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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11538-11548, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488351

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured by satellites is widely used to estimate anthropogenic emissions. The Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) operational SO2 product is overestimated compared to the ground-based multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements in China and shows an opposite variation to the surface measurements, which limits the application of TROPOspheric monitoring instrument (TROPOMI) products in emissions research. Radiometric calibration, a priori profiles, and fitting windows might cause the overestimation of S-5P operational SO2 product. Here, we improve the optimal-estimation-based algorithm through several calibration methods. The improved retrieval agrees reasonably well with the ground-based measurements (R > 0.70, bias <13.7%) and has smaller biases (-28.9%) with surface measurements over China and India. It revealed that the SO2 column in March 2020 decreased by 51.6% compared to March 2019 due to the lockdown for curbing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, and there was a decrease of 50% during the lockdown than those after the lockdown, similar to the surface measurement trend, while S-5P operational SO2 product showed an unrealistic increase of 19%. In India, the improved retrieval identified obvious "hot spots" and observed a 30% decrease of SO2 columns during the lockdown.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 142886, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757247

RESUMO

During the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in January and February 2020, production and living activities were drastically reduced to impede the spread of the virus, which also caused a strong reduction of the emission of primary pollutants. However, as a major species of secondary air pollutant, tropospheric ozone did not reduce synchronously, but instead rose in some region. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone may potentially promote the rates of COVID-19 infections, causing extra risk to human health. Thus, the variation of ozone should be evaluated widely. This paper presents ozone profiles and tropospheric ozone columns from ultraviolet radiances detected by TROPOospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) satellite based on the principle of optimal estimation method. We compare our TROPOMI retrievals with global ozonesonde observations, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) observation at Hefei (117.17°E, 31.7°N) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ozonesonde sensor (GPSO3) ozonesonde profiles at Beijing (116.46°E, 39.80°N). The integrated Tropospheric Ozone Column (TOC) and Stratospheric Ozone Column (SOC) show excellent agreement with validation data. We use the retrieved TOC combining with tropospheric vertical column density (TVCD) of NO2 and HCHO from TROPOMI to assess the changes of tropospheric ozone during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Although NO2 TVCD decreased by 63%, the retrieved TOC over east China increase by 10% from the 20-day averaged before the lockdown on January 23, 2020 to 20-day averaged after it. Because the production of ozone in winter is controlled by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicated by monitored HCHO, which did not present evident change during the lockdown, the production of ozone did not decrease significantly. Besides, the decrease of NOx emission weakened the titration of ozone, causing an increase of ozone.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Light Sci Appl ; 8: 100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754427

RESUMO

Abundances of a range of air pollutants can be inferred from satellite UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements by using the unique absorption signatures of gas species. Here, we implemented several spectral fitting methods to retrieve tropospheric NO2, SO2, and HCHO from the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI), with radiative simulations providing necessary information on the interactions of scattered solar light within the atmosphere. We analyzed the spatial distribution and temporal trends of satellite-observed air pollutants over eastern China during 2005-2017, especially in heavily polluted regions. We found significant decreasing trends in NO2 and SO2 since 2011 over most regions, despite varying temporal features and turning points. In contrast, an overall increasing trend was identified for tropospheric HCHO over these regions in recent years. Furthermore, generalized additive models were implemented to understand the driving forces of air quality trends in China and assess the effectiveness of emission controls. Our results indicated that although meteorological parameters, such as wind, water vapor, solar radiation and temperature, mainly dominated the day-to-day and seasonal fluctuations in air pollutants, anthropogenic emissions played a unique role in the long-term variation in the ambient concentrations of NO2, SO2, and HCHO in the past 13 years. Generally, recent declines in NO2 and SO2 could be attributed to emission reductions due to effective air quality policies, and the opposite trends in HCHO may urge the need to control anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions.

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