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1.
J Clin Invest ; 129(9): 3482-3491, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478909

RESUMO

Vaccine development against tuberculosis (TB) is based on the induction of adaptive immune responses endowed with long-term memory against mycobacterial antigens. Memory B and T cells initiate a rapid and robust immune response upon encounter with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thus achieving long-lasting protection against infection. Recent studies have shown, however, that innate immune cell populations such as myeloid cells and NK cells also undergo functional adaptation after infection or vaccination, a de facto innate immune memory that is also termed trained immunity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that induction of trained immunity contributes to the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccines such as bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the licensed TB vaccine. Moreover, increasing evidence argues that trained immunity also contributes to the anti-TB effects of BCG vaccination. An interaction among immunological signals, metabolic rewiring, and epigenetic reprogramming underlies the molecular mechanisms mediating trained immunity in myeloid cells and their bone marrow progenitors. Future studies are warranted to explore the untapped potential of trained immunity to develop a future generation of TB vaccines that would combine innate and adaptive immune memory induction.

2.
Cell ; 178(5): 1041-1056, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442399

RESUMO

The current understanding of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis implicates a complex interaction between host genetics, host immunity, microbiome, and environmental exposures. Mechanisms gleaned from genetics and molecular pathogenesis offer clues to the critical triggers of mucosal inflammation and guide the development of therapeutic interventions. A complex network of interactions between host genetic factors, microbes, and microbial metabolites governs intestinal homeostasis, making classification and mechanistic dissection of involved pathways challenging. In this Review, we discuss these challenges, areas of active translation, and opportunities for development of next-generation therapies.

3.
J Immunol ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451676

RESUMO

The clear role of autophagy in human inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease was first identified by genome-wide association studies and subsequently dissected in multiple mechanistic studies. ATG16L1 has been particularly well studied in knockout and hypomorph settings as well as models recapitulating the Crohn disease-associated T300A polymorphism. Interestingly, ATG16L1 has a single homolog, ATG16L2, which is independently implicated in diseases, including Crohn disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the contribution of ATG16L2 to canonical autophagy pathways and other cellular functions is poorly understood. To better understand its role, we generated and analyzed the first, to our knowledge, ATG16L2 knockout mouse. Our results show that ATG16L1 and ATG16L2 contribute very distinctly to autophagy and cellular ontogeny in myeloid, lymphoid, and epithelial lineages. Dysregulation of any of these lineages could contribute to complex diseases like Crohn disease and systemic lupus erythematosus, highlighting the value of examining cell-specific effects. We also identify a novel genetic interaction between ATG16L2 and epithelial ATG16L1. These findings are discussed in the context of how these genes may contribute distinctly to human disease.

5.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaaw7756, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457091

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CeD), caused by immune reactions to cereal gluten, is treated with gluten -elimination diets. Within hours of gluten exposure, either perorally or extraorally by intradermal injection, treated patients experience gastrointestinal symptoms. To test whether gluten exposure leads to systemic cytokine production time -related to symptoms, series of multiplex cytokine measurements were obtained in CeD patients after gluten challenge. Peptide injection elevated at least 15 plasma cytokines, with IL-2, IL-8, and IL-10 being most prominent (fold-change increase at 4 hours of 272, 11, and 1.2, respectively). IL-2 and IL-8 were the only cytokines elevated at 2 hours, preceding onset of symptoms. After gluten ingestion, IL-2 was the earliest and most prominent cytokine (15-fold change at 4 hours). Supported by studies of patient-derived gluten-specific T cell clones and primary lymphocytes, our observations indicate that gluten-specific CD4+ T cells are rapidly reactivated by antigen -exposure likely causing CeD-associated gastrointestinal symptoms.

6.
Cell ; 178(3): 714-730.e22, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348891

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed risk alleles for ulcerative colitis (UC). To understand their cell type specificities and pathways of action, we generate an atlas of 366,650 cells from the colon mucosa of 18 UC patients and 12 healthy individuals, revealing 51 epithelial, stromal, and immune cell subsets, including BEST4+ enterocytes, microfold-like cells, and IL13RA2+IL11+ inflammatory fibroblasts, which we associate with resistance to anti-TNF treatment. Inflammatory fibroblasts, inflammatory monocytes, microfold-like cells, and T cells that co-express CD8 and IL-17 expand with disease, forming intercellular interaction hubs. Many UC risk genes are cell type specific and co-regulated within relatively few gene modules, suggesting convergence onto limited sets of cell types and pathways. Using this observation, we nominate and infer functions for specific risk genes across GWAS loci. Our work provides a framework for interrogating complex human diseases and mapping risk variants to cell types and pathways.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3136, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316056

RESUMO

Microbial community metabolomics, particularly in the human gut, are beginning to provide a new route to identify functions and ecology disrupted in disease. However, these data can be costly and difficult to obtain at scale, while amplicon or shotgun metagenomic sequencing data are readily available for populations of many thousands. Here, we describe a computational approach to predict potentially unobserved metabolites in new microbial communities, given a model trained on paired metabolomes and metagenomes from the environment of interest. Focusing on two independent human gut microbiome datasets, we demonstrate that our framework successfully recovers community metabolic trends for more than 50% of associated metabolites. Similar accuracy is maintained using amplicon profiles of coral-associated, murine gut, and human vaginal microbiomes. We also provide an expected performance score to guide application of the model in new samples. Our results thus demonstrate that this 'predictive metabolomic' approach can aid in experimental design and provide useful insights into the thousands of community profiles for which only metagenomes are currently available.

8.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 17(8): 497-511, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249397

RESUMO

Perturbations in the intestinal microbiome are implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies of treatment-naive patients have identified microbial taxa associated with disease course and treatment efficacy. To gain a mechanistic understanding of how the microbiome affects gastrointestinal health, we need to move from census to function. Bacteria, including those that adhere to epithelial cells as well as several Clostridium species, can alter differentiation of T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells. Similarly, microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids and sphingolipids also influence immune responses. Metagenomics and culturomics have identified strains of Ruminococcus gnavus and adherent invasive Escherichia coli that are linked to IBD and gut inflammation. Integrated analysis of multiomics data, including metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics, with measurements of host response and culturomics, have great potential in understanding the role of the microbiome in IBD. In this Review, we highlight current knowledge of gut microbial factors linked to IBD pathogenesis and discuss how multiomics data from large-scale population studies in health and disease have been used to identify specific microbial strains, transcriptional changes and metabolic alterations associated with IBD.

9.
Science ; 364(6446): 1179-1184, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221858

RESUMO

Intestinal adaptive immune responses influence host health, yet only a few intestinal bacteria species that induce cognate adaptive immune responses during homeostasis have been identified. Here, we show that Akkermansia muciniphila, an intestinal bacterium associated with systemic effects on host metabolism and PD-1 checkpoint immunotherapy, induces immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies and antigen-specific T cell responses in mice. Unlike previously characterized mucosal responses, T cell responses to A. muciniphila are limited to T follicular helper cells in a gnotobiotic setting, without appreciable induction of other T helper fates or migration to the lamina propria. However, A. muciniphila-specific responses are context dependent and adopt other fates in conventional mice. These findings suggest that, during homeostasis, contextual signals influence T cell responses to the microbiota and modulate host immune function.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 515(2): 325-331, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151823

RESUMO

Transition metals are required for intestinal homeostasis and provide essential nutrients for the resident microbiota. Abnormalities in metal homeostasis are common in Crohn's disease (CD), but remain poorly defined and causes appear multifactorial. There has been renewed interest in understanding these mechanisms with the discovery of an association between a coding variant in SLC39A8 (rs13107325; ZIP8 A391T) and increased CD risk. SLC39A8 encodes the protein ZIP8, a metal transporter that is induced under inflammatory stimuli; however, studies of its gut-specific functions are lacking. Here, we show that SLC39A8 mRNA is differentially expressed in active CD with a high positive correlation with markers of disease severity, including CXCL8, TNFα, IFNγ, and calprotectin. SLC39A8 expression exhibits a negative correlation with SLC39A4 and SLC39A5, two key zinc importers in absorptive enterocytes, and a lack of correlation with two manganese transporters, SLC39A14 and SLC11A2. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates ZIP8 expression in intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells of the lamina propria. Patients with CD exhibit variable patterns of ZIP8 subcellular localization within IECs. In ileal enteroids, SLC39A8 was induced by IFNγ and IFNγ + TNFα, but not by TNFα alone, independent of NF-κB activation. IFNγ also down-regulated SLC39A5. To explore the functional implications of disease-associated genetic variation, in over-expression experiments in HEK293A cells, ZIP8 A391T was associated with increased TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, consistent with a loss of negative regulation. Taken together, these results suggest a potential role for ZIP8 in intestinal inflammation, induced by IFNγ in the intestinal epithelial compartment, and that perturbations in negative regulation of NF-κB by ZIP8 A391T may contribute to CD pathogenesis.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(26): 12672-12677, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182571

RESUMO

A substantial and increasing number of human diseases are associated with changes in the gut microbiota, and discovering the molecules and mechanisms underlying these associations represents a major research goal. Multiple studies associate Ruminococcus gnavus, a prevalent gut microbe, with Crohn's disease, a major type of inflammatory bowel disease. We have found that R. gnavus synthesizes and secretes a complex glucorhamnan polysaccharide with a rhamnose backbone and glucose sidechains. Chemical and spectroscopic studies indicated that the glucorhamnan was largely a repeating unit of five sugars with a linear backbone formed from three rhamnose units and a short sidechain composed of two glucose units. The rhamnose backbone is made from 1,2- and 1,3-linked rhamnose units, and the sidechain has a terminal glucose linked to a 1,6-glucose. This glucorhamnan potently induces inflammatory cytokine (TNFα) secretion by dendritic cells, and TNFα secretion is dependent on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We also identify a putative biosynthetic gene cluster for this molecule, which has the four biosynthetic genes needed to convert glucose to rhamnose and the five glycosyl transferases needed to build the repeating pentasaccharide unit of the inflammatory glucorhamnan.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 15(5): e1008084, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059511

RESUMO

The transition from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles is essential for haploid gamete formation and fertility. Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) is an essential gatekeeper of meiotic initiation in vertebrates; yet, the molecular role of STRA8 remains principally unknown. Here we demonstrate that STRA8 functions as a suppressor of autophagy during spermatogenesis in mice. Stra8-deficient germ cells fail to enter meiosis and present aberrant upregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes, commensurate with autophagy activation. Biochemical assays show that ectopic expression of STRA8 alone is sufficient to inhibit both autophagy induction and maturation. Studies also revealed that, Nr1d1, a nuclear hormone receptor gene, is upregulated in Stra8-deficient testes and that STRA8 binds to the Nr1d1 promoter, indicating that Nr1d1 is a direct target of STRA8 transcriptional repression. In addition, it was found that NR1D1 binds to the promoter of Ulk1, a gene essential for autophagy initiation, and that Nr1d1 is required for the upregulated Ulk1 expression in Stra8-deficient testes. Furthermore, both genetic deletion of Nr1d1 and pharmacologic inhibition of NR1D1 by its synthetic antagonist SR8278 exhibit rescuing effects on the meiotic initiation defects observed in Stra8-deficient male germ cells. Together, the data suggest a novel link between STRA8-mediated autophagy suppression and meiotic initiation.

13.
Nature ; 569(7758): 655-662, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142855

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affect several million individuals worldwide. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex diseases that are heterogeneous at the clinical, immunological, molecular, genetic, and microbial levels. Individual contributing factors have been the focus of extensive research. As part of the Integrative Human Microbiome Project (HMP2 or iHMP), we followed 132 subjects for one year each to generate integrated longitudinal molecular profiles of host and microbial activity during disease (up to 24 time points each; in total 2,965 stool, biopsy, and blood specimens). Here we present the results, which provide a comprehensive view of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during inflammatory bowel disease activity. We demonstrate a characteristic increase in facultative anaerobes at the expense of obligate anaerobes, as well as molecular disruptions in microbial transcription (for example, among clostridia), metabolite pools (acylcarnitines, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids), and levels of antibodies in host serum. Periods of disease activity were also marked by increases in temporal variability, with characteristic taxonomic, functional, and biochemical shifts. Finally, integrative analysis identified microbial, biochemical, and host factors central to this dysregulation. The study's infrastructure resources, results, and data, which are available through the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multi'omics Database ( http://ibdmdb.org ), provide the most comprehensive description to date of host and microbial activities in inflammatory bowel diseases.

14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(5): 668-680.e7, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071294

RESUMO

Sphingolipids are structural membrane components and important eukaryotic signaling molecules. Sphingolipids regulate inflammation and immunity and were recently identified as the most differentially abundant metabolite in stool from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Commensal bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum also produce sphingolipids, but the impact of these metabolites on host pathways is largely uncharacterized. To determine whether bacterial sphingolipids modulate intestinal health, we colonized germ-free mice with a sphingolipid-deficient Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain. A lack of Bacteroides-derived sphingolipids resulted in intestinal inflammation and altered host ceramide pools in mice. Using lipidomic analysis, we described a sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway and revealed a variety of Bacteroides-derived sphingolipids including ceramide phosphoinositol and deoxy-sphingolipids. Annotating Bacteroides sphingolipids in an IBD metabolomic dataset revealed lower abundances in IBD and negative correlations with inflammation and host sphingolipid production. These data highlight the role of bacterial sphingolipids in maintaining homeostasis and symbiosis in the gut.

15.
J Immunol ; 202(11): 3256-3266, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010852

RESUMO

Tetraspanins are a family of proteins possessing four transmembrane domains that help in lateral organization of plasma membrane proteins. These proteins interact with each other as well as other receptors and signaling proteins, resulting in functional complexes called "tetraspanin microdomains." Tetraspanins, including CD82, play an essential role in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Dectin-1, a receptor for the fungal cell wall carbohydrate ß-1,3-glucan, is vital to host defense against fungal infections. The current study identifies a novel association between tetraspanin CD82 and Dectin-1 on the plasma membrane of Candida albicans-containing phagosomes independent of phagocytic ability. Deletion of CD82 in mice resulted in diminished fungicidal activity, increased C. albicans viability within macrophages, and decreased cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1ß) at both mRNA and protein level in macrophages. Additionally, CD82 organized Dectin-1 clustering in the phagocytic cup. Deletion of CD82 modulates Dectin-1 signaling, resulting in a reduction of Src and Syk phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species production. CD82 knockout mice were more susceptible to C. albicans as compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, patient C. albicans-induced cytokine production was influenced by two human CD82 single nucleotide polymorphisms, whereas an additional CD82 single nucleotide polymorphism increased the risk for candidemia independent of cytokine production. Together, these data demonstrate that CD82 organizes the proper assembly of Dectin-1 signaling machinery in response to C. albicans.

16.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 37: 599-624, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026411

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in influencing the development of host immunity, and in turn the immune system also acts to regulate the microbiota through intestinal barrier maintenance and immune exclusion. Normally, these interactions are homeostatic, tightly controlled, and organized by both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, a combination of environmental exposures and genetic defects can result in a break in tolerance and intestinal homeostasis. The outcomes of these interactions at the mucosal interface have broad, systemic effects on host immunity and the development of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disease. The underlying mechanisms and pathways the microbiota can utilize to regulate these diseases are just starting to emerge. Here, we discuss the recent evidence in this area describing the impact of microbiota-immune interactions during inflammation and autoimmunity, with a focus on barrier function and CD4+ T cell regulation.

17.
Lancet ; 393(10182): 1708-1720, 2019 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of evidence-based outcomes data leads to uncertainty in developing treatment regimens in children who are newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. We hypothesised that pretreatment clinical, transcriptomic, and microbial factors predict disease course. METHODS: In this inception cohort study, we recruited paediatric patients aged 4-17 years with newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis from 29 centres in the USA and Canada. Patients initially received standardised mesalazine or corticosteroids, with pre-established criteria for escalation to immunomodulators (ie, thiopurines) or anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy. We used RNA sequencing to define rectal gene expression before treatment, and 16S sequencing to characterise rectal and faecal microbiota. The primary outcome was week 52 corticosteroid-free remission with no therapy beyond mesalazine. We assessed factors associated with the primary outcome using logistic regression models of the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01536535. FINDINGS: Between July 10, 2012, and April 21, 2015, of 467 patients recruited, 428 started medical therapy, of whom 400 (93%) were evaluable at 52 weeks and 386 (90%) completed the study period with no protocol violations. 150 (38%) of 400 participants achieved week 52 corticosteroid-free remission, of whom 147 (98%) were taking mesalazine and three (2%) were taking no medication. 74 (19%) of 400 were escalated to immunomodulators alone, 123 (31%) anti-TNFα therapy, and 25 (6%) colectomy. Low baseline clinical severity, high baseline haemoglobin, and week 4 clinical remission were associated with achieving week 52 corticosteroid-free remission (n=386, logistic model area under the curve [AUC] 0·70, 95% CI 0·65-0·75; specificity 77%, 95% CI 71-82). Baseline severity and remission by week 4 were validated in an independent cohort of 274 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis. After adjusting for clinical predictors, an antimicrobial peptide gene signature (odds ratio [OR] 0·57, 95% CI 0·39-0·81; p=0·002) and abundance of Ruminococcaceae (OR 1·43, 1·02-2·00; p=0·04), and Sutterella (OR 0·81, 0·65-1·00; p=0·05) were independently associated with week 52 corticosteroid-free remission. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the utility of initial clinical activity and treatment response by 4 weeks to predict week 52 corticosteroid-free remission with mesalazine alone in children who are newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. The development of personalised clinical and biological signatures holds the promise of informing ulcerative colitis therapeutic decisions. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Circ Res ; 124(12): 1808-1820, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971183

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Altered gut microbial composition has been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but its functional links to host metabolism and immunity in relation to CVD development remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess functional links between the microbiome and the plasma metabolome, cardiometabolic phenotypes, and CVD risk and to identify diet-microbe-metabolism-immune interactions in well-documented cohorts. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed metagenomics-based microbial associations between 231 plasma metabolites and microbial species and pathways in the population-based LLD (Lifelines DEEP) cohort (n=978) and a clinical obesity cohort (n=297). After correcting for age, sex, and body mass index, the gut microbiome could explain ≤11.1% and 16.4% of the variation in plasma metabolites in the population-based and obesity cohorts, respectively. Obese-specific microbial associations were found for lipid compositions in the VLDL, IDL, and LDL lipoprotein subclasses. Bacterial L-methionine biosynthesis and a Ruminococcus species were associated to cardiovascular phenotypes in obese individuals, namely atherosclerosis and liver fat content, respectively. Integration of microbiome-diet-inflammation analysis in relation to metabolic risk score of CVD in the population cohort revealed 48 microbial pathways associated to CVD risk that were largely independent of diet and inflammation. Our data also showed that plasma levels rather than fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids were relevant to inflammation and CVD risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the largest metagenome-based association study on plasma metabolism and microbiome relevance to diet, inflammation, CVD risk, and cardiometabolic phenotypes in both population-based and clinical obesity cohorts. Our findings identified novel bacterial species and pathways that associated to specific lipoprotein subclasses and revealed functional links between the gut microbiome and host health that provide a basis for developing microbiome-targeted therapy for disease prevention and treatment.

19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(5): 656-667.e8, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028005

RESUMO

Natural selection shapes bacterial evolution in all environments. However, the extent to which commensal bacteria diversify and adapt within the human gut remains unclear. Here, we combine culture-based population genomics and metagenomics to investigate the within-microbiome evolution of Bacteroides fragilis. We find that intra-individual B. fragilis populations contain substantial de novo nucleotide and mobile element diversity, preserving years of within-person history. This history reveals multiple signatures of within-person adaptation, including parallel evolution in sixteen genes. Many of these genes are implicated in cell-envelope biosynthesis and polysaccharide utilization. Tracking evolutionary trajectories using near-daily metagenomic sampling, we find evidence for years-long coexistence in one subject despite adaptive dynamics. We used public metagenomes to investigate one adaptive mutation common in our cohort and found that it emerges frequently in Western, but not Chinese, microbiomes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that B. fragilis adapts within individual microbiomes, pointing to factors that promote long-term gut colonization.

20.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(5): 898, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971771

RESUMO

In the Supplementary Tables 2, 4 and 6 originally published with this Article, the authors mistakenly included sample identifiers in the form of UMCGs rather than UMCG IBDs in the validation cohort; this has now been amended.

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