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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419282

RESUMO

AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has never been investigated in patients with reduced ejection fraction and associated coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated the impact of FFR on the management strategies of these patients and related outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2002 to 2010, all consecutive patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50% undergoing coronary angiography with ≥1 intermediate coronary stenosis [diameter stenosis (DS)% 50-70%] treated based on angiography (Angiography-guided group) or according to FFR (FFR-guided group) were screened for inclusion. In the FFR-guided group, 433 patients were matched with 866 contemporary patients of the Angiography-guided group. For outcome comparison, 617 control patients with LVEF >50% were included. After FFR, stenotic vessels per patient were significantly downgraded compared with the Angiography-guided group (1.43 ± 0.98 vs. 1.97 ± 0.84; P < 0.001). This was associated with lower revascularization rate (52% vs. 62%; P < 0.001) in the FFR-guided vs. the Angiography-guided group. All-cause death at 5 years of follow-up was significantly lower in the FFR-guided as compared with Angiography-guided group [22% vs. 31%. HR (95% CI) 0.64 (0.51-0.81); P < 0.001]. Similarly, rate of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and stroke) was significantly lower in the FFR-guided group [40% vs. 46% in the Angiography-guided group. HR (95% CI) 0.81 (0.67-0.97); P = 0.019]. Higher rates of death and MACCE were observed in patients with reduced LVEF compared with the control cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with reduced LVEF and CAD, FFR-guided revascularization was associated with lower rates of death and MACCE at 5 years as compared with the Angiography-guided strategy. This beneficial impact was observed in parallel with less coronary artery bypass grafting and more patients deferred to percutaneous coronary intervention or medical therapy.

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085503

RESUMO

AIM: Significant platelet activation after long stented coronary segments has been associated with peri-procedural microvascular impairment and myonecrosis. In long lesions treated either with everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) or everolimus-eluting stent (EES), we investigated (a) procedure-related microvascular impairment, and (b) relationship of platelet activation with microvascular function and related myonecrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=66) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in long lesions were randomized 1:1 either to BVS or EES. Primary endpoint was the difference between groups in changes of pressure-derived corrected index of microvascular resistance (cIMR) after PCI. Peri-procedural myonecrosis was assessed by high sensitivity-cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), platelet reactivity by high-sensitivity adenosine diphosphate (hs-ADP)-induced platelet reactivity with the Multiplate Analyzer™. Post-dilatation was more frequent in the BVS group, with consequent longer procedure time. A significant difference was observed between the two groups in the primary endpoint of Δ cIMR (p= 0,04). Hs-ADP was not different between the 2 groups at different time points. Hs-cTnT significantly increased after PCI, without difference between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In long lesions, BVS implantation is associated with significant acute reduction in IMR as compared with EES, with no significant interaction with platelet reactivity or peri-procedural myonecrosis.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(4): 402-424, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859669

RESUMO

Ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC) plays a major role in the physiology of cardiac and aortic mechanics, as well as in the pathophysiology of cardiac disease. VAC assessment possesses independent diagnostic and prognostic value and may be used to refine riskstratification and monitor therapeutic interventions. Traditionally, VAC is assessed by the non-invasive measurement of the ratio of arterial (Ea) to ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees). With disease progression, both Ea and Ees may become abnormal and the Ea/Ees ratio may approximate its normal values. Therefore, the measurement of each component of this ratio or of novel more sensitive markers of myocardial (e.g. global longitudinal strain) and arterial function (e.g. pulse wave velocity) may better characterize VAC. In valvular heart disease, systemic arterial compliance and valvulo-arterial impedance have an established diagnostic and prognostic value and may monitor the effects of valve replacement on vascular and cardiac function. Treatment guided to improve VAC through improvement of both or each one of its components may delay incidence of heart failure and possibly improve prognosis in heart failure. In this consensus document, we describe the pathophysiology, the methods of assessment as well as the clinical implications of VAC in cardiac diseases and heart failure. Finally, we focus on interventions that may improve VAC and thus modify prognosis.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(4): 370-374, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840026

RESUMO

Importance: Whether the improvement in myocardial perfusion provided by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with symptomatic relief or improved outcomes has not been well investigated. Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of the improvement in fractional flow reserve (FFR) after PCI (ΔFFR) on patients' symptoms and 2-year outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is a post hoc analysis of data from patients undergoing FFR-guided PCI in the randomized clinical trials Fractional Flow Reserve vs Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation (FAME) 1 (NCT00267774; 2009) and FAME 2 (NCT01132495; 2012), with inclusion of 2 years of follow-up data. The FAME 1 trial included patients with multivessel coronary artery disease from 20 medical centers in Europe and the United States. The FAME 2 trial included patients with stable coronary artery disease involving up to 3 vessels from 28 sites in Europe and North America. Lesions from the group in the FAME 1 trial from whom FFR was measured and the group in the FAME 2 trial who received FFR-guided PCI plus medical therapy were analyzed. Data analysis occurred from May 2017 to May 2018. Interventions: Measure of post-PCI FFR. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vessel-oriented clinical events at 2 years, a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-associated myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. Results: This analysis included 639 patients from whom pre-PCI and post-PCI FFR values were available. Of their 837 lesions, 277 were classified into the lowest tertile (ΔFFR≤0.18), 282 into the middle tertile (0.19≤ΔFFR≤0.31), and 278 into the highest tertile (ΔFFR>0.31). Vessel-oriented clinical events were significantly more frequent in the lowest tertile (n = 25 of 277 [9.1%]) compared with the highest tertile (n = 13 of 278 [4.7%]; hazard ratio, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.03-3.92]; P = .04). In addition, a significant association was observed between ΔFFR and symptomatic relief (odds ratio, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.02-1.74]; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials, the larger the improvement in FFR, the larger the symptomatic relief and the lower the event rate. This suggests that measuring FFR before and after PCI provides clinically useful information.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 40(2): 180-186, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596995

RESUMO

Aims: To assess the effect of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with contemporary drug-eluting stents on the composite of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (MI) vs. medical therapy in patients with stable coronary lesions. Methods and results: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) of the three available randomized trials of contemporary FFR-guided PCI vs. medical therapy for patients with stable coronary lesions: FAME 2 (NCT01132495), DANAMI-3-PRIMULTI (NCT01960933), and Compare-Acute (NCT01399736). FAME 2 enrolled patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), while the other two focused on non-culprit lesions in stabilized patients after acute coronary syndrome. A total of 2400 subjects were recruited from 54 sites world-wide with 1056 randomly assigned to FFR-guided PCI and 1344 to medical therapy. The pre-specified primary outcome was a composite of cardiac death or MI. We included data from extended follow-ups for FAME 2 (up to 5.5 years follow-up) and DANAMI-3-PRIMULTI (up to 4.7 years follow-up). After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range 12-60 months), a reduction in the composite of cardiac death or MI was observed with FFR-guided PCI as compared with medical therapy (hazard ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.96; P = 0.02). The difference between groups was driven by MI. Conclusion: In this IPD meta-analysis of the three available randomized controlled trials to date, FFR-guided PCI resulted in a reduction of the composite of cardiac death or MI compared with medical therapy, which was driven by a decreased risk of MI.

7.
J Hypertens ; 37(2): 339-346, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aortic stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important predictor to gauge the overall risk of hypertensive patients; nonetheless, it is underutilized in everyday practice. We propose a simple scoring system based on clinical variables that can identify patients with a priority for measurement of PWV, that is, those with elevated PWV (≥10 m/s) and, consequently, at higher risk for events. METHODS: Patient data from three outpatient clinics (n = 3943) were used to form a derivation, internal and external validation cohort. For derivation, independent predictors of high PWV from a binary logistic regression model were split in subcategories and implemented in a simple clinical prediction scoring system with the acronym SAGE (office systolic blood pressure, age, glycemia and eGFR categories). RESULTS: Its performance was validated at the internal and external validation cohorts with c-statistics being 0.83 (95% CI 0.81-0.86) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.73-0.80), respectively. A cut-off of eight points to identify patients with high PWV in the internal/external validation cohorts yielded a positive-predictive value, negative-predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of 52/36%, 88/81%, 56/70% and 88/65%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The SAGE score that takes into account easily measured clinical variables (office SBP, age, fasting glucose and eGFR categories) can be used to accurately predict elevated levels of PWV and prioritize its measurement in specific hypertensive patients. Its use will result in greater acknowledgement of the role of aortic stiffness and aid physicians in implementing it in clinical practice.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(6): e006368, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has been associated with lower number of graft anastomoses, lower rate of on-pump surgery, and higher graft patency rate as compared with angiography-guided CABG surgery. However, no clinical benefit has been reported to date. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients (n=627) treated by CABG between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively included. In 198 patients, at least 1 stenosis was grafted according to FFR (FFR-guided group), whereas in 429 patients all stenoses were grafted based on angiography (angiography-guided group). The 2 coprimary end points were overall death or myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events (composite of overall death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) up to 6-year follow-up. In the FFR-guided group, patients were significantly younger (66 [57-73] versus 70 [63-76]; P<0.001), more often male (82% versus 72%; P=0.008), and less often diabetic (21% versus 30%; P=0.023). Clinical follow-up (median, 85 [66-104] months) was analyzed in 396 patients after 1:1 propensity-score matching for these 3 variables. The rate of overall death or myocardial infarction was significantly lower in the FFR-guided (n=31 [16%] versus n=49 [25%]; hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.93]; P=0.020) as compared with the angiography-guided group. Major adverse cardiovascular events rate was also numerically lower in the FFR-guided than in the angiography-guided group (n=42 [21%] versus n=52 [26%]; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.16]; P=0.21). CONCLUSIONS: FFR-guided CABG is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of overall death or myocardial infarction at 6-year follow-up as compared with angiography-guided CABG.

9.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(3): e006194, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The principle of continuous thermodilution can be used to calculate absolute coronary blood flow and microvascular resistance (R). The aim of the study is to explore the safety, feasibility, and reproducibility of coronary blood flow and R measurements as measured by continuous thermodilution in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Absolute coronary flow and R can be calculated by thermodilution by infusing saline at room temperature through a dedicated monorail catheter. The temperature of saline as it enters the vessel, the temperature of blood and saline mixed in the distal part of the vessel, and the distal coronary pressure were measured by a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire. The feasibility and safety of the method were tested in 135 patients who were referred for coronary angiography. No significant adverse events were observed; in 11 (8.1%) patients, bradycardia and concomitant atrioventricular block appeared transiently and were reversed immediately on interruption of the infusion. The reproducibility of measurements was tested in a subgroup of 80 patients (129 arteries). Duplicate measurements had a strong correlation both for coronary blood flow (ρ=0.841, P<0.001; intraclass correlation coefficient=0.89, P<0.001) and R (ρ=0.780, P<0.001; intraclass correlation coefficient=0.89, P<0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, there was no significant bias or asymmetry. CONCLUSIONS: Absolute coronary blood flow (in L/min) and R (in mm Hg/L/min or Wood units) can be safely and reproducibly measured with continuous thermodilution. This approach constitutes a new opportunity for the study of the coronary microcirculation.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 379(3): 250-259, 2018 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) would be superior to medical therapy as initial treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: Among 1220 patients with angiographically significant stenoses, those in whom at least one stenosis was hemodynamically significant (FFR, ≤0.80) were randomly assigned to FFR-guided PCI plus medical therapy or to medical therapy alone. Patients in whom all stenoses had an FFR of more than 0.80 received medical therapy and were entered into a registry. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization. RESULTS: A total of 888 patients underwent randomization (447 patients in the PCI group and 441 in the medical-therapy group). At 5 years, the rate of the primary end point was lower in the PCI group than in the medical-therapy group (13.9% vs. 27.0%; hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.63; P<0.001). The difference was driven by urgent revascularizations, which occurred in 6.3% of the patients in the PCI group as compared with 21.1% of those in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.41). There were no significant differences between the PCI group and the medical-therapy group in the rates of death (5.1% and 5.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.75) or myocardial infarction (8.1% and 12.0%; hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.00). There was no significant difference in the rate of the primary end point between the PCI group and the registry cohort (13.9% and 15.7%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.39). Relief from angina was more pronounced after PCI than after medical therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial FFR-guided PCI strategy was associated with a significantly lower rate of the primary composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization at 5 years than medical therapy alone. Patients without hemodynamically significant stenoses had a favorable long-term outcome with medical therapy alone. (Funded by St. Jude Medical and others; FAME 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01132495 .).


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
EuroIntervention ; 14(8): 907-914, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769166

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the evolution of coronary lesions which had repeated physiologic evaluation by FFR as an endpoint, describe the clinical significance of longitudinal FFR change (ΔFFR=FFRfollow-up-FFRbaseline) and its correlation with angiographic indices, and identify predictors of FFRfollow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective, single-centre analysis of 414 stenoses (331 patients) with consecutive FFR measurements at least six months apart was performed (median time interval: 24 [17, 37] months). The change in percent diameter stenosis was 2% (-5%, 11%). FFR values at baseline and follow-up were 0.86 (0.82, 0.90) and 0.83 (0.79, 0.90), respectively (<0.0001). The median ΔFFR was -0.007 (-0.028, 0.010) per year. Worsening FFR (ΔFFR <-0.05) was observed in 105 (25%) stenoses, stable FFR (-0.05 ≤ΔFFR ≤0.05) in 276 (67%) and improving FFR (ΔFFR >0.05) in 33 (8%) stenoses. The number of haemodynamically significant stenoses (FFR ≤0.80) was higher at follow-up compared to baseline (33% versus 17%, p<0.0001); ΔFFR correlated weakly with delta diameter stenosis (Δ%DS, ρ=-0.111, p=0.024). In mixed effects repeated measures analysis, only lesion location had an independent correlation with FFR values after adjusting for multiple confounders. In ROC analysis, FFRbaseline values predicted future clinically significant values (c-statistic: 0.736 [95% CI: 0.682-0.783]). CONCLUSIONS: FFR values decrease slowly over a two-year follow-up. FFRbaseline, but not angiographic indices, is a predictor of significant functional atherosclerosis progression, predicting which stenoses will require revascularisation.

12.
Circulation ; 137(14): 1475-1485, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among patients with documented stable coronary artery disease and in whom no revascularization was performed, we compared the respective values of angiographic diameter stenosis (DS) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) in predicting natural history. METHODS: The present analysis included the 607 patients from the FAME 2 trial (Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography in Multivessel Evaluation 2) in whom no revascularization was performed. FFR varied from 0.20 to 1.00 (average 0.74±0.16), and DS (by quantitative coronary analysis) varied from 8% to 98% (average 53±15). The primary end point, defined as vessel-oriented clinical end point (VOCE) at 2 years, was a composite of prospectively adjudicated cardiac death, vessel-related myocardial infarction, vessel-related urgent, and not urgent revascularization. The stenoses were divided into 4 groups according to FFR and %DS values: positive concordance (FFR≤0.80; DS≥50%), negative concordance (FFR>0.80; DS<50%), positive mismatch (FFR≤0.80; DS<50%), and negative mismatch (FFR>0.80; DS≥50%). RESULTS: The rate of VOCE was highest in the positive concordance group (log rank: X2=80.96; P=0.001) and lowest in the negative concordance group. The rate of VOCE was higher in the positive mismatch group than in the negative mismatch group (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.67; P=0.001). There was no significant difference in VOCE between the positive concordance and positive mismatch groups (FFR≤0.80; hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.09; P=0.149) and no significant difference in rate of VOCE between the negative mismatch and negative concordance groups (FFR>0.80; hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-3.74; P=0.067). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary disease, physiology (FFR) is a more important determinant of the natural history of coronary stenoses than anatomy (DS). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01132495.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 10(9)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR), an index of the hemodynamic severity of coronary stenoses, is derived from invasive measurements and requires a pressure-monitoring guidewire and hyperemic stimulus. Angiography-derived FFR measurements (FFRangio) may have several advantages. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic performance and interobserver reproducibility of FFRangio in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: FFRangio is a computational method based on rapid flow analysis for the assessment of FFR. FFRangio uses the patient's hemodynamic data and routine angiograms to generate a complete 3-dimensional coronary tree with color-coded FFR values at any epicardial location. Hyperemic flow ratio is derived from an automatic resistance-based lumped model of the entire coronary tree. A total of 203 lesions were analyzed in 184 patients from 4 centers. Values derived using FFRangio ranged from 0.5 to 0.97 (median 0.85) and correlated closely (Spearman ρ=0.90; P<0.001) with the invasive FFR measurements, which ranged from 0.5 to 1 (median 0.84). In Bland-Altman analyses, the 95% limits of agreement between these methods ranged from -0.096 to 0.112. Using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of FFRangio were 88%, 95%, and 93%, respectively. The intraclass coefficient between 2 blinded operators was 0.962 with a 95% confidence interval from 0.950 to 0.971, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high concordance between FFRangio and invasive FFR. The color-coded display of FFR values during coronary angiography facilitates the integration of physiology and anatomy for decision making on revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03005028.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Idoso , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Bélgica , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Hypertension ; 70(5): 1057-1064, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923899

RESUMO

Vascular aging, as assessed by structural and functional arterial properties, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that the number of cardiovascular risk factors determines the progression of vascular aging. One hundred forty-two subjects (mean age 51.9 years, 94 men) without established cardiovascular disease were investigated in 2 examinations over a 2-year period. Subjects were classified at baseline according to their number of risk factors (from 0 to 2 and more). Subjects had determinations of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and common carotid intima-media thickness and their annual absolute changes were calculated. Subjects with more risk factors had a gradual higher annual progression of pulse wave velocity (0.092 m/s/y for 0, 0.152 m/s/y for 1, and 0.352 m/s/y for 2 and more; P=0.007). Patients with both hypertension and dyslipidemia have 4× higher annual progression rate compared with subjects without these risk factors (0.398 m/s/y versus 0.102 m/s/y). When only subjects 55 years old and under were considered, the progression rate of augmentation index was higher in subjects with more risk factors (1.15%/y versus 1.50%/y versus 2.99%/y, respectively; P=0.037). No association was found with the annual change of flow-mediated dilatation or carotid intima-media thickness. In the general population, increasing number of risk factors is associated with accelerated deterioration of specific indices of vascular aging, such as pulse wave velocity and augmentation index; in contrast, flow-mediated dilatation and carotid intima-media thickness are insensitive to such changes. Accordingly, the former may be more useful for gauging vascular aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 10(7)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correlation between angiographic assessment of coronary stenoses and fractional flow reserve (FFR) is weak. Whether and how risk factors impact the diagnostic accuracy of angiography is unknown. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of angiography by visual estimate and by quantitative coronary angiography when compared with FFR and evaluate the influence of risk factors (RF) on this accuracy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1382 coronary stenoses (1104 patients), percent diameter stenosis by visual estimation (DSVE) and by quantitative coronary angiography (DSQCA) was compared with FFR. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups, according to the presence of RFs, and the relationship between DSVE, DSQCA, and FFR was analyzed. Overall, DSVE was significantly higher than DSQCA (P<0.0001); nonetheless, when examined by strata of DS, DSVE was significantly smaller than DSQCA in mild stenoses, although the reverse held true for severe stenoses. Compared with FFR, a large scatter was observed for both DSVE and DSQCA. When using a dichotomous FFR value of 0.80, C statistic was significantly higher for DSVE than for DSQCA (0.712 versus 0.640, respectively; P<0.001). C statistics for DSVE decreased progressively as RFs accumulated (0.776 for ≤1 RF, 0.750 for 2 RFs, 0.713 for 3 RFs and 0.627 for ≥4 RFs; P=0.0053). In addition, in diabetics, the relationship between FFR and angiographic indices was particularly weak (C statistics: 0.524 for DSVE and 0.511 for DSQCA). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, DSVE has a better diagnostic accuracy than DSQCA to predict the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The predictive accuracy of angiography is moderate in patients with ≤1 RFs, but weakens as RFs accumulate, especially in diabetics.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Idoso , Bélgica , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 10(4)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During thermodilution-based assessment of volumetric coronary blood flow, we observed that intracoronary infusion of saline increased coronary flow. This study aims to quantify the extent and unravel the mechanisms of saline-induced hyperemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were studied; in 24 patients, intracoronary Doppler flow velocity measurements were performed at rest, after intracoronary adenosine, and during increasing infusion rates of saline at room temperature through a dedicated catheter with 4 lateral side holes. In 9 patients, global longitudinal strain and flow propagation velocity were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography during a prolonged intracoronary saline infusion. Taking adenosine-induced maximal hyperemia as reference, intracoronary infusion of saline at rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mL/min induced 6%, 46%, 111%, and 112% of maximal hyperemia, respectively. There was a close agreement of maximal saline- and adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.922; P<0.001). The same infusion rates given through 1 end hole (n=6) or in the contralateral artery (n=6) did not induce a significant increase in flow velocity. Intracoronary saline given on top of an intravenous infusion of adenosine did not further increase flow. Intracoronary saline infusion did not affect blood pressure, systolic, or diastolic left ventricular function. Heart rate decreased by 15% during saline infusion (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Intracoronary infusion of saline at room temperature through a dedicated catheter for coronary thermodilution induces steady-state maximal hyperemia at a flow rate ≥15 mL/min. These findings open new possibilities to measure maximal absolute coronary blood flow and minimal microcirculatory resistance.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Termodiluição/métodos
17.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 24(4): 1178-1189, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27604111

RESUMO

In patients with stable chest pain, decision making about treatment strategy should be based on anatomical and functional information on the coronary circulation. Traditionally, the functional data are obtained by non-invasive testing which aims at detecting and localizing 'myocardial ischemia.' Yet, the diagnostic accuracy of diagnostic testing is over-rated in the literature, so that in clinical practice, a sizable proportion of patients undergo a coronary angiogram without prior useful functional information. Therefore, several methods have been developed to obtain similar information in the catheterization laboratory. Here we review briefly some of these methods. Some of them are used routinely in clinical practice, and others are under development.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Circulação Coronária , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Humanos , Termodiluição , Resistência Vascular
19.
Atherosclerosis ; 241(2): 507-32, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26117398

RESUMO

While risk scores are invaluable tools for adapted preventive strategies, a significant gap exists between predicted and actual event rates. Additional tools to further stratify the risk of patients at an individual level are biomarkers. A surrogate endpoint is a biomarker that is intended as a substitute for a clinical endpoint. In order to be considered as a surrogate endpoint of cardiovascular events, a biomarker should satisfy several criteria, such as proof of concept, prospective validation, incremental value, clinical utility, clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness, ease of use, methodological consensus, and reference values. We scrutinized the role of peripheral (i.e. not related to coronary circulation) noninvasive vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention. Most of the biomarkers examined fit within the concept of early vascular aging. Biomarkers that fulfill most of the criteria and, therefore, are close to being considered a clinical surrogate endpoint are carotid ultrasonography, ankle-brachial index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; biomarkers that fulfill some, but not all of the criteria are brachial ankle pulse wave velocity, central haemodynamics/wave reflections and C-reactive protein; biomarkers that do no not at present fulfill essential criteria are flow-mediated dilation, endothelial peripheral arterial tonometry, oxidized LDL and dysfunctional HDL. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether a specific vascular biomarker is overly superior. A prospective study in which all vascular biomarkers are measured is still lacking. In selected cases, the combined assessment of more than one biomarker may be required.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiologia/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões , Europa (Continente) , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Projetos de Pesquisa , Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Sociedades Médicas , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Rigidez Vascular
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 189: 293-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25919966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an established predictor of cardiovascular risk. We explored the effects of acute smoking on arterial stiffness, systemic inflammation and endothelial activation in chronic smokers and the contribution of cyclooxygenases-1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, we investigated in 28 young smokers the vascular and systemic effects of smoking one cigarette, 3h after receiving 1000 mg of aspirin (a non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor) or placebo (aspirin substudy), or 200 mg of celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) or placebo (celecoxib substudy). Smoking increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV, a marker of aortic stiffness), indicating an adverse effect on arterial elastic properties. Similarly, circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were increased after smoking. Aspirin fully prevented the smoking-induced increase of PWV after smoking. In contrast, celecoxib only partially prevented the smoking-induced increase of PWV. Both aspirin and celecoxib prevented to a similar extent the increase of ADMA levels after smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking one cigarette is associated with a deterioration of arterial stiffness and with systemic endothelial activation in chronic smokers. Both COX-1 and COX-2, but primarily COX-1, mediate these unfavorable effects of smoking.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Celecoxib/administração & dosagem , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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