA5-RFLP and MALDI-TOF MS analyses have revealed that the population consisted exclusively of C. neoformans strains, with a predominance of major molecular type VNIV (C. neoformans var. neoformans). The MALDI-TOF MS was used to perform the CNGSC strains identification on both the species and sub-species level. Despite the fact that the animals providing the specimens were not treated with 5-fluorocytosine, around 10% of the tested population presented MIC values exceeding 64 mg/L, indicating the existence of the 5-fluorocytosine-resistant strains in the environment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Criptococose/veterinária , Cryptococcus neoformans/classificação , Doenças dos Animais/história , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XXI , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Polônia/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530493

RESUMO

The impact of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the microbiomic and pathogenic phenomena occurring in humans and other warm-blooded animals is relatively well-recognized. At the same time, there are scant data concerning the role of E. coli strains in the health and disease of cold-blooded animals. It is presently known that reptiles are common asymptomatic carriers of another human pathogen, Salmonella, which, when transferred to humans, may cause a disease referred to as reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS). We therefore hypothesized that reptiles may also be carriers of specific E. coli strains (reptilian Escherichia coli, RepEC) which may differ in their genetic composition from the human uropathogenic strain (UPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Therefore, we isolated RepECs (n = 24) from reptile feces and compared isolated strains' pathogenic potentials and phylogenic relations with the aforementioned UPEC (n = 24) and APEC (n = 24) strains. To this end, we conducted an array of molecular analyses, including determination of the phylogenetic groups of E. coli, virulence genotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis-Restriction Analysis (RA-PFGE) and genetic population structure analysis using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). The majority of the tested RepEC strains belonged to nonpathogenic phylogroups, with an important exception of one strain, which belonged to the pathogenic group B2, typical of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. This strain was part of the globally disseminated ST131 lineage. Unlike RepEC strains and in line with previous studies, a high percentage of UPEC strains belonged to the phylogroup B2, and the percentage distribution of phylogroups among the tested APEC strains was relatively homogenous, with most coming from the following nonpathogenic groups: C, A and B1. The RA-PFGE displayed a high genetic diversity among all the tested E. coli groups. In the case of RepEC strains, the frequency of occurrence of virulence genes (VGs) was lower than in the UPEC and APEC strains. The presented study is one of the first attempting to compare the phylogenetic structures of E. coli populations isolated from three groups of vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals (humans).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Filogenia , Répteis/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(9): 2166-2171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424607

RESUMO

Reptiles appear to be an important vector for Gram-negative pathogens, therefore, they are epidemiologically relevant. However, the composition of reptilian microbiota has been poorly recognized so far. The majority of studies concern exotic reptiles as asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella serovars. Studies of other intestinal bacteria of reptiles are rare. Only recently, the microbiota of free-living European reptiles have been investigated, however, on the basis of small samples, mainly in protected areas. Here, we aim to investigate cloacal Gram-negative microbiota of free-living Natrix natrix. Snakes (N = 45) used in the study were collected in Kraków (Poland) and its vicinity. Nineteen species of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated. The most common species were: Aeromonas hydrophila, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella spp. The bacteria prevalent in N. natrix cloacal swabs are likely to represent the natural intestinal Gram-negative microbiota of the examined snakes. Importantly, the identified bacteria are pathogenic to humans, which clearly highlights the epidemiological potential of free-living N. natrix. The risk of infection is high for immunocompromised humans, children (under 5 years old), elderly persons, and pregnant women. Our study provides the largest dataset on intestinal Gram-negative microbiota of wild snakes. The presence of multiple human pathogens determined by us calls for the necessity of further studies on reptile-transmitted bacteria in anthropogenic environments.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Microbiota , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Salmonella
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294944

RESUMO

The genus Lactobacillus includes, among others, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, species that are collectively referred to as the Lactobacillus casei group. Many studies have shown that strains belonging to this group may decrease lactose intolerance, the effects of inflammatory bowel disease, diarrhea, constipation, food allergies and even colon cancer. Moreover, evidences exists of positive effects of these bacteria on mucosal immunity and blood cholesterol level. Because of their beneficial influence on human health, many of them are used as food additives and probiotic pharmaceuticals. It should be stressed that health-promoting properties are not attributed at the species level, but to specific strains. Therefore, procedures are necessary to allow specific identification at each phylogenetic level-genus, species and strain. In this paper we present a practical overview of molecular methods for the identification and differentiation of L. casei bacteria. The research included 30 bacterial strains belonging to three species: L.casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus. Among the tested procedures were genus- and species-specific PCR, multiplex-PCR, Real-Time HRM analysis, RFLP-PCR, rep-PCR, RAPD-PCR, AFLP-PCR, and proteomic methods such as MALDI-TOF MS typing and SDS-PAGE fingerprinting. The obtained results showed that multiplex-PCR and MALDI-TOF MS turned out to be the most useful methods to identify the tested bacteria at the species level. At the strain level, the AFLP-PCR method showed the highest discriminatory power. We hope that the presented results will allow for the easy selection of an appropriate procedure, depending on the experiment conducted and the equipment capabilities of any given laboratory.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus casei/classificação , Lactobacillus casei/genética , Tipagem Molecular , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , DNA Bacteriano , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Probióticos
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(4): 523-530, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006359

RESUMO

We compared the effectiveness of various methods for the identification of Staphylococcus spp. other than S. aureus isolated from intramammary infections of cows on 3 dairy farms in Lower Silesia, Poland. A total of 131 isolates belonging to 18 Staphylococcus species were identified by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and dnaJ genes, as well using a commercial identification system (ID 32 STAPH; bioMérieux) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; Bruker Daltonics). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was found to have low discriminatory value because only 43% of isolates were recognized unequivocally. Much better results were obtained with the dnaJ gene (all isolates were correctly identified at the species level). However, some of these isolates achieved a low similarity level (<97%) and required a confirmatory test (sequencing of the rpoB gene). The performance of ID 32 STAPH was poor. Regardless of the probability level used (80% or 90%), the commercial system obtained identification rates <40%. Using MALDI-TOF MS and the commercial Bruker database, 67% of isolates were identified correctly with scores ≥2.0 (acceptable species-level identification) but this number increased to 97% after the database was expanded. The definitive identification of Staphylococcus spp. other than S. aureus causing intramammary infections in cattle often requires a combination of different procedures, and the existing databases should be updated.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
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