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1.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546726

RESUMO

Mature 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were irradiated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet (UV) light for six days after harvest. Based on evaluation of the basic ripening parameters of fruits, the contents of soluble sugars, organic acids, and carotenoids were analyzed (in pulps) on the sixth day by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that LED and UV irradiation not only accelerated orange ripening but also caused significant changes in the soluble sugar, organic acid, and carotenoid content. Compared with fruit subjected to dark shade (DS) treatment, the total soluble sugar, fructose, and glucose contents increased significantly in UV-treated (UVA, UVB, and UVC) fruits, while the sucrose content increased remarkably in white light, UVB, and UVC-treated fruits (p < 0.05). UV treatment was associated with inducing the largest effect on the total soluble sugar content. Except for UVB, other types of light notably induced an accumulation of the total organic acid content, none but blue light and red light markedly induced citric acid accumulation (p < 0.05). Interestingly, only the red light and dark shade treatments had markedly positive effects in terms of inducing carotenoid accumulation, including the total carotenoid, isolutein, zeaxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, all-trans-violaxanthin, phytofluene, cis-ζ-carotene, and ß-carotene concentrations. Other light treatments had significantly negative effects on carotenoid accumulation (p < 0.05). Therefore, soluble sugar, organic acid, and carotenoid accumulation in sweet oranges vary depending on the levels of UV and LED irradiation. Appropriate light irradiation is a potentially effective way to maintain or improve postharvest fruit quality.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 287, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars display orange or yellow background skin, whereas some cultivars are particularly preferred by consumers because of their red blushed skin on the background. RESULTS: In this study, two blushed ('Jianali' and 'Hongyu') and two nonblushed ('Baixing' and 'Luntaixiaobaixing') cultivars were used to investigate the formation mechanism of blushed skin in apricots. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the blushed cultivars accumulated higher cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and peonidin-3-O-rutinoside levels during fruit ripening than the nonblushed cultivars. Based on coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), a putative anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB, PaMYB10, and seven structural genes were identified from transcriptome data. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaMYB10 clustered in the anthocyanin-related MYB clade. Sequence alignments revealed that PaMYB10 contained a bHLH-interaction motif ([DE]Lx2[RK]x3Lx6Lx3R) and an ANDV motif. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PaMYB10 was a nuclear protein. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and seven genes responsible for anthocyanin synthesis were significantly higher in blushed than in nonblushed apricots, which was consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin. In addition, bagging significantly inhibited the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and the structural genes in 'Jianali' and blocked the red coloration and anthocyanin accumulation. Transient PaMYB10 overexpression in 'Luntaixiaobaixing' fruits resulted in the red blushed skin at the maturation stage. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data reveal that three anthocyanins are responsible for the blushed skin of apricots, identify PaMYB10 as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in apricots, and demonstrate that blush formation depends on light.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glucosídeos/genética , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064149

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of post-harvest light irradiation on the accumulation of flavonoids and limonoids, harvested Newhall navel oranges were continuously exposed to light-emitting diode (LED) and ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation for 6 days, and the composition and content of flavonoids and limonoids in the segments were determined using UPLC-qTOF-MS at 0, 6, and 15 days after harvest. In total, six polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs), five flavone-O/C-glycosides, seven flavanone-O-glycosides, and three limonoids were identified in the segments. The accumulation of these components was altered by light irradiation. Red and blue light resulted in higher levels of PMFs during exposure periods. The accumulation of PMFs was also significantly induced after white light, UVB and UVC irradiation were removed. Red and UVC irradiation induced the accumulation of flavone and flavanone glycosides throughout the entire experimental period. Single light induced limonoid accumulation during exposure periods, but limonoid levels decreased significantly when irradiation was removed. Principal component analysis showed a clear correlation between PMFs and white light, between flavonoid glycosides and red light and UVC, and between limonoids and UVC. These results suggest that the accumulation of flavonoids and limonoids in citrus is regulated by light irradiation. White light, red light and UVC irradiation might be a good potential method for improving the nutrition and flavor quality of post-harvest citrus.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 45, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taste and aroma, which are important organoleptic qualities of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruit, undergo rapid and substantial changes during ripening. However, the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to identify candidate genes for flavor compound metabolism and to construct a regulatory transcriptional network. RESULTS: We characterized the transcriptome of the 'Jianali' apricot cultivar, which exhibits substantial changes in flavor during ripening, at 50 (turning), 73 (commercial maturation) and 91 (full ripe) days post anthesis (DPA) using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed that four of 19 modules correlated highly with flavor compound metabolism (P < 0.001). From them, we identified 1237 differentially expressed genes, with 16 intramodular hubs. A proposed pathway model for flavor compound biosynthesis is presented based on these genes. Two SUS1 genes, as well as SPS2 and INV1 were correlated with sugar biosynthesis, while NADP-ME4, two PK-like and mitochondrial energy metabolism exerted a noticeable effect on organic acid metabolism. CCD1 and FAD2 were identified as being involved in apocarotenoid aroma volatiles and lactone biosynthesis, respectively. Five sugar transporters (Sweet10, STP13, EDR6, STP5.1, STP5.2), one aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT9) and one ABCG transporter (ABCG11) were associated with the transport of sugars, organic acids and volatiles, respectively. Sixteen transcription factors were also highlighted that may also play regulatory roles in flavor quality development. CONCLUSIONS: Apricot RNA-Seq data were obtained and used to generate an annotated set of predicted expressed genes, providing a platform for functional genomic research. Using network analysis and pathway mapping, putative molecular mechanisms for changes in apricot fruit taste and aroma during ripening were elucidated.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Olfato , Paladar , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Solubilidade , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
5.
J Food Sci Technol ; 54(5): 1108-1118, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416860

RESUMO

Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of different fruit part including peel, pulp, juice, whole fruit and seed from five lemon cultivars (Feiminailao, Cuningmeng Limeng, Pangdelusaningmeng, Beijingningmeng) were investigated. Caffeic acid (9.31-741.4 µg/g FW) and chlorogenic acid (2.7-527.5 µg/g FW) were the dominant phenolic acid in fruit tested, Pangdelusaningmeng (PD) and Limeng peels with the highest contents, respectively. Hesperidin was the predominant flavanone (10.27-3315 µg/g FW), Cuningmeng (CN) peels with the highest level. PD peels had rich rutin, CN seeds had rich eriocitrin. Nobiletin was the main polymethoxylated flavonoids identified, PD with the highest level. CN peels contained rich tangeretin. Overall, peels and whole fruit had significantly higher level of phenolics than other fruit parts, and seeds were good source of flavonoids. PD and CN not only contained higher level of phenolic, but also presented higher antioxidant capacity than other cultivars tested, and are of great value for human nutrition.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28034319

RESUMO

The genus Citrus and its close relatives are economically and nutritionally important fruit trees. However, the huge controversy over the phylogeny of key wild species, as well as the genetic relationship between the cultivated species and their putative wild progenitors, remains unresolved. Comparative analyses of chloroplast (cp) genomes have been useful in resolving various phylogenetic issues. Thus far, the cp genomes of only two Citrus species have been sequenced. In this study, we sequenced six complete cp genomes, four belonging to the genus Citrus, and two belonging to the genera Fortunella and Poncirus, respectively. These newly sequenced genomes together with the two publicly available were used for comparative analyses of the genus Citrus and its close relatives. All eight cp genomes share similar basic structure, gene order and gene content. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of the three genera in the order Sapindales within the major clade Malvidae.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Citrus/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Composição de Bases , Citrus/classificação , DNA de Cloroplastos/química , DNA de Cloroplastos/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(7)2016 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27347931

RESUMO

Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers' evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that ß-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in ß-ionone formation in apricot fruit.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/metabolismo , Citratos/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , L-Iditol 2-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Quínico/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 205: 112-21, 2016 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27006221

RESUMO

The composition and content of sugars, organic acids, volatiles and carotenoids, in the pulps of six grapefruit cultivars, were examined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that sucrose was the dominant sugar in grapefruit, making up 40.08-59.68% of the total sugars, and the ratio of fructose to glucose was almost 1:1. Citric acid was the major organic acid and represented 39.10-63.55% of the total organic acids, followed by quininic acid. The ratios of individual sugars and organic acids play an important role in grapefruit taste determination. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant volatiles in grapefruit, in particular d-limonene and caryophyllene. Caryophyllene, α-humulene, humulen-(v1), ß-linalool and tert-butyl 2-methylpropanoate are the characteristic aroma compounds of grapefruit. Although ß-carotene is the primary carotenoid in grapefruit, the pulp color is mainly determined by the ratios of zeaxanthin, ß-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. Our results provide the first complete chemical characterization of the taste, aroma and color of grapefruit.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Citrus paradisi/química , Odorantes/análise , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Licopeno , Monoterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 200: 230-6, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26830583

RESUMO

We quantified the levels of polyphenols, carotenoids and polysaccharides in fruits of the eight Chinese native goji genotypes, antioxidant activities of these fruit extracts were also evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Quercetin-rhamno-di-hexoside (435-1065 µg/g) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (159-629 µg/g) were found to be the predominant flavonoids. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid (113-526 µg/g), while zeaxanthin (17-9306 µg/g) was the major carotenoid. The total antioxidant activities (TAA) of the berry extracts were significantly correlated with the total polysaccharide and phenolic contents, but not with total carotenoid (TC) levels. Overall, fruits of the Ningxia goji (Lycium barbarum L.) genotypes, DM (Damaye), NJ1 (Ningji No.1), BH (Baihua) and NH (Ningxiahuangguo) were not only rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and polysaccharides, but had significantly higher TAA than those of the other genotypes, suggesting that they represent an excellent source of antioxidants for human nutrition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carotenoides/análise , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Frutas , Genótipo , Humanos , Lycium/classificação , Fenóis/análise
10.
Gene ; 575(2 Pt 2): 458-472, 2016 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26407870

RESUMO

The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/enzimologia , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/classificação , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus sinensis/genética , Flavonoides/química , Garcinia cambogia/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Metilação , Família Multigênica , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 196: 885-96, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593569

RESUMO

Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Citrus/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Dieta , Humanos , Oxirredução
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 66(8): 858-66, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26600065

RESUMO

The phenolic compounds in different fruit parts including the flavedos, albedos, segment membranes, juice vesicles and seeds of nine grapefruit varieties cultivated in China were determined and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using three methods. Naringin and neohesperedin were the dominant flavonoids in all grapefruit tested. Fenghongtangmuxun and Jiwei flavedo had the highest contents of naringin (5666.82 µg/g DW) and neohesperedin (1022 µg/g DW), respectively. Gallic acid was the major phenolic acid in all grapefruit tested, and Jiwei juice vesicles had the highest content of gallic acid (343.7 µg/g DW). Fenghongtangmuxun juice vesicles were rich in chlorogenic acid (110.23 µg/g DW), caffeic acid (53.86 µg/g DW) and ferulic acid (23.12 µg/g DW). Overall, the flavedo was rich in flavonoid, while juice vesicle had high amounts of phenolic acid. The Jiwei, Fenghongtangmuxun, Maxu, Huoyan and Hongmaxu grapefruit cultivars contained more phenolics and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than Shatianyou and Liangpingyou pummelos, and were good sources of natural phytochemical antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Citrus paradisi/química , Fenóis/análise , China , Citrus paradisi/classificação , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Flavanonas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Sementes/química
13.
Food Chem ; 173: 718-24, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25466081

RESUMO

Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Frutas/química , Lycium/química , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Frutose/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucose/análise , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/análise , Ácido Quínico/análise , Sacarose/análise , Tartaratos/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 172: 622-9, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442599

RESUMO

An on-line high performance liquid chromatography-free radical scavenging detection (HPLC-FRSD) system was developed for rapidly evaluating the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of Citrus fruits. With the system, all samples can be analyzed within 5 min. The on-line HPLC-FRSD system has low limits of detection (0.001-0.010 mg mL(-1)) and quantification (0.005-0.020 mg mL(-1)), excellent recovery rate (90.44-115.72%), stability (RSD < 15.80%), reproducibility (RSD < 2%), and precision (RSD < 2%). Using a guard column instead of an analytic column, this new on-line HPLC-FRSD system performed better than the existing on-line HPLC methods in the analysis of the TAC of Citrus. Compared with the conventional off-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6)-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging methods, our newly developed system is faster and more robust. The methodology can be a good alternative for analysis TACs of Citrus fruits and potentially for other plants and plant-based products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Benzotiazóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citrus/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo , Picratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Food Chem ; 164: 219-27, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24996327

RESUMO

In this study we assessed the impact of carbon dioxide enrichment (CDE) on flavour quality development of peach fruit, using peach trees grown in a greenhouse with a carbon-dioxide-enriched atmosphere. Fruit sugar, organic acids, volatiles contents and consumer acceptability were investigated, focusing on the period of postharvest ripening. Higher levels of sucrose, lactones, norisoprenoids, and lower levels of malic acid were found in CDE-treated fruit than those in the control fruit grown under normal conditions. We also measured significantly elevated amounts of pyruvic acid, precursors of volatile compounds, linoleic acid and linolenic acid as a result of CDE. Additionally, CDE-treated fruit were relatively well accepted by consumers compared to the control fruit. These results suggested that CDE can markedly improve the flavour quality and consumer acceptance of greenhouse-grown peaches. The possible mechanism could be that CDE increased precursors available for the biosynthesis of flavour compounds through regulation of photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Ar/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Prunus/química , Agricultura , Comportamento do Consumidor , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactonas/análise , Norisoprenoides/análise , Odorantes/análise , Prunus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
16.
Food Chem ; 161: 230-8, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24837945

RESUMO

China is one of the most important diversity centres of the genus Citrus L. and is particularly rich in pummelo germplasm. In this study, the flavonoids in the peels and pulps of 28 Chinese local pummelos and four grapefruits were determined by optimised Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide anion methods. We found that naringin was the predominant flavonoid in pummelo, while naringin and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in grapefruit. The fruit peels of Citrus paradisi cvs. Rio Red and Cocktail had the highest contents of naringin (9871.69mg/kg FW) and neohesperidin (7011.15mg/kg FW), respectively. Overall, C. paradisi cvs. Cocktail, Rio Red and Changshanhuyou, Citrus grandis cvs. 28-19, Chandler, and Hongxinyou contained more flavonoids and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and are potentially good sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes , China , Citrus paradisi , Oxirredução
17.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e93510, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24705395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a nutritional disorder associated with many health problems such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle) fruit extract (FME) on high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. METHODS: The kumquat fruit was extracted with ethanol and the main flavonoids of this extract were analyzed by HPLC. For the preventive experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet (Chow), high-fat diet (HF), and high-fat diet with 1% (w/w) extract of kumquat (HF+FME) for 8 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 3 months to induce obesity. Then the obese mice were divided into two groups randomly, and fed with HF or HF+FME for another 2 weeks. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, serum and liver lipid levels were assayed and the white adipose tissues were imaged. The gene expression in mice liver and brown adipose tissues were analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS: In the preventive treatment, FME controlled the body weight gain and the size of white adipocytes, lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol (TC), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels as well as liver lipid contents in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, FME decreased the serum triglyceride (TG), serum TC, serum LDL-c, fasting blood glucose levels and liver lipid contents, improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Compared with the HF group, FME significantly increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that FME may be a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating the obesity and obesity-related metabolic disturbances.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rutaceae/química , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(14): 3011-3033, 2014 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24628448

RESUMO

Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are a mixture of volatile compounds consisting mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons and are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their antifungal activities. To face the challenge of growing public awareness and concern about food and health safety, studies concerning natural biopreservatives have become the focus of multidisciplinary research efforts. In the past decades, a large amount of literature has been published on the antifungal activity of CEOs. This paper reviews the advances of research on CEOs and focuses on their in vitro and food antifungal activities, chemical compositions of CEOs, and the methods used in antifungal assessment. Furthermore, the antifungal bioactive components in CEOs and their potential mechanism of action are summarized. Finally, the applications of CEOs in the food industry are discussed in an attempt to provide new information for future utilization of CEOs in modern industries.

19.
Food Chem ; 145: 674-80, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128530

RESUMO

As one of the most important centres of origin for the genus Citrus L., China is rich in wild mandarin germplasm. In this study, phenolic compounds in the peels of 14 wild mandarin genotypes native to China were determined and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC methods. We found that Nieduyeju had the highest total phenol content (51.14 mg/g DW), and Wulongsuanju had the highest total flavonoid content (20.66 mg/g DW). Hesperidin, the dominant flavonoid, was observed to be highest in Guangxihongpisuanju (55.98 mg/g DW). Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid analyzed, and Nieduyeju (7780.17 µg/g DW) and Guangxihongpisuanju (13,607.19 µg/g DW) had the highest contents of extractable and bound phenolic acid, respectively. Antioxidant potency composite (APC) index showed obvious variations ranging from 58.84 to 98.89 in the studied wild mandarins, among them, Nieduyeju had the highest APC index. Overall, Guangxihongpisuanju, Nieduyeju, Cupigoushigan and Daoxianyeju contained more phenolics and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than the mandarin cultivars Satsuma and Ponkan.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Benzoatos/química , Benzoatos/isolamento & purificação , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Citrus/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hesperidina/análise
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 14(12): 23736-50, 2013 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24317433

RESUMO

Obesity is becoming one of the global epidemics of the 21st century. In this study, the effects of citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) fruit extracts in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity mice were studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed respectively a chow diet (control), an HF diet, HF diet supplemented with 1% w/w citrange peel extract (CPE) or 1% w/w citrange flesh and seed extract (CFSE) for 8 weeks. Our results showed that both CPE and CFSE regulated the glucose metabolic disorders of obese mice. In CPE and CFSE-treated groups, the body weight gain, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels were significantly (p<0.05) reduced relative to those in the HF group. To explore the mechanisms of action of CPE and CFSE on the metabolism of glucose and lipid, related genes' expressions in liver were assayed. In liver tissue, the expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target genes were down-regulated by CPE and CFSE supplementation as revealed by qPCR tests. In addition, both CPE and CFSE decreased the expression level of liver X receptor (LXR) α and ß, which are involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that CPE and CFSE administration could ameliorate obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF diet-induced obesity mice probably through the inhibition of PPARγ and LXRs gene expressions.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Receptores X do Fígado , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/complicações , Receptores Nucleares Órfãos/genética , Receptores Nucleares Órfãos/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
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