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1.
J Theor Biol ; 484: 110027, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568791

RESUMO

Repeated outbreaks of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) infections have been observed in recent decades and dominated by various enteroviral serotypes. In particular, enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) dominated the prevalence of HFMD infections alternatively in recent years with various outbreak sizes in Baoji, a city of Shaanxi Province in Northwest China. Estimating the reproduction number for various enteroviruses serotypes in northwest China (north temperate zone) and identification of cyclicity of HFMD infections are therefore an issue of great importance for future epidemics prediction and control. The basic/effective reproduction numbers for EV-A71, CV-A16 and CV-A6 were estimated based on daily new cases in 2010, 2011 and 2018, respectively, in which the corresponding pathogen dominated the epidemic. Two different methods based on serial interval were adopted and the basic reproduction number were estimated to be in the range of (1.33, 1.46) for CV-A16, (1.20, 1.29) for EV-A71, and (1.38, 1.59) for CV-A6, respectively. The estimated daily effective reproduction numbers significantly fluctuated before June or after July but varied mildly in (0.5,2) in around June to July for three serotypes. The weekly effective reproduction number for HFMD was estimated based on weekly new cases from year 2010 to 2018, and in most years it peaked in the range of (1.6,2.0) in February to March as well as in the range of (1.0,1.2) in September to October. The wavelet analysis based on the time series of HFMD cases from 2008 to 2018 showed obvious annual and semi-annual cyclicity, while the inter-annual cycles are infeasible. In this study we found that CV-A6 shows the greatest transmission ability among these three pathogens while EV-A71 exhibits the weakest ability of transmission, and moreover, the estimated values of basic reproduction number in northwest China are lower than those in Singapore, Hongkong and Guangdong, which may be due to different climatic circumstances.

2.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8797-8806, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, a dose-dependent adverse effect of cisplatin, involves mitochondrial dysfunction. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy removes damaged mitochondria under various pathological conditions. The objective of this study was to determine mitophagy status and its effects on mitochondrial function and neuronal cell damage after cisplatin treatment using an in vitro model of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS PC12 cells were transfected with Parkin or Parkin siRNA using lentiviral particles and Lipofectamine 3000™, respectively, and then were exposed to 10 µM cisplatin. The expression of autophagic proteins was measured by Western blot analysis. Mitophagy in PC12 cells was detected by confocal microscopy analysis of mitochondria-lysosomes colocalization and autophagic flux. The effects of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy on cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity were assessed via mitochondrial function, neuritic length, nuclear diameter, and apoptosis. RESULTS Cisplatin activated PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in PC12 cells. Autophagic flux analysis revealed that cisplatin inhibits the late stage of the autophagic process. The knockdown of Parkin suppressed cisplatin-induced mitophagy, aggravating cisplatin-induced depolarization of mitochondria, cellular ATP deficits, reactive oxygen species outburst, neuritic shortening, nuclear diameter reduction, and apoptosis, while Parkin overexpression enhanced mitophagy and reversed these effects. CONCLUSIONS PINK1/Parkin-regulated mitophagy can protect against cisplatin-related neurotoxicity, suggesting therapeutic enhancement of mitophagy as a potential intervention for cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathies. The interference of cisplatin with autophagosome-lysosome fusion may be partly responsible for cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680420

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays a critical role in the apoptotic process during cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to investigate whether post-treatment with dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect against I/R-induced cardiac apoptosis in vivo and in vitro via regulating HIF-1α signalling pathway. Rat myocardial I/R was induced by occluding the left anterior descending artery for 30 minutes followed by 6-hours reperfusion, and cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation for 6 hours followed by 3-hours reoxygenation. Dexmedetomidine administration at the beginning of reperfusion or reoxygenation attenuated I/R-induced myocardial injury or H/R-induced cell death, alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, inhibited the activation of HIF-1α and modulated the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins including BCL-2, BAX, BNIP3, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Conversely, the HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylase-2 inhibitor IOX2 partly blocked DEX-mediated cardioprotection both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, DEX down-regulated HIF-1α expression at the post-transcriptional level and inhibited the transcriptional activation of the target gene BNIP3. Post-treatment with DEX protects against cardiac I/R injury in vivo and H/R injury in vitro. These effects are, at least in part, mediated via the inhibition of cell apoptosis by targeting HIF-1α signalling.

4.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460624, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668866

RESUMO

ß-agonists, which have been illegally used in animal production in some countries, can induce bioaccumulation when blood is converted by rendering into blood meal. Unfortunately, available data on this topic are scarce, which result in lack of risk assessment. Therefore, in this research, a method for simultaneous determination of 22 ß-agonists in blood meal by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution was developed. The recoveries of the developed method ranged from 68.6% to 118.8% with RSD at below 20%. the limit of detection (LOD) is blew 1 µg/kg. The change in agonist form added and incurred blood into blood meal and long stability of ß-agonist in blood meal were studied. Then, we analyzed blood meal for 22 agonists using this method. The results suggest blood meal is a possible pathway for agonist reentry into animals. Potential risks of agonist residues in blood meal were examined. This study is the first to explore source of ß-agonist residues in blood meal, change in processing produce and stability in stored stage.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705731

RESUMO

Exonic deletions and duplications within DMD are the main pathogenic variants in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD). However, few studies have profiled the flanking sequences of breakpoints and the potential mechanism underlying the breakpoints in different fragile regions of DMD. In this study, 896 Chinese male probands afflicted with DMD/BMD were selected from unrelated families and analyzed using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the DMD gene, in which we identified exon deletions in 784 subjects and duplications in 112 subjects. Deletions occurred most frequently in the genomic region encompassing exons 45-55, accounting for 72% (576/784) of all deletion patterns. Further, in order to unravel the potential mechanism that induced breaks, DMD gene capture and sequencing were performed to identify the breakpoints in 37 subjects with deletions encompassing exons 45-55 of DMD; we found that DMD instability did not arise from a single cause; instead, long-sequence-motifs, nonconsensus microhomologies, low-copy repeats and micro indels were embedded around the breakpoints, which may predispose DMD to instability. In summary, our study highlights the heterogeneous characteristics of the flanking sequences around the breakpoints and help understand the mechanism underlying DMD gene instability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 171: 113712, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726048

RESUMO

Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are crucial for the production of T-cells. Cancer therapies including cytotoxic drugs and ionizing radiations damage TECs resulting in abnormal T-cell production and function. Fortunately, TECs can regenerate after injury. The Janus kinase (Jak) pathway is important in supporting survival of TECs. Jak inhibitors are used to treat cancer and immune disorders. The impact of Jak inhibitors on recovery of TECs is unknown. We induced acute thymus injury in mice by using ionizing radiation and evaluated the impact of ruxolitinib on thymus regeneration. We also tested if ruxolitinib affected proliferation of TECs in vitro. An increase was observed in the recovery of thymus cells after acute injury in association with up-regulation of TEC-related growth factors including keratinocyte growth factor (Kgf), epidermal growth factor (Egf), insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (Rankl). Giving ruxolitinib decreased levels of receptors of these growth factors on TECs and blocked growth factor-induced recovery of thymus cells in damaged thymii. Ruxolitinib also blocked growth factors-induced proliferation of TECs in vitro. Thymus regeneration was inhibited when ruxolitinib was given immediately after thymus injury but not when it was given 1 week later. These data may have implications for how ruxolitinib is used in clinical practices.

7.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761724

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates that patient-derived organoids (PDOs) can predict drug responses in the clinic, but the ability of PDOs to predict responses to chemoradiation in cancer patients remains an open question. Here we generate a living organoid biobank from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NACR) enrolled in a phase III clinical trial. Our co-clinical trial data confirm that rectal cancer organoids (RCOs) closely recapitulate the pathophysiology and genetic changes of corresponding tumors. Chemoradiation responses in patients are highly matched to RCO responses, with 84.43% accuracy, 78.01% sensitivity, and 91.97% specificity. These data imply that PDOs predict LARC patient responses in the clinic and may represent a companion diagnostic tool in rectal cancer treatment.

8.
Plant Cell ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732704

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis by recycling cytoplasmic components. The autophagy-related proteins (ATGs) ATG1 and ATG13 form a protein kinase complex that regulates autophagosome formation; however, mechanisms regulating ATG1 and ATG13 remain poorly understood. Here, we show that, under different nutrient conditions, the RING-type E3 ligases SINAT1, SINAT2, and SINAT6 control ATG1 and ATG13 stability and autophagy dynamics by modulating ATG13 ubiquitylation in Arabidopsis. During prolonged starvation and recovery, ATG1 and ATG13 were degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 1a (TRAF1a) and TRAF1b interacted in planta with ATG13a and ATG13b and required SINAT1 and SINAT2 to ubiquitylate and degrade ATG13s in vivo Moreover, lysines K607 and K609 of ATG13a protein contributed to K48-linked ubiquitylation and destabilization, and suppression of autophagy. Under starvation conditions, SINAT6 competitively interacted with ATG13 and induced autophagosome biogenesis. Furthermore, under starvation conditions, ATG1 promoted TRAF1a protein stability in vivo, suggesting feedback regulation of autophagy. Consistent with ATGs functioning in autophagy, the atg1a atg1b atg1c triple knockout mutants exhibited premature leaf senescence, hypersensitivity to nutrient starvation, and reduction in TRAF1a stability. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that SINAT family proteins facilitate ATG13 ubiquitylation and stability and thus regulate autophagy.

9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 211, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis therapy requires at least six-month treatment with continuous administration of combined antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. The long-term exposure to antibiotics could cause consequent changes in gut microbiota, which may alter the gastrointestinal function and drug absorption in patients, thereby affect the outcome of treatment. The study aims to characterize the longitudinal changes of gut microbiota among tuberculosis (TB) patients under standardized first-line treatment and provide an understanding of the association between alterations in gut microbiota composition and unfavorable clinical outcomes. METHODS: The study is a multicenter, observational prospective cohort study. Three study sites are purposively selected in the western (Sichuan Province) and eastern (Jiangsu Province and Shanghai) parts of China. Three-hundred patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB are enrolled. All eligible patients should be investigated using structured questionnaires before treatment initiation; and be followed up during the treatment at Day-14, Month-2, Month-5, the end of treatment and the sixth month after ending therapy. Stool samples are to be collected at each visit, consisting of six stool samples from each patient. Additionally, 60 healthy volunteers from Sichuan province and Shanghai city will be recruited as healthy controls to form the baseline of patient gut microbiota in the Chinese population. The dynamic changes of gut microbiota in terms of alpha diversity, beta diversity, taxonomic composition are to be illustrated individually from the time at diagnosis until the sixth month after therapy is completed. Furthermore, the diversity and component of gut microbiota will be compared between the groups with and without unfavorable treatment outcome in terms of adverse effect and treatment failure. DISCUSSION: Studies on the clinical manifestations, adverse reactions, and gut microbiota alterations will provide scientifically-sound evidence on the impact of gut microbiota alterations on TB treatment outcomes. The study is not only useful for guiding personalized TB treatment but also sheds light on the effects of continuous antibiotics administration on gut microbiota. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, trial ID: ChiCTR1900023369, May 24, 2019. Retrospectively registered.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691080

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether coadministration of vindesine is a risk factor for acute kidney injury caused by high-dose methotrexate in patients with hematologic malignancies and identify its mechanism. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 211 cycles of HD-MTX therapy in 178 patients with hematological malignancies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether VDS coadministration was a risk factor for AKI and the inhibitory effect of VDS on MTX was studied in cell models in vitro. RESULTS: The occurrence of AKI was significantly higher in the MTX + VDS group than in the MTX group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that VDS coadministration was an important risk factor for the occurrence of AKI [odds ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-6.66]. After coadministration of VDS, serum MTX concentrations at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h increased from 0.42 ± 0.46 µmol/L, 0.07 ± 0.01 µmol/L, and 0.03 ± 0.01 µmol/L to 0.98 ± 2.73 µmol/L, 0.18 ± 0.42 µmol/L, and 0.09 ± 0.21 µmol/L (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01), respectively. Delayed elimination was closely related to AKI (p < 0.001). The transfected cell model results showed that VDS is an inhibitor of the transporters BCRP, MRP2, and OAT1/OAT3. VDS inhibited BCRP and MRP2-mediated transport of MTX with IC50 values of 17.91 µM and 34.73 µM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Coadministration of VDS increases HD-MTX-induced AKI in patients with hematologic malignancies, which may be explained by the fact that VDS increases the exposure to and decreases the excretion of MTX by inhibiting OAT1/OAT3, BCRP, and MRP2.

11.
Endocrine ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We recently reported that inhibition of BET bromodomain suppresses adipogenesis in vitro. In the present study we aimed to address whether BET bromodomain inhibition can suppress adipogenesis in vivo. METHODS: Brd4fl/fl mice were crossed with B6.Cg-Tg(Fabp4-cre)1Rev/J mice to generate Brd4fl/+/Fabp4-cre mice. We used high fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) mice treated with vehicle (DMSO) or JQ1 (intraperitoneal, IP injection, 50 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured once a week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was determined and brown adipose tissue was harvested at the end of the experiment. RESULTS: Partial deletion of Brd4 leads to the lower body weight. JQ1 treatment further confirmed that BET bromodomain inhibition suppresses body weight gain and decreases white adipose depots compared with the control mice. In addition, JQ1 treatment reduces the size of brown adipose tissue and impairs its thermogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: BET bromodomain inhibition suppresses adipogenesis in the mice.

12.
Mol Autism ; 10: 35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649809

RESUMO

Background: PHF21A has been associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies based on its deletion in the Potocki-Shaffer syndrome region at 11p11.2 and its disruption in three patients with balanced translocations. In addition, three patients with de novo truncating mutations in PHF21A were reported recently. Here, we analyze genomic data from seven unrelated individuals with mutations in PHF21A and provide detailed clinical descriptions, further expanding the phenotype associated with PHF21A haploinsufficiency. Methods: Diagnostic trio whole exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, use of GeneMatcher, targeted gene panel sequencing, and MiSeq sequencing techniques were used to identify and confirm variants. RT-qPCR was used to measure the normal expression pattern of PHF21A in multiple human tissues including 13 different brain tissues. Protein-DNA modeling was performed to substantiate the pathogenicity of the missense mutation. Results: We have identified seven heterozygous coding mutations, among which six are de novo (not maternal in one). Mutations include four frameshifts, one nonsense mutation in two patients, and one heterozygous missense mutation in the AT Hook domain, predicted to be deleterious and likely to cause loss of PHF21A function. We also found a new C-terminal domain composed of an intrinsically disordered region. This domain is truncated in six patients and thus likely to play an important role in the function of PHF21A, suggesting that haploinsufficiency is the likely underlying mechanism in the phenotype of seven patients. Our results extend the phenotypic spectrum of PHF21A mutations by adding autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, hypotonia, and neurobehavioral problems. Furthermore, PHF21A is highly expressed in the human fetal brain, which is consistent with the neurodevelopmental phenotype. Conclusion: Deleterious nonsense, frameshift, and missense mutations disrupting the AT Hook domain and/or an intrinsically disordered region in PHF21A were found to be associated with autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, hypotonia, neurobehavioral problems, tapering fingers, clinodactyly, and syndactyly, in addition to intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies. This suggests that PHF21A is involved in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, and its haploinsufficiency causes a diverse neurological phenotype.

13.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(11): 3064-3074, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657899

RESUMO

Fluorophore probes are widely used for bioimaging in cells, tissues, and animals as well as for monitoring of multiple biological processes in complex environments. Such imaging properties allow scientists to make direct visualizations of pathological events and cellular targets. Conventional fluorescent molecules have been developed for several decades and achieved great successes, but their emissions are often weakened or quenched at high concentrations that might suffer from the aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect, which reduces the efficiencies of their applications. In contrast to the ACQ effect, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogens (AIEgens) display much higher fluorescence in aggregated states and possess various advantages such as low background, long-term tracking ability, and strong resistance to photobleaching. Therefore, AIEgens are employed as unique fluorescence molecules and building blocks for biosensing applications in the fields of ions, amino acids, carbohydrates, DNAs/RNAs, peptides/proteins, cellular organelles, cancer cells, bacteria, and so on. Quite a few of the above biosensing missions are accomplished by modular peptide-modified AIEgen probes (MPAPs) or modular DNA-modified AIEgen probes (MDAPs) because of the multiple capabilities of peptide and DNA modules, including solubility, biocompatibility, and recognition. Meanwhile, both electrostatic interactions and coupling reactions could provide efficient methods to construct different MPAPs and MDAPs, finally resulting in a large variety of biosensing probes. Those probes exhibit leading features of detecting nucleic acids or proteins and imaging mass biomolecules. For example, under modular design, peptide modules possessing versatile recognition abilities enable MPAPs to detect numerous targets, such as integrin αvß3, aminopeptidase N, MMP-2, MPO, H2O2, and so forth; MDAP could allow the imaging of mRNA in cells and tissue chips, suggesting the diagnostic functions of MDAP in clinical samples. Modular design offers a novel strategy to generate AIEgen-based probes and expedites functional biomacromolecules research. In this vein, here we review the progress on MPAPs and MDAPs in the most recent 10 years and highlight the modular design strategy as well as their advanced biosensing applications including briefly two aspects: (1) detection and (2) imaging. By the use of MPAPs/MDAPs, multiple bioanalytes can be efficiently analyzed at low concentrations and directly visualized through high-contrast and luminous imaging. Compared with MPAPs, the quantities of MDAPs are limited because of the difficult synthesis of long-length DNA strands. In future work, multifunctional of DNA sequences are needed to explore varieties of MDAPs for diverse biosensing purposes. At the end of this Account, some deficiencies and challenges are mentioned for briging more attention to accelerate the development of AIEgen-based probes.

14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e973, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nuclear encoded gene RMND1 (Required for Meiotic Nuclear Division 1 homolog) has recently been linked to RMND1-related mitochondrial disease (RRMD). This autosomal recessive condition characteristically presents with an infantile-onset multisystem disease characterized by severe hypotonia, global developmental delay, failure to thrive, sensorineural hearing loss, and lactic acidosis. Renal disease, however, appears to be one of the more prominent features of RRMD, affecting patients at significantly higher numbers compared to other mitochondrial diseases. We report the clinical, histological, and molecular findings of four RRMD patients across three academic institutions with a focus on the renal manifestations. METHODS: Four patients were identified for the purpose of this study, all of whom had molecular confirmation at the time of inclusion, which included the common pathogenic variant c.713A>G (p.N238S) as well as the three rare variants: c.485delC (p.P162fs), c.533C>T (p.T178M), and c.1317 + 1G>C splice donor variant. Medical history and laboratory findings were collected from the medical records and medical providers. RESULTS: In this study, all four patients developed renal disease characterized as tubulopathy (3/4), renal tubular acidosis (2/4), interstitial nephritis (1/4), and/or end-stage renal disease (4/4) necessitating renal transplantation (2/4). Histological evaluation of renal biopsy specimens revealed generalized tubular atrophy and on electron microscopy, abundant mitochondria with pleomorphism and abnormal cristae. CONCLUSION: Our experience with RRMD demonstrates a specific pattern of renal disease manifestations and clinical course. Patients are unlikely to respond to traditional chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatments, making early diagnosis and consideration of renal transplantation paramount to the management of RRMD.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictive value of the in vitro chemosensitivity using ATP-TCA method to compare the clinical efficacy of patients with AML. METHODS: Bone marrow or peripheral blood samples were collected from 65 patients with AML, and the in vitro chemosensitivity of four drugs (cytarabine/idarubicin/decitabine/aclacinomycin) was measured by an ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay. RESULTS: Aclacinomycin and cytarabine had the highest chemosensitivity rates (66.7%, 8/12 and 58.5%, 38/65, respectively), while idarubicin and decitabine had rates of 6.5% (3/46) and 0% (0/35), respectively. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 66.2% (43/65) of patients, and there was a statistically significant correlation between CR and in vitro chemosensitivity for cytarabine (47.7% vs 18.5%, p = 0.002), but not for the anthracyclines (p = 0.950). In addition, three other factors significantly correlated with CR: disease status (p = 0.005), FLT3-ITD/TKD mutation (p = 0.003) and chemotherapy regimens (p = 0.004). Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the sensitivity of cytarabine was one of the significant risk factors for CR [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47-20.70; p = 0.011]. CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro chemosensitivity as tested by ATP-TCA demonstrated a significant correlation with CR for chemotherapy and can be a useful tool to optimize personalized treatments for patients with AML.

16.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 9(5): 355, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385190

RESUMO

In the original publication the corresponding author appeared incorrectly as Xin-Wen Zhang. The corrected text is given below: The corresponding author of the article is Gang Xu.

17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(25): 6645-6653, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372699

RESUMO

Carbon dot (CD)-based fluorescent probes have been widely exploited; however, multi-component detection using CDs without tedious surface modification is always a challenging task. Here, we develop a convenient and simple CD-based "on-off-on" fluorescent probe for detection of copper(II) ion (Cu2+), ascorbic acid (AA), and acid phosphatase (ACP). Cu2+ leads to the fluorescence quenching of CDs. The limit of detection (LOD) for Cu2+ is 2.4 µM. When AA is added into the CDs + Cu2+ solution, Cu2+ is reduced by AA to Cu+, causing the fluorescence recovery of CDs. The fluorescent intensity linearly correlates with the concentration of AA in the range of 100-2800 µM with LOD of 60 µM. Besides, the probe has potential application for detection of AA in real samples such as VC tablets, orange juice, and fresh orange. The probe can also indirectly detect ACP that enzymatically hydrolyzes ascorbic acid-phosphate (AAP) to produce AA. This work expands the application of CDs in the multi-component detection and provides a facile fluorescent probe for detection of AA in real samples. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Carbono/química , Cobre/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Cátions Bivalentes/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Moleculares , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Solanum tuberosum/enzimologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Comprimidos
18.
Exp Cell Res ; 383(2): 111507, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356816

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a common pathology in renal disease. Hypertensive nephropathy (HN) is one of the most common secondary nephropathies that often progresses to severe renal fibrosis with limited treatment options beyond hypertension control. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) was recently recognized as a target in signaling pathways that underlie the pathologies of inflammatory diseases and tumors. A recently developed inhibitor of Brd4, JQ1, has been shown to exert antifibrotic effects and is being clinically explored as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug. Here, using human kidney biopsies and Angiotensin II-induced mouse fibrotic kidney samples, we show that Brd4 was upregulated in renal tissue from HN patients and hypertensive mouse models. In mice, JQ1 alleviated Angiotensin II-induced kidney fibrosis and blocked epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by altering the expression of EMT-related proteins. Using an in vitro model of HK2 cells exposed to Angiotensin II, we also demonstrated that JQ1 suppressed the protein expression of fibrotic genes in these cells. These results further implicate Brd4 in the fibrotic response in HN and reveal that Brd4 is a potential antifibrotic target. BET inhibitors are currently being investigated in clinical trials as antitumor agents and show potent pharmacological effects. Our findings suggest that BET inhibitors may also be potential translational therapies for HN.

19.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 48, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mosaic variation has been known to cause disease for decades, high-throughput sequencing technologies with the analytical sensitivity to consistently detect variants at reduced allelic fractions have only recently emerged as routine clinical diagnostic tests. To date, few systematic analyses of mosaic variants detected by diagnostic exome sequencing for diverse clinical indications have been performed. METHODS: To investigate the frequency, type, allelic fraction, and phenotypic consequences of clinically relevant somatic mosaic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and characteristics of the corresponding genes, we retrospectively queried reported mosaic variants from a cohort of ~ 12,000 samples submitted for clinical exome sequencing (ES) at Baylor Genetics. RESULTS: We found 120 mosaic variants involving 107 genes, including 80 mosaic SNVs in proband samples and 40 in parental/grandparental samples. Average mosaic alternate allele fraction (AAF) detected in autosomes and in X-linked disease genes in females was 18.2% compared with 34.8% in X-linked disease genes in males. Of these mosaic variants, 74 variants (61.7%) were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic and 46 (38.3%) as variants of uncertain significance. Mosaic variants occurred in disease genes associated with autosomal dominant (AD) or AD/autosomal recessive (AR) (67/120, 55.8%), X-linked (33/120, 27.5%), AD/somatic (10/120, 8.3%), and AR (8/120, 6.7%) inheritance. Of note, 1.7% (2/120) of variants were found in genes in which only somatic events have been described. Nine genes had recurrent mosaic events in unrelated individuals which accounted for 18.3% (22/120) of all detected mosaic variants in this study. The proband group was enriched for mosaicism affecting Ras signaling pathway genes. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, an estimated 1.5% of all molecular diagnoses made in this cohort could be attributed to a mosaic variant detected in the proband, while parental mosaicism was identified in 0.3% of families analyzed. As ES design favors breadth over depth of coverage, this estimate of the prevalence of mosaic variants likely represents an underestimate of the total number of clinically relevant mosaic variants in our cohort.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218726, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist that has anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism by which DEX protects against myocardial I/R. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either sham operation or myocardial I/R, which was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. Rats were treated with either DEX or saline prior to surgery. We measured heart infarct size, serum cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), cardiac High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) expression, myocardial apoptosis and cytokine production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Besides, we evaluated the heart function at 4 weeks post-reperfusion by echocardiography. Unilateral vagotomy or inhibition of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) with methyllycaconitine (MLA) was applied to investigate whether DEX-induced cardioprotection is mediated via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Cardiac-selective overexpression of HMGB1 was administered to further confirm if HMGB1 is a key anti-inflammatory target during DEX-induced cardioprotection. RESULTS: DEX pretreatment significantly attenuated I/R-induced cardiac damage, as evidenced by decreases in short-term injury indicators including myocardial infarct size, cTnI release, myocardial apoptosis, cardiac HMGB1 expression, IL-6 and TNF-α production, as well as improvement on long-term cardiac function at 4 weeks post-reperfusion. These effects were partially reversed by either unilateral vagotomy or methyllycaconitine treatment. Besides, cardiac HMGB1-overexpression nearly abolished DEX-induced cardioprotection. CONCLUSIONS: DEX pretreatment protects against myocardial I/R by inhibiting cardiac HMGB1 production and activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

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