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1.
Chem Rev ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496053

RESUMO

Recently, two rich and exciting research fields, layered two-dimensional (2D) materials and metamaterials, have started overlapping. Metamaterials are artificial, engineered materials with broad metaphotonic prospects such as negative refraction, perfect lensing, subwavelength imaging, and cloaking. The possibility of achieving metaphotonic properties using metamaterials based on layered 2D materials has been extensively exploited. Because they are highly tunable and adjustable with the ease of micro- and nanofabrication, 2D materials exhibit diverse optical properties such as natural negative refraction, natural anisotropic behavior, and even hyperbolic dispersion. A combination of 2D materials with conventional metamaterials promises a variety of prospective applications. In this review, we illustrate how the concept of metamaterials and their associated metaphotonic capabilities are naturally born in 2D materials. The multifunctionality of 2D materials may enable the manufacture of novel optical devices that work in a broad frequency range, from visible to terahertz, with particularly low loss, high speed, gated tunability, and miniaturized sizes. This new area of research links the fields of photonics, optoelectronics, and plasmonics with that of metamaterials and may provide insights to future innovations for 2D-material-inspired metaphotonic devices.

2.
Sci Adv ; 6(7): eaay6134, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110733

RESUMO

Thin-film black phosphorus (BP) is an attractive material for mid-infrared optoelectronic applications because of its layered nature and a moderate bandgap of around 300 meV. Previous photoconduction demonstrations show that a vertical electric field can effectively reduce the bandgap of thin-film BP, expanding the device operational wavelength range in mid-infrared. Here, we report the widely tunable mid-infrared light emission from a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)/BP/hBN heterostructure device. With a moderate displacement field up to 0.48 V/nm, the photoluminescence (PL) peak from a ~20-layer BP flake is continuously tuned from 3.7 to 7.7 µm, spanning 4 µm in mid-infrared. The PL emission remains perfectly linear-polarized along the armchair direction regardless of the bias field. Moreover, together with theoretical analysis, we show that the radiative decay probably dominates over other nonradiative decay channels in the PL experiments. Our results reveal the great potential of thin-film BP in future widely tunable, mid-infrared light-emitting and lasing applications.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922387

RESUMO

Having a sizable band gap and high carrier mobility, black phosphorus (BP) is a promising two-dimensional material for high-frequency electronic and optoelectronic devices. Further, for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operating at high frequencies, they must have a top gate of submicron length instead of the commonly used global back gate. However, without the global back gate to electrostatically induce doping in BP, top-gated submicron BP MOSFETs have not reached their full potential mainly due to large contact resistances. Here, we report top-gated submicron BP MOSFETs with local contact bias electrodes to induce doping in the contact region. This resulted in reduced contact resistance and, in turn, orders of magnitude improvement in current capacity (>500 µA/µm) and peak transconductance (>40 µS/µm), if compared with top-gated BP transistors without any back-gating scheme. In turn, these improvements resulted in a forward current gain cutoff frequency of 37 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation of 22 GHz at room temperature, the highest reported for BP MOSFETs up to date.

4.
ACS Nano ; 13(7): 7771-7779, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188552

RESUMO

Light-matter interaction at the atomic scale rules fundamental phenomena such as photoemission and lasing while enabling basic everyday technologies, including photovoltaics and optical communications. In this context, plasmons, the collective electron oscillations in conducting materials, are important because they allow the manipulation of optical fields at the nanoscale. The advent of graphene and other two-dimensional crystals has pushed plasmons down to genuinely atomic dimensions, displaying appealing properties such as a large electrical tunability. However, plasmons in these materials are either too broad or lying at low frequencies, well below the technologically relevant near-infrared regime. Here, we demonstrate sharp near-infrared plasmons in lithographically patterned wafer-scale atomically thin silver crystalline films. Our measured optical spectra reveal narrow plasmons (quality factor of ∼4), further supported by a low sheet resistance comparable to bulk metal in few-atomic-layer silver films down to seven Ag(111) monolayers. Good crystal quality and plasmon narrowness are obtained despite the addition of a thin passivating dielectric, which renders our samples resilient to ambient conditions. The observation of spectrally sharp and strongly confined plasmons in atomically thin silver holds great potential for electro-optical modulation and optical sensing applications.

5.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 1488-1493, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721622

RESUMO

Recently rediscovered layered black phosphorus (BP) provides rich opportunities for investigations of device physics and applications. The band gap of BP is widely tunable by its layer number and a vertical electric field, covering a wide electromagnetic spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. Despite much progress in BP optoelectronics, the fundamental photoluminescence (PL) properties of thin-film BP in mid-infrared have rarely been investigated. Here, we report bright PL emission from thin-film BP (with thickness of 4.5 to 46 nm) from 80 to 300 K. The PL measurements indicate a band gap of 0.308 ± 0.003 eV in 46 nm thick BP at 80 K, and it increases monotonically to 0.334 ± 0.003 eV at 300 K. Such an anomalous blueshift agrees with the previous theoretical and photoconductivity spectroscopy results. However, the observed blueshift of 26 meV from 80 to 300 K is about 60% of the previously reported value. Most importantly, we show that the PL emission intensity from thin-film BP is only a few times weaker than that of an indium arsenide (InAs) multiple quantum well (MQW) structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Finally, we report the thickness-dependent PL spectra in thin-film BP in mid-infrared regime. Our work reveals the mid-infrared light emission properties of thin-film BP, suggesting its promising future in tunable mid-infrared light emitting and lasing applications.

6.
ACS Nano ; 13(1): 552-559, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457832

RESUMO

Light-matter interactions in the van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures exhibit many fascinating properties which can be harnessed to realize optoelectronic applications and probe fundamental physics. Moreover, the electron-phonon interaction in the vdWs heterostructures can have a profound impact on light-matter interaction properties because light excited electrons can strongly couple with phonons in heterostructures. Here, we report symmetry-controlled electron-phonon interactions in engineered two-dimensional (2D) material/silicon dioxide (SiO2) vdWs heterostructures. We observe two Raman modes arising from originally Raman-silent phonon modes in SiO2. The Raman modes have fixed peak positions regardless of the type of 2D materials in the heterostructures. Interestingly, such Raman emissions exhibit various symmetry properties in heterostructures with 2D materials of different crystalline structures, controlled by their intrinsic electronic band properties. In particular, we reveal chiral Raman emissions with reversed helicity in contrast to that of typical valley polarization in honeycomb 2D materials due to the phonon-assisted excitonic intervalley scattering process induced by electron-hole exchange interaction. The observation of the symmetry-controlled Raman scattering process not only provides a deep insight into the microscopic mechanisms of electron-phonon interactions in vdWs heterostructures but also may lead to the realization of valley-phononic devices.

7.
Nat Mater ; 17(11): 1048, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202113

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, the units of the right-hand y axis of Fig. 2a were incorrectly labelled as mS; they should have been µS. Also, the x-axis tick marks of Fig. 3b should have been aligned with Fig. 3a,c. These have now been corrected.

8.
Nat Mater ; 17(11): 986-992, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150622

RESUMO

Optical excitation and subsequent decay of graphene plasmons can produce a significant increase in charge-carrier temperature. An efficient method to convert this temperature elevation into electrical signals can enable important mid-infrared applications. However, the modest thermoelectric coefficient and weak temperature dependence of carrier transport in graphene hinder this goal. Here, we demonstrate mid-infrared graphene detectors consisting of arrays of plasmonic resonators interconnected by quasi-one-dimensional nanoribbons. Localized barriers associated with disorder in the nanoribbons produce a dramatic temperature dependence of carrier transport, thus enabling the electrical detection of plasmon decay in the nearby graphene resonators. Our device has a subwavelength footprint of 5 × 5 µm2 and operates at 12.2 µm with an external responsivity of 16 mA W-1 and a low noise-equivalent power of 1.3 nW Hz-1/2 at room temperature. It is fabricated using large-scale graphene and possesses a simple two-terminal geometry, representing an essential step towards the realization of an on-chip graphene mid-infrared detector array.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(5): 057404, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118298

RESUMO

Nanoscale photothermal sources find important applications in theranostics, imaging, and catalysis. In this context, graphene offers a unique suite of optical, electrical, and thermal properties, which we exploit to show self-consistent active photothermal modulation of its nanoscale response. In particular, we predict the existence of plasmons confined to the optical landscape tailored by continuous-wave external-light pumping of homogeneous graphene. This result relies on the high electron temperatures achievable in optically pumped clean graphene while its lattice remains near ambient temperature. Our study opens a new avenue toward the active optical control of the nanophotonic response in graphene with potential application in photothermal devices.

10.
ACS Nano ; 12(5): 5003-5010, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714472

RESUMO

A high saturation velocity semiconductor is appealing for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Thin-film black phosphorus (BP), an emerging layered semiconductor, shows a high carrier mobility and strong mid-infrared photoresponse at room temperature. Here, we report the observation of high intrinsic saturation velocity in 7 to 11 nm thick BP for both electrons and holes as a function of charge-carrier density, temperature, and crystalline direction. We distinguish a drift velocity transition point due to the competition between the electron-impurity and electron-phonon scatterings. We further achieve a room-temperature saturation velocity of 1.2 (1.0) × 107 cm s-1 for hole (electron) carriers at a critical electric field of 14 (13) kV cm-1, indicating an intrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency ∼20 GHz·µm for radio frequency applications. Moreover, the current density is as high as 580 µA µm-1 at a low electric field of 10 kV cm-1. Our studies demonstrate that thin-film BP outperforms silicon in terms of saturation velocity and critical field, revealing its great potential in radio-frequency electronics, high-speed mid-infrared photodetectors, and optical modulators.

11.
Adv Mater ; 30(18): e1706076, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573299

RESUMO

For the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), the electrical properties of catalysts can play an important role in influencing the overall catalytic activity. This is particularly important for semiconducting HER catalysts such as MoS2 , which has been extensively studied over the last decade. Herein, on-chip microreactors on two model catalysts, semiconducting MoS2 and semimetallic WTe2 , are employed to extract the effects of individual factors and study their relations with the HER catalytic activity. It is shown that electron injection at the catalyst/current collector interface and intralayer and interlayer charge transport within the catalyst can be more important than thermodynamic energy considerations. For WTe2 , the site-dependent activities and the relations of the pure thermodynamics to the overall activity are measured and established, as the microreactors allow precise measurements of the type and area of the catalytic sites. The approach presents opportunities to study electrochemical reactions systematically to help establish rational design principles for future electrocatalysts.

12.
Nano Lett ; 18(5): 3172-3179, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584948

RESUMO

Layered black phosphorus (BP) has attracted wide attention for mid-infrared photonics and high-speed electronics, due to its moderate band gap and high carrier mobility. However, its intrinsic band gap of around 0.33 electronvolt limits the operational wavelength range of BP photonic devices based on direct interband transitions to around 3.7 µm. In this work, we demonstrate that black arsenic phosphorus alloy (b-As xP1- x) formed by introducing arsenic into BP can significantly extend the operational wavelength range of photonic devices. The as-fabricated b-As0.83P0.17 photodetector sandwiched within hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) shows peak extrinsic responsivity of 190, 16, and 1.2 mA/W at 3.4, 5.0, and 7.7 µm at room temperature, respectively. Moreover, the intrinsic photoconductive effect dominates the photocurrent generation mechanism due to the preservation of pristine properties of b-As0.83P0.17 by complete hBN encapsulation, and these b-As0.83P0.17 photodetectors exhibit negligible transport hysteresis. The broad and large photoresponsivity within mid-infrared resulting from the intrinsic photoconduction, together with the excellent long-term air stability, makes b-As0.83P0.17 alloy a promising alternative material for mid-infrared applications, such as free-space communication, infrared imaging, and biomedical sensing.

13.
Adv Mater ; 30(6)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314276

RESUMO

Black phosphorus (BP) has recently attracted significant attention due to its exceptional physical properties. Currently, high-quality few-layer and thin-film BP are produced primarily by mechanical exfoliation, limiting their potential in future applications. Here, the synthesis of highly crystalline thin-film BP on 5 mm sapphire substrates by conversion from red to black phosphorus at 700 °C and 1.5 GPa is demonstrated. The synthesized ≈50 nm thick BP thin films are polycrystalline with a crystal domain size ranging from 40 to 70 µm long, as indicated by Raman mapping and infrared extinction spectroscopy. At room temperature, field-effect mobility of the synthesized BP thin film is found to be around 160 cm2 V-1 s-1 along armchair direction and reaches up to about 200 cm2 V-1 s-1 at around 90 K. Moreover, red phosphorus (RP) covered by exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) before conversion shows atomically sharp hBN/BP interface and perfectly layered BP after the conversion. This demonstration represents a critical step toward the future realization of large scale, high-quality BP devices and circuits.

14.
Nano Lett ; 17(12): 7330-7338, 2017 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110483

RESUMO

Recently, two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic perovskites emerged as an alternative material for their three-dimensional (3D) counterparts in photovoltaic applications with improved moisture resistance. Here, we report a stable, high-gain phototransistor consisting of a monolayer graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) covered by a 2D multiphase perovskite heterostructure, which was realized using a newly developed two-step ligand exchange method. In this phototransistor, the multiple phases with varying bandgap in 2D perovskite thin films are aligned for the efficient electron-hole pair separation, leading to a high responsivity of ∼105 A W-1 at 532 nm. Moreover, the designed phase alignment method aggregates more hydrophobic butylammonium cations close to the upper surface of the 2D perovskite thin film, preventing the permeation of moisture and enhancing the device stability dramatically. In addition, faster photoresponse and smaller 1/f noise observed in the 2D perovskite phototransistors indicate a smaller density of deep hole traps in the 2D perovskite thin film compared with their 3D counterparts. These desirable properties not only improve the performance of the phototransistor, but also provide a new direction for the future enhancement of the efficiency of 2D perovskite photovoltaics.

15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1672, 2017 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162821

RESUMO

Lately rediscovered orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) exhibits promising properties for near- and mid-infrared optoelectronics. Although recent electrical measurements indicate that a vertical electric field can effectively reduce its transport bandgap, the impact of the electric field on light-matter interaction remains unclear. Here we show that a vertical electric field can dynamically extend the photoresponse in a 5 nm-thick BP photodetector from 3.7 to beyond 7.7 µm, leveraging the Stark effect. We further demonstrate that such a widely tunable BP photodetector exhibits a peak extrinsic photo-responsivity of 518, 30, and 2.2 mA W-1 at 3.4, 5, and 7.7 µm, respectively, at 77 K. Furthermore, the extracted photo-carrier lifetime indicates a potential operational speed of 1.3 GHz. Our work not only demonstrates the potential of BP as an alternative mid-infrared material with broad optical tunability but also may enable the compact, integrated on-chip high-speed mid-infrared photodetectors, modulators, and spectrometers.

16.
Sci Adv ; 3(7): e1602783, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695202

RESUMO

Miniaturization of optoelectronic devices offers tremendous performance gain. As the volume of photoactive material decreases, optoelectronic performance improves, including the operation speed, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the internal quantum efficiency. Over the past decades, researchers have managed to reduce the volume of photoactive materials in solar cells and photodetectors by orders of magnitude. However, two issues arise when one continues to thin down the photoactive layers to the nanometer scale (for example, <50 nm). First, light-matter interaction becomes weak, resulting in incomplete photon absorption and low quantum efficiency. Second, it is difficult to obtain ultrathin materials with single-crystalline quality. We introduce a method to overcome these two challenges simultaneously. It uses conventional bulk semiconductor wafers, such as Si, Ge, and GaAs, to realize single-crystalline films on foreign substrates that are designed for enhanced light-matter interaction. We use a high-yield and high-throughput method to demonstrate nanometer-thin photodetectors with significantly enhanced light absorption based on nanocavity interference mechanism. These single-crystalline nanomembrane photodetectors also exhibit unique optoelectronic properties, such as the strong field effect and spectral selectivity.

17.
Adv Mater ; 29(31)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621022

RESUMO

Graphene plasmons are known to offer an unprecedented level of confinement and enhancement of electromagnetic field. They are hence amenable to interacting strongly with various other excitations (for example, phonons) in their surroundings and are an ideal platform to study the properties of hybrid optical modes. Conversely, the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles can in turn interact with electronic degrees of freedom in graphene, including the collective plasmon modes via the Coulomb interaction, which opens up new pathways to manipulate and control the behavior of these modes. This study demonstrates tunable electrothermal control of coupling between graphene mid-infrared (mid-IR) plasmons and IR active optical phonons in silicon nitride. This study utilizes graphene nanoribbons functioning as both localized plasmonic resonators and local Joule heaters upon application of an external bias. In the latter role, they achieve up to ≈100 K of temperature variation within the device area. This study observes increased modal splitting of two plasmon-phonon polariton hybrid modes with temperature, which is a manifestation of increased plasmon-phonon coupling strength. Additionally, this study also reports on the existence of a thermally excited hybrid plasmon-phonon mode. This work can open the door for future optoelectronic devices such as electrically switchable graphene mid-infrared plasmon sources.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14474, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422160

RESUMO

Recently rediscovered black phosphorus is a layered semiconductor with promising electronic and photonic properties. Dynamic control of its bandgap can allow for the exploration of new physical phenomena. However, theoretical investigations and photoemission spectroscopy experiments indicate that in its few-layer form, an exceedingly large electric field in the order of several volts per nanometre is required to effectively tune its bandgap, making the direct electrical control unfeasible. Here we reveal the unique thickness-dependent bandgap tuning properties in intrinsic black phosphorus, arising from the strong interlayer electronic-state coupling. Furthermore, leveraging a 10 nm-thick black phosphorus, we continuously tune its bandgap from ∼300 to below 50 meV, using a moderate displacement field up to 1.1 V nm-1. Such dynamic tuning of bandgap may not only extend the operational wavelength range of tunable black phosphorus photonic devices, but also pave the way for the investigation of electrically tunable topological insulators and semimetals.

19.
ACS Nano ; 10(12): 11172-11178, 2016 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024379

RESUMO

Plasmons in graphene nanostructures show great promise for mid-infrared applications ranging from a few to tens of microns. However, mid-infrared plasmonic resonances in graphene nanostructures are usually weak and narrow-banded, limiting their potential in light manipulation and detection. Here, we investigate the coupling among graphene plasmonic nanostructures and further show that, by engineering the coupling, enhancement of light-graphene interaction strength and broadening of spectral width can be achieved simultaneously. Leveraging the concept of coupling, we demonstrate a hybrid two-layer graphene nanoribbon array which shows 5-7% extinction within the entire 8-14 µm (∼700-1250 cm-1) wavelength range, covering one of the important atmosphere "infrared transmission windows". Such coupled hybrid graphene plasmonic nanostructures may find applications in infrared sensing and free-space communications.

20.
ACS Nano ; 10(11): 10428-10435, 2016 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27794601

RESUMO

Nonvolatile charge-trap memory plays an important role in many modern electronics technologies, from portable electronic systems to large-scale data centers. Conventional charge-trap memory devices typically work with fixed channel carrier polarity and device characteristics. However, many emerging applications in reconfigurable electronics and neuromorphic computing require dynamically tunable properties in their electronic device components that can lead to enhanced circuit versatility and system functionalities. Here, we demonstrate an ambipolar black phosphorus (BP) charge-trap memory device with dynamically reconfigurable and polarity-reversible memory behavior. This BP memory device shows versatile memory properties subject to electrostatic bias. Not only the programmed/erased state current ratio can be continuously tuned by the back-gate bias, but also the polarity of the carriers in the BP channel can be reversibly switched between electron- and hole-dominated conductions, resulting in the erased and programmed states exhibiting interchangeable high and low current levels. The BP memory also shows four different memory states and, hence, 2-bit per cell data storage for both n-type and p-type channel conductions, demonstrating the multilevel cell storage capability in a layered material based memory device. The BP memory device with a high mobility and tunable programmed/erased state current ratio and highly reconfigurable device characteristics can offer adaptable memory device properties for many emerging applications in electronics technology, such as neuromorphic computing, data-adaptive energy efficient memory, and dynamically reconfigurable digital circuits.

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