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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247840, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278531

RESUMO

Abstract Calvatia is a genus of gasteroid fungi, comprising about 47 species worldwide. In this paper we report the second worldwide occurrence of two poorly known species of Calvatia, recorded in the Cerrado biome of Brazil: C. oblongispora and C. nodulata. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations, including scanning electron micrographs of hyphae and basidiospores are provided, as well a discussion on their taxonomy and geographic distribution.


Resumo Calvatia é um gênero de fungos gasteroides que compreende cerca de 47 espécies em todo o mundo. Neste artigo relatamos a segunda ocorrência de duas espécies pouco conhecidas de Calvatia, registradas no bioma Cerrado do Brasil: C. oblongispora e C. nodulata. Descrições morfológicas detalhadas e ilustrações são fornecidas, incluindo micrografias eletrônicas de varredura de hifas e basidiósporos, bem como uma discussão sobre sua taxonomia e distribuição geográfica.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236219, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249241

RESUMO

Abstract Fungi are important in several aspects of human life. In particular, to agriculture, pathogenic fungi are of great importance, as they are responsible for production losses of the most diverse types. Because of this, knowledge about pathogenic fungus is of extreme importance for farmers and professionals working in agricultural areas. Among farmers who use specific agroecological practices, this knowledge is even more valuable, since by not adopting conventional methods of production, they resort to non-invasive alternatives that are less or not harmful at all to the environment in consideration of production management methods. This study aimed to assess farmer perception in the Cerrado biome in the city of Goiás (GO), Brazil, in order to understand their ethnomycological perceptions to verify historical management practices, their knowledge about phytopathogenic fungi, and how these producers perceive fungi. We used the theoretical reference method "From peasant to peasant" formulated by ANPA - National Association of Small Farmers. Some aspects of farmers' ethnomycological knowledge are discussed. These ease identification the representatives of the Fungi Kingdom is associated with organisms that present easily recognizable characteristics, such as wood-ears or disease-causing fungi. In general, farmers are able to identify representatives of the Fungi Kingdom that are found in their daily lives. The perception of farmers about fungi, a group still much unknown by society, is very relevant for future actions of ethnomycology.


Resumo Percepção dos fungos por agricultores do Cerrado - Fungos são organismos importantes em vários aspectos da vida humana. Em particular, para a agricultura, fungos patogênicos são de grande importância, pois são responsáveis ​​por perdas de produção dos mais diversos tipos. Por isso, o conhecimento sobre fungos patogênicos é de extrema importância para agricultores e profissionais que trabalham em áreas agrícolas. Entre os agricultores que utilizam práticas agroecológicas, esse conhecimento é ainda mais valioso, pois, ao não adotar métodos convencionais de produção, recorrem a alternativas não invasivas que são menos ou não prejudiciais ao meio ambiente, considerando os métodos de gerenciamento da produção. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a percepção de um grupo de agricultores do bioma Cerrado, na cidade de Goiás (GO), Brasil, a fim de compreender suas percepções etnomicológicas, de modo a verificar práticas históricas de manejo, seu conhecimento sobre fungos fitopatogênicos e como esses produtores percebem os fungos, de modo geral. Utilizamos o método "de camponês para camponês", formulado pela ANPA - Associação Nacional de Pequenos Agricultores. Discutimos alguns aspectos do conhecimento etnomicológico destes agricultores. A facilidade de identificação de representantes fúngicos está associada a organismos que apresentam características facilmente reconhecíveis, como estereótipo orelha-de-pau ou fungos causadores de doenças em cultivares. Em geral, os agricultores do estudo são capazes de identificar representantes do Reino Fungi que são encontrados em suas vidas cotidianas. A percepção dos agricultores sobre os fungos, um grupo ainda muito desconhecido pela sociedade, é muito relevante para ações futuras dentro da etnomicologia.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247840, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190767

RESUMO

Calvatia is a genus of gasteroid fungi, comprising about 47 species worldwide. In this paper we report the second worldwide occurrence of two poorly known species of Calvatia, recorded in the Cerrado biome of Brazil: C. oblongispora and C. nodulata. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations, including scanning electron micrographs of hyphae and basidiospores are provided, as well a discussion on their taxonomy and geographic distribution.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Brasil , Ecossistema , Esporos Fúngicos
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076165

RESUMO

Fungi are important in several aspects of human life. In particular, to agriculture, pathogenic fungi are of great importance, as they are responsible for production losses of the most diverse types. Because of this, knowledge about pathogenic fungus is of extreme importance for farmers and professionals working in agricultural areas. Among farmers who use specific agroecological practices, this knowledge is even more valuable, since by not adopting conventional methods of production, they resort to non-invasive alternatives that are less or not harmful at all to the environment in consideration of production management methods. This study aimed to assess farmer perception in the Cerrado biome in the city of Goiás (GO), Brazil, in order to understand their ethnomycological perceptions to verify historical management practices, their knowledge about phytopathogenic fungi, and how these producers perceive fungi. We used the theoretical reference method "From peasant to peasant" formulated by ANPA - National Association of Small Farmers. Some aspects of farmers' ethnomycological knowledge are discussed. These ease identification the representatives of the Fungi Kingdom is associated with organisms that present easily recognizable characteristics, such as wood-ears or disease-causing fungi. In general, farmers are able to identify representatives of the Fungi Kingdom that are found in their daily lives. The perception of farmers about fungi, a group still much unknown by society, is very relevant for future actions of ethnomycology.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Brasil , Fungos , Humanos , Percepção
5.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 49(1): 46-52, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15114865

RESUMO

Seventy-five fungal strains from different groups of basidiomycetes, newly isolated from rotten wood, were screened for pectinolytic activity. Despite the fact that basidiomycetes are scarcely referred to as pectinase producers, the polygalacturonase (PG) activity was detected in 76% of the strains; 16% with activity higher than 40 nkat/g, 40% between 13.3 and 40 nkat/g, and 44% with activity lower than 13.3 nkat/g. The highest productions were obtained among the fungi from order Aphyllophorales, family Polyporaceae. The characterization of the enzymes from the highest PG producers (Lentinus sp., Gloeophyllum striatum, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Schizophyllum commune) showed optimum temperature for catalytic activity at 60-70 degrees C and two peaks of pH optimum (3.5-4.5 and 8.5-9.5). The enzymes exhibited high pH stability (3.0-11.0) but after incubation at 40 degrees C for 1 h their activity dropped by 18-73%.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Madeira , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia Ambiental , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lentinula/enzimologia , Lentinula/isolamento & purificação , Lentinula/metabolismo , Polyporaceae/enzimologia , Polyporaceae/isolamento & purificação , Polyporaceae/metabolismo , Schizophyllum/enzimologia , Schizophyllum/isolamento & purificação , Schizophyllum/metabolismo , Temperatura
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