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1.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055235

RESUMO

RecQ family helicases are highly conserved from bacteria to humans and have essential roles in maintaining genome stability. Mutations in three human RecQ helicases cause severe diseases with the main features of premature aging and cancer predisposition. Most RecQ helicases shared a conserved domain arrangement which comprises a helicase core, an RQC domain, and an auxiliary element HRDC domain, the functions of which are poorly understood. In this study, we systematically characterized the roles of the HRDC domain in E. coli RecQ in various DNA transactions by single-molecule FRET. We found that RecQ repetitively unwinds the 3'-partial duplex and fork DNA with a moderate processivity, and periodically patrols on the ssDNA in the 5'-partial duplex by translocation. The HRDC domain significantly suppresses RecQ activities in the above transactions. In sharp contrast, the HRDC domain is essential for the deep and long-time unfolding of the G4 DNA structure by RecQ. Based on the observations that the HRDC domain dynamically switches between RecA core- and ssDNA- binding modes after RecQ association with DNA, we proposed a model to explain the modulation mechanism of the HRDC domain. Our findings not only provide new insights into the activities of RecQ on different substrates but also highlight the novel functions of the HRDC domain in DNA metabolisms.

2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(27): 7395-7404, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851458

RESUMO

G-Quadruplexes (G4s) are thermodynamically stable, compact, and poorly hydrated structures that pose a potent obstacle for chromosome replication and gene expression, and requiring resolution by helicases in a cell. Bulk stopped-flow fluorescence assays have provided many mechanistic insights into helicase-mediated duplex DNA unwinding. However, to date, detailed studies on intramolecular G-quadruplexes similar or comparable with those used for studying duplex DNA are still lacking. Here, we describe a method for the direct and quantitative measurement of helicase-mediated intramolecular G-quadruplex unfolding in real time. We designed a series of site-specific fluorescently double-labeled intramolecular G4s and screened appropriate substrates to characterize the helicase-mediated G4 unfolding. With the developed method, we determined, for the first time to our best knowledge, the unfolding and refolding constant of G4 (≈ 5 s-1), and other relative parameters under single-turnover experimental conditions in the presence of G4 traps. Our approach not only provides a new paradigm for characterizing helicase-mediated intramolecular G4 unfolding using stopped-flow assays but also offers a way to screen for inhibitors of G4 unfolding helicases as therapeutic drug targets. Graphical abstract.

3.
EMBO Rep ; : e50184, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790142

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) is an RNA-guided endonuclease that targets complementary DNA adjacent to a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) for cleavage. Its small size facilitates in vivo delivery for genome editing in various organisms. Herein, using single-molecule and ensemble approaches, we systemically study the mechanism of SaCas9 underlying its interplay with DNA. We find that the DNA binding and cleavage of SaCas9 require complementarities of 6- and 18-bp of PAM-proximal DNA with guide RNA, respectively. These activities are mediated by two steady interactions among the ternary complex, one of which is located approximately 6 bp from the PAM and beyond the apparent footprint of SaCas9 on DNA. Notably, the other interaction within the protospacer is significantly strong and thus poses DNA-bound SaCas9 a persistent block to DNA-tracking motors. Intriguingly, after cleavage, SaCas9 autonomously releases the PAM-distal DNA while retaining binding to the PAM. This partial DNA release immediately abolishes its strong interaction with the protospacer DNA and consequently promotes its subsequent dissociation from the PAM. Overall, these data provide a dynamic understanding of SaCas9 and instruct its effective applications.

4.
Elife ; 92020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101168

RESUMO

BLM is a multifunctional helicase that plays critical roles in maintaining genome stability. It processes distinct DNA substrates, but not nicked DNA, during many steps in DNA replication and repair. However, how BLM prepares itself for diverse functions remains elusive. Here, using a combined single-molecule approach, we find that a high abundance of BLMs can indeed unidirectionally unwind dsDNA from a nick when an external destabilizing force is applied. Strikingly, human replication protein A (hRPA) not only ensures that limited quantities of BLMs processively unwind nicked dsDNA under a reduced force but also permits the translocation of BLMs on both intact and nicked ssDNAs, resulting in a bidirectional unwinding mode. This activation necessitates BLM targeting on the nick and the presence of free hRPAs in solution whereas direct interactions between them are dispensable. Our findings present novel DNA unwinding activities of BLM that potentially facilitate its function switching in DNA repair.

5.
Biochem J ; 477(2): 445-458, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808794

RESUMO

The neuroblastoma breakpoint family (NBPF) consists of 24 members that play an important role in neuroblastoma and other cancers. NBPF is an evolutionarily recent gene family that encodes several repeats of Olduvai domain and an abundant N-terminal region. The function and biochemical properties of both Olduvai domain and the N-terminal region remain enigmatic. Human NBPF15 encodes a 670 AA protein consisting of six clades of Olduvai domains. In this study, we synthesized and expressed full-length NBPF15, and purified a range of NBPF15 truncations which were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), superdex200 (S200), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and crystallography. We found that proteins containing both the N-terminal region and Olduvai domain are heterogeneous with multiple types of aggregates, and some of them underwent a liquid-to-solid phase transition, probably because of the entanglement within the N-terminal coiled-coil. Proteins that contain only the Olduvai domain are homogeneous extended monomers, and those with the conserved clade 1 (CON1) have manifested a tendency to crystallize. We suggest that the entanglements between the mosaic disorder-ordered segments in NBPF15 N terminus have triggered the multiple types of aggregates and phase transition of NBPF15 proteins, which could be associated with Olduvai-related cognitive dysfunction diseases.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(11): eaaw9807, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763447

RESUMO

Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that targets complementary DNA for cleavage and has been repurposed for many biological usages. Cas9 activities are governed by its direct interactions with DNA. However, information about this interplay and the mechanism involved in its direction of Cas9 activity remain obscure. Using a single-molecule approach, we probed Cas9/sgRNA/DNA interactions along the DNA sequence and found two stable interactions flanking the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Unexpectedly, one of them is located approximately 14 base pairs downstream of the PAM (post-PAM interaction), which is beyond the apparent footprint of Cas9 on DNA. Loss or occupation of this interaction site on DNA impairs Cas9 binding and cleavage. Consistently, a downstream helicase could readily displace DNA-bound Cas9 by disrupting this relatively weak post-PAM interaction. Our work identifies a critical interaction of Cas9 with DNA that dictates its binding and dissociation, which may suggest distinct strategies to modulate Cas9 activity.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA/metabolismo , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Ligação Proteica , RNA Guia/química , RNA Guia/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 520(3): 594-599, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623828

RESUMO

DDX43 is a cancer/testis antigen and is thought to stimulate oncogenic pathways in cell proliferation, while its specific function in cancer development is largely unexplored. DDX43 is the member of RNA helicase in DEAD-box family, consists of conserved helicase core and a single K-homology (KH) domain in its N-terminus. In this paper, we expressed and purified human DDX43 protein in E. coli and demonstrated that this protein is a homogeneous monomer. To understand the role and explore the substrates preference of DDX43 in vitro, we systematically studied its binding properties. We found that DDX43 prefers single-strand DNA or RNA with length longer than 12 nt and much prefers guanosine than the other three nucleotides. Achievement of the full binding affinity of protein to substrate needs the existence of all domains, and they must be connected. The absence of either of them or the disjunction can result in a decreased binding affinity to substrates, approximately reduced 10-fold. We also found that the unwinding ability of DDX43 in vitro was neither efficient nor sustainable.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 294(38): 13915-13927, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350334

RESUMO

Replication protein A (RPA) is the major eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein and has essential roles in genome maintenance. RPA binds to ssDNA through multiple modes, and recent studies have suggested that the RPA-ssDNA interaction is dynamic. However, how RPA alternates between different binding modes and modifies ssDNA structures in this dynamic interaction remains unknown. Here, we used single-molecule FRET to systematically investigate the interaction between human RPA and ssDNA. We show that RPA can adopt different types of binding complexes with ssDNAs of different lengths, leading to the straightening or bending of the ssDNAs, depending on both the length and structure of the ssDNA substrate and the RPA concentration. Importantly, we noted that some of the complexes are highly dynamic, whereas others appear relatively static. On the basis of the above observations, we propose a model explaining how RPA dynamically engages with ssDNA. Of note, fluorescence anisotropy indicated that RPA can also associate with RNA but with a lower binding affinity than with ssDNA. At the single-molecule level, we observed that RPA is undergoing rapid and repetitive associations with and dissociation from the RNA. This study may provide new insights into the rich dynamics of RPA binding to ssDNA and RNA.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , RNA/química , Proteína de Replicação A/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Gel , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Polarização de Fluorescência/métodos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteína de Replicação A/química , Proteína de Replicação A/genética
9.
J Biol Chem ; 294(1): 142-156, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425099

RESUMO

LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors harboring a conserved Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) domain, are regulators of plant organ development. Recent studies have unraveled additional pivotal roles of the LBD protein family beyond defining lateral organ boundaries, such as pollen development and nitrogen metabolism. The structural basis for the molecular network of LBD-dependent processes remains to be deciphered. Here, we solved the first structure of the homodimeric LOB domain of Ramosa2 from wheat (TtRa2LD) to 1.9 Å resolution. Our crystal structure reveals structural features shared with other zinc-finger transcriptional factors, as well as some features unique to LBD proteins. Formation of the TtRa2LD homodimer relied on hydrophobic interactions of its coiled-coil motifs. Several specific motifs/domains of the LBD protein were also involved in maintaining its overall conformation. The intricate assembly within and between the monomers determined the precise spatial configuration of the two zinc fingers that recognize palindromic DNA sequences. Biochemical, molecular modeling, and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments indicated that dimerization is important for cooperative DNA binding and discrimination of palindromic DNA through a molecular calipers mechanism. Along with previously published data, this study enables us to establish an atomic-scale mechanistic model for LBD proteins as transcriptional regulators in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Triticum/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética
10.
J Biol Chem ; 293(48): 18504-18513, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305390

RESUMO

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are four-stranded DNA structures formed by Hoogsteen base pairing between stacked sets of four guanines. Pif1 helicase plays critical roles in suppressing genomic instability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by resolving G4s. However, the structural properties of G4s in S. cerevisiae and the substrate preference of Pif1 for different G4s remain unknown. Here, using CD spectroscopy and 83 G4 motifs from S. cerevisiae ranging in length from 30 to 60 nucleotides, we first show that G4 structures can be formed with a broad range of loop sizes in vitro and that a parallel conformation is favored. Using single-molecule FRET analysis, we then systematically addressed Pif1-mediated unwinding of various G4s and found that Pif1 is sensitive to G4 stability. Moreover, Pif1 preferentially unfolded antiparallel G4s rather than parallel G4s having similar stability. Furthermore, our results indicate that most G4 structures in S. cerevisiae sequences have long loops and can be efficiently unfolded by Pif1 because of their low stability. However, we also found that G4 structures with short loops can be barely unfolded. This study highlights the formidable capability of Pif1 to resolve the majority of G4s in S. cerevisiae sequences, narrows the fractions of G4s that may be challenging for genomic stability, and provides a framework for understanding the influence of different G4s on genomic stability via their processing by Pif1.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Instabilidade Genômica , Ligação Proteica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Temperatura
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(41): 9499-9506, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269502

RESUMO

The G-triplex is a kind of DNA structure formed by G-rich sequences. Previous studies have shown that it is an intermediate for the folding of G-quadruplex and has an antiparallel structure. The folding dynamics of this G-triplex structure, however, have not been well studied until now. In addition, whether a parallel G-triplex structure exists, remains unknown. In this study, by using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer and circular dichroism spectroscopy methods, we have studied the folding dynamics of the G-triplex and revealed at the single-molecule level, for the first time, that G-triplexes have both parallel and antiparallel structures. Moreover, we have investigated the effects of proximal DNA on G-triplex folding. We have found that both single-stranded TTA and double-stranded DNA at either end of a G-triplex sequence can reduce its folding speed. More interestingly, when located at the 5' end of a G-triplex sequence, the proximal DNA will favor the folding of parallel over antiparallel G-triplex structures. As G-triplex is an intermediate for G-quadruplex folding, the present results may also shed new light on the folding properties of G-quadruplex structures, in terms of dynamics, stability, and the effects of proximal DNA.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
12.
Data Brief ; 20: 805-811, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211279

RESUMO

This data article contains descriptive and experimental data on the construction, expression, and simple characterization of AG11-843 and AG11-1581. AG1 is an important member of the DUF1220 protein family. It׳s hard to get the recombinant protein because of its DNA sequence. The DNA sequence were optimized by proper design, cloned by overlap PCR and constructed into expression vector. AG11-843 and AG11-1581.were over expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and analyzed by dynamic light scattering and gel filtration analysis. An effective technique is provided to construct and express proteins with complicated sequences.

13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 504(1): 334-339, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190128

RESUMO

RNA helicases are almost ubiquitous important enzymes that take part in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism. Prokaryotes encode fewer RNA helicases than eukaryotes, suggesting that individual prokaryotic RNA helicases may take on multiple roles. The specific functions and molecular mechanisms of bacterial DEAH/RHA helicases are poorly understood, and no structures are available of these bacterial enzymes. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the DEAH/RHA helicase HrpB of Escherichia coli in a complex with ADP•AlF4. It showed an atypical globular structure, consisting of two RecA domains, an HA2 domain and an OB domain, similar to eukaryotic DEAH/RHA helicases. Notably, it showed a unique C-terminal extension that has never been reported before. Activity assays indicated that EcHrpB binds RNA but not DNA, and does not exhibit unwinding activity in vitro. Thus, within cells, the EcHrpB may function in helicase activity-independent RNA metabolic processes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Nucleotídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , RNA/química
14.
Protein Expr Purif ; 152: 71-76, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870801

RESUMO

AG1, a member of the DUF1220 protein family, exhibits the most extreme human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome. These variations in copy number have been linked to both brain evolution among primates and brain size in humans. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the structure and function of these proteins is limited because current cloning and expression techniques fail to consistently produce recombinant protein for in vitro studies. The present work describes a method for amino acid and DNA sequence optimization and synthesis, recombinant protein expression and analysis of two AG1 fragments, AG11-843 and AG11-1581. It was first necessary to modify the nucleotide sequence, while holding the GC content at 52.9%. The genes were then sectionally synthesized by overlap PCR. The resulting segments were cloned into the pET-15 b-sumo expression vector and subsequently transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells. After inducing their expression, the AG11-843 and AG11-1581 proteins were isolated and purified. Furthermore, using dynamic light scattering and gel filtration analysis, AG11-843 and AG11-1581 were shown to be present in tetrameric and dimeric forms in solution. To our knowledge, this is the first study to synthesize and express fragments of the DUF1220 protein family for in vitro analysis. Taken together, the proven utility and versatility of this method indicate that it can be used as an effective technique to construct and express other proteins with complicated sequences, thus providing the means to study their function and structure in vitro.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Clonagem Molecular , DNA/síntese química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/isolamento & purificação , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(22): 5790-5796, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733603

RESUMO

Helicases harness the energy of nucleotide triphosphate hydrolysis to unwind double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in discrete steps. In spite of intensive studies, the mechanism of stepping is still poorly understood. Here, we applied single-molecule fluorescent resonant energy transfer to characterize the stepping of two nonring helicases, Escherichia coli RecQ ( E. coli RecQ) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 (ScPif1). Our data showed that when forked dsDNA with free overhangs are used as substrates, both E. coli RecQ and ScPif1 unwind the dsDNA in nonuniform steps that distribute over broad ranges. When tension is exerted on the overhangs, the overall profile of the step-size distribution of ScPif1 is narrowed, whereas that of E. coli RecQ remains unchanged. Moreover, the measured step sizes of the both helicases concentrate on integral multiples of a half base pair. We propose a universal stepping mechanism, in which a helicase breaks one base pair at a time and sequesters the nascent nucleotides and then releases them after a random number of base-pair breaking events. The mechanism can interpret the observed unwinding patterns quantitatively and provides a general view of the helicase activity.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Pareamento de Bases , DNA/química , DNA Helicases/química , DNA Helicases/genética , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Cinética , Método de Monte Carlo , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RecQ Helicases/química , RecQ Helicases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
16.
Structure ; 26(3): 403-415.e4, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429875

RESUMO

Helicase DHX36 plays essential roles in cell development and differentiation at least partially by resolving G-quadruplex (G4) structures. Here we report crystal structures of the Drosophila homolog of DHX36 (DmDHX36) in complex with RNA and a series of DNAs. By combining structural, small-angle X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulation, and single-molecule fluorescence studies, we revealed that positively charged amino acids in RecA2 and OB-like domains constitute an elaborate structural pocket at the nucleic acid entrance, in which negatively charged G4 DNA is tightly bound and partially destabilized. The G4 DNA is then completely unfolded through the 3'-5' translocation activity of the helicase. Furthermore, crystal structures and DNA binding assays show that G-rich DNA is preferentially recognized and in the presence of ATP, specifically bound by DmDHX36, which may cooperatively enhance the G-rich DNA translocation and G4 unfolding. On the basis of these results, a conceptual G4 DNA-resolving mechanism is proposed.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/química , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , DNA/química , Drosophila/metabolismo , RNA/química , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA/metabolismo , Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Desdobramento de Proteína , RNA/metabolismo , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(3): 1486-1500, 2018 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202194

RESUMO

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 protein (ScPif1p) is the prototypical member of the Pif1 family of DNA helicases. ScPif1p is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial, ribosomal and telomeric DNA and suppresses genome instability at G-quadruplex motifs. Here, we report the crystal structures of a truncated ScPif1p (ScPif1p237-780) in complex with different ssDNAs. Our results have revealed that a yeast-specific insertion domain protruding from the 2B domain folds as a bundle bearing an α-helix, α16. The α16 helix regulates the helicase activities of ScPif1p through interactions with the previously identified loop3. Furthermore, a biologically relevant dimeric structure has been identified, which can be further specifically stabilized by G-quadruplex DNA. Basing on structural analyses and mutational studies with DNA binding and unwinding assays, a potential G-quadruplex DNA binding site in ScPif1p monomers is suggested. Our results also show that ScPif1p uses the Q-motif to preferentially hydrolyze ATP, and a G-rich tract is preferentially recognized by more residues, consistent with previous biochemical observations. These findings provide a structural and mechanistic basis for understanding the multifunctional ScPif1p.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , DNA Helicases/química , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Expressão Gênica , Hidrólise , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade por Substrato , Termodinâmica
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 45(19): 11401-11412, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977514

RESUMO

G-quadruplex (G4) can be formed by G-rich DNA sequences that are widely distributed throughout the human genome. Although G-triplex and G-hairpin have been proposed as G4 folding intermediates, their formation still requires further investigation by experiments. Here, we employed single-molecule FRET to characterize the folding dynamics of G4 from human telomeric sequence. First, we observed four states during G4 folding initially assigned to be anti-parallel G4, G-triplex, G-hairpin and unfolded ssDNA. Then we constructed putative intra-strand G-triplex, G-hairpin structures and confirmed their existences in both NaCl and KCl. Further studies revealed those structures are going through dynamic transitions between different states and show relatively weak dependence on cations, unlike G4. Based on those results and molecular dynamics simulations, we proposed a multi-pathway folding mechanism for human telomeric G4. The present work may shed new light on our current understanding about the existence and stability of G4 intermediate states.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Quadruplex G , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Telômero/genética , DNA/genética , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Cinética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
FEBS J ; 284(23): 4051-4065, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986969

RESUMO

Non-canonical four-stranded G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures can form in G-rich sequences that are widely distributed throughout the genome. The presence of G4 structures can impair DNA replication by hindering the progress of replicative polymerases (Pols), and failure to resolve these structures can lead to genetic instability. In the present study, we combined different approaches to address the question of whether and how Escherichia coli Pol I resolves G4 obstacles during DNA replication and/or repair. We found that E. coli Pol I-catalyzed DNA synthesis could be arrested by G4 structures at low protein concentrations and the degree of inhibition was strongly dependent on the stability of the G4 structures. Interestingly, at high protein concentrations, E. coli Pol I was able to overcome some kinds of G4 obstacles without the involvement of other molecules and could achieve complete replication of G4 DNA. Mechanistic studies suggested that multiple Pol I proteins might be implicated in G4 unfolding, and the disruption of G4 structures requires energy derived from dNTP hydrolysis. The present work not only reveals an unrealized function of E. coli Pol I, but also presents a possible mechanism by which G4 structures can be resolved during DNA replication and/or repair in E. coli.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase I/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
20.
Biosci Rep ; 37(4)2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588052

RESUMO

G-quadruplexes are special structures existing at the ends of human telomeres, the folding kinetics of which are essential for their functions, such as in the maintenance of genome stability and the protection of chromosome ends. In the present study, we investigated the folding kinetics of G-quadruplex in different monovalent cation environments and determined the detailed kinetic parameters for Na+- and K+-induced G-quadruplex folding, and for its structural transition from the basket-type Na+ form to the hybrid-type K+ form. More interestingly, although Li+ was often used in previous studies of G-quadruplex folding as a control ion supposed to have no effect, we have found that Li+ can actually influence the folding kinetics of both Na+- and K+-induced G-quadruplexes significantly and in different ways, by changing the folding fraction of Na+-induced G-quadruplexes and greatly increasing the folding rates of K+-induced G-quadruplexes. The present study may shed new light on the roles of monovalent cations in G-quadruplex folding and should be useful for further studies of the underlying folding mechanism.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Lítio/química , Potássio/química , Sódio/química , Cátions Monovalentes/química , Cinética
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