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1.
Org Lett ; 21(20): 8414-8418, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596598

RESUMO

A regioselective radical hydroboration of gem-difluoroalkenes was developed for the synthesis of α-difluoroalkylborons. The reaction features excellent regioselectivity, broad substrate scope, and good functional group capability. DFT calculations implicated the remarkable α-selectivity was driven from the kinetically and thermodynamically more favorable α-addition step. The resulting α-difluoroalkylborons could be readily converted into NHC-borane-tethered monofluoroalkenes, which demonstrated unique reactivity and applicability in the synthesis of monofluoroalkene derivatives through transformations of the boron unit.

2.
World J Pediatr ; 15(5): 483-491, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth weight is a strong determinant of infant short- and long-term health outcomes. Family socioeconomic position (SEP) is usually positively associated with birth weight. Whether this association extends to abnormal birth weight or there exists potential mediator is unclear. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14,984 mother-infant dyads from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of a composite family SEP score quartile with macrosomia and low birth weight (LBW), and examined the potential mediation effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of macrosomia and LBW was 2.62% (n = 392) and 4.26% (n = 638). Higher family SEP was associated with a higher risk of macrosomia (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.82; OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11; and OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.20 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively) and a lower risk of LBW (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94; and OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.77 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively), compared to the 1st SEP quartile. We found that pre-pregnancy BMI did not mediate the associations of SEP with macrosomia and LBW. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in fetal macrosomia and LBW exist in Southern China. Whether the results can be applied to other populations should be further investigated.

3.
Pediatr Res ; 86(4): 529-536, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies proposed that there were racial or ethnic disparities in fetal growth, challenging the use of international standards in specific populations. This study was to evaluate the validity of applying the INTERGROWTH-21st standard to a Chinese population for identifying abnormal head circumference (HC), in comparison with a newly generated local reference. METHODS: There were 24,257 singletons delivered by low-risk mothers in four perinatal health-care centers in Southern China. New HC reference was constructed and comparison in distribution of HC categories was performed between the INTERGROWTH-21st standard and new reference after applying these two tools in study population. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between abnormal HC and adverse neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: There were 4.40% of the newborns identified with microcephaly (HC > 2 standard deviation below the mean) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard, comparing to the proportion of 2.83% using new reference. The newborns identified with microcephaly only by the INTERGROWTH-21st standard were not at a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome, compared with those identified as non-microcephaly by both tools (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.47-1.13). CONCLUSION: The new HC reference may be more appropriate for newborn assessment in Chinese populations than the INTERGROWTH-21st standard.

4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(25): 6153-6157, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169277

RESUMO

A direct Csp3-H methylenation of 2-arylacetamides using DMF/Me2NH-BH3 as the methylene source was developed. The formyl group of DMF delivered the carbon and one hydrogen atoms, and the Me2NH-BH3 donated the remaining one hydrogen atom. This protocol offers a new alternative to make useful 2-arylacrylamides from simple starting materials.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e027224, 2019 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a paediatric infectious disease that is particularly prevalent in China. Severe HFMDs characterised by neurological involvement are fatal and survivors who have apparently fully recovered might still be afflicted later in life with neurocognitive impairments. Only when a well-designed, prospective cohort study is in place can we develop clinical tools for early warning of neurological involvement and can we obtain epidemiological evidence regarding the lingering effects of the sequelea. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, hospital-based cohort study is underway in Guangzhou, China. Clinical data and biosamples from hospitalised children (<14 years of age) with an admission diagnosis of HFMD will be collected to determine risk factors for subsequent neurological involvement. Clinical tools for early detection of severe HFMDs will be developed by integrating clinical and biological information. Questionnaire surveys and neurocognitive assessments will be conducted at discharge and each year in the first 2 years of follow-up and every 2 years afterwards until study participants turn 16 years of age or show no evidence of neurocognitive deficits. The association between childhood enterovirus infection and neurocognitive impairment later in life will be examined. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: A written informed consent from parents/guardians is a prerequisite for study entry. The protocol of this study has been approved by the hospital's ethics committee. Data usage follows the rules of the hospital's data oversight committee. Findings of this study will be disseminated through publications in international peer-reviewed journals and will be presented in academic conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-EOC-17013293; Pre-results.

6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2018 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between progesterone concentration in early pregnancy and duration of pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study from 2013-2014, with a singleton pregnancy, who had serum progesterone measured at least one time between 4 and 10 weeks of gestation were included. The association between progesterone concentration both continuous and as categorical variable (quartile) and the risk of preterm delivery was assessed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences of length of gestation in four progesterone concentration quartiles were assessed using the Log-rank test. RESULTS: We studied 1860 mother-newborn pairs. The mean overall progesterone concentration was 65.7 ± 21.3 nmol/L, with mean progesterone concentrations in the four quartiles of 42.4 ± 6.2 nmol/L (n = 463), 56.2 ± 3.3 nmol/L (n = 462), 68.9 ± 4.5 nmol/L (n = 470), and 95.1 ± 15.3 nmol/L (n = 465). There was no significantly difference in duration of gestation in four progesterone concentration groups (p=.511). There was no relation between progesterone level and preterm delivery (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 10 nmol/l progesterone level 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 1.11)). After adjusting for potential confounders, the HR of any preterm delivery for quartiles 1, 2 and 3 versus the highest quartile of progesterone level (> 77.3 nmol/L) was 1.04 (95% CI 0.52, 2.07), 1.17 (95% CI 0.60, 2.28), and 1.46 (95% CI 0.76, 2.78), respectively. When analysis was done for spontaneous preterm delivery only, also no association with first trimester progesterone was found. CONCLUSION: Lower first trimester serum progesterone concentration is not associated with reduction of length of gestation or increased risk of preterm delivery.

7.
J Clin Med ; 7(8)2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060450

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) is the leading cause of death in children <5 years of age. Early risk prediction for PTB would enable early monitoring and intervention. However, such prediction models have been rarely reported, especially in low- and middle-income areas. We used data on a number of easily accessible predictors during early pregnancy from 9044 women in Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China to generate prediction models for overall PTB and spontaneous, iatrogenic, late (34⁻36 weeks), and early (<34 weeks) PTB. Models were constructed using the Cox proportional hazard model, and their performance was evaluated by Harrell's c and D statistics and calibration plot. We further performed a systematic review to identify published models and validated them in our population. Our new prediction models had moderate discrimination, with Harrell's c statistics ranging from 0.60⁻0.66 for overall and subtypes of PTB. Significant predictors included maternal age, height, history of preterm delivery, amount of vaginal bleeding, folic acid intake before pregnancy, and passive smoking during pregnancy. Calibration plots showed good fit for all models except for early PTB. We validated three published models, all of which were from studies conducted in high-income countries; the area under receiver operating characteristic for these models ranged from 0.50 to 0.56. Based on early pregnancy characteristics, our models have moderate predictive ability for PTB. Future studies should consider inclusion of laboratory markers for the prediction of PTB.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(29): 3260-3272, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090006

RESUMO

AIM: To analyze the expression and function of the Notch signaling target gene Hes1 in a rhesus rotavirus-induced mouse biliary atresia model. METHODS: The morphologies of biliary epithelial cells in biliary atresia patients and in a mouse model were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Then, the differential expression of Notch signaling pathway-related molecules was investigated. Further, the effects of the siRNA-mediated inhibition of Hes1 expression were examined using a biliary epithelial cell 3D culture system. RESULTS: Both immature (EpCAM+) and mature (CK19+) biliary epithelial cells were detected in the livers of biliary atresia patients without a ductile structure and in the mouse model with a distorted bile duct structure. The hepatic expression of transcripts for most Notch signaling molecules were significantly reduced on day 7 but recovered to normal levels by day 14, except for the target molecule Hes1, which still exhibited lower mRNA and protein levels. Expression of the Hes1 transcriptional co-regulator, RBP-Jκ was also reduced. A 3D gel culture system promoted the maturation of immature biliary epithelial cells, with increased expression of CK19+ cells and the formation of a duct-like structure. The administration of Hes1 siRNA blocked this process. As a result, the cells remained in an immature state, and no duct-like structure was observed. CONCLUSION: Our data indicated that Hes1 might contribute to the maturation and the cellular structure organization of biliary epithelial cells, which provides new insight into understanding the pathology of biliary atresia.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/patologia , Atresia Biliar/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1/metabolismo , Animais , Ductos Biliares/citologia , Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Atresia Biliar/virologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Cisto do Colédoco/patologia , Cisto do Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1/genética
9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(36): 11770-11775, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968283

RESUMO

A new and practical α-monomethylation strategy using an amine-borane/N,N-dimethylformamide (R3 N-BH3 /DMF) system as the methyl source was developed. This protocol has been found to be effective in the α-monomethylation of arylacetonitriles and arylacetamides. Mechanistic studies revealed that the formyl group of DMF delivered the carbon and one hydrogen atoms of the methyl group, and R3 N-BH3 donated the remaining two hydrogen atoms. Such a unique reaction pathway enabled controllable assemblies of CDH2 -, CD2 H-, and CD3 - units using Me2 NH-BH3 /d7 -DMF, Me3 N-BD3 /DMF and Me3 N-BD3 /d7 -DMF systems, respectively. Further application of this method to the facile synthesis of anti-inflammatory flurbiprofen and its varied deuterium-labeled derivatives was demonstrated.

10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 120, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma. This study aimed to quantify the effect of early life vitamin D status on asthma and wheeze later in life. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and CNKI databases, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar were searched up to July 2017. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies with vitamin D level in blood (maternal or cord or infant) or intake (maternal intake during pregnancy or infant intake) and asthma and/or wheeze. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to summarize the risk estimates of comparisons between highest vs. lowest vitamin D categories. RESULTS: Of the 1485 studies identified, three RCTs and 33 cohort studies were included. We did not include the RCTs (1619 participants) in the meta-analysis as the comparators and outcome definitions were heterogenous. Three RCTs reported a non-statistically significant effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on offspring wheeze/asthma at 3 years of age. Pooled estimates of cohort studies suggest no association between antenatal blood vitamin D levels or vitamin D intake and offspring asthma assessed either > 5 years or ≤ 5 years. The estimate for blood vitamin D remained unchanged when two studies assessing asthma in adulthood were excluded, but a significant inverse association emerged between vitamin D intake and childhood asthma. We found no association between antenatal vitamin D level and wheeze. On the other hand, vitamin D intake during pregnancy may have a protective effect against wheeze. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled estimates from cohort studies show no association between antenatal blood vitamin D level and asthma/wheeze in later life. Whereas, the pooled estimates from cohort studies suggest that antenatal vitamin D intake may have an effect on childhood asthma > 5 years or childhood wheeze. The inconsistent results from studies assessing vitamin D either in blood or intake may be explained by previously reported non-linear association between blood vitamin D3 and childhood asthma. Further trials with enough power and longer follow-up time should be conducted to confirm the results.


Assuntos
Asma/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia
11.
J Affect Disord ; 238: 418-423, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between a composite measure of family socio-economic position (SEP)2 and depressive symptoms among Chinese pregnant women, nor any potential underlying mechanisms which may be amenable to preventative interventions. METHODS: We investigated the association between a composite SEP measure and depressive symptoms during early pregnancy, and tested for mediation by social support and moderation by parity in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (n = 12,382) using adjusted logistic regression and causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: In this population, 18.4% of women experienced depressive symptoms before the 20th gestational week. Compared with the highest quartile, the lowest SEP score quartile was associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.31-1.71), which was more pronounced among multiparous women than nulliparous women (P for interaction <0.001). Social support mediated the association between SEP and depressive symptoms, with greater proportion mediated in nulliparous women (73.4% for the lowest SEP score quartile) than multiparous women (30.5%). LIMITATIONS: Depressive symptoms were measured by Self-rated Depression Scale, which is not designed as a clinical diagnosis tool for depression. We only had information on perceived social support but not actual social support, although these two parameters were modestly correlated. CONCLUSION: Lower SEP was associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in pregnant women, driven by social support. And the association between SEP and depressive symptoms and mediation by social support were modified by parity. Whether this association extends to the post pregnancy period or is amenable to cost-effective interventions should be investigated in further studies.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Percepção , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social
12.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1067, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922247

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is associated with severe neurological defects in fetuses and newborns, such as microcephaly. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, proteomic analysis on ZIKV-infected primary human fetal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) revealed that virus infection altered levels of cellular proteins involved in NPC proliferation, differentiation and migration. The transcriptional levels of some of the altered targets were also confirmed by qRT-PCR. Among the altered proteins, doublecortin (DCX) plays an important role in NPC differentiation and migration. Results showed that ZIKV infection downregulated DCX, at both mRNA and protein levels, as early as 1 day post infection (1 dpi), and lasted throughout the virus replication cycle (4 days). The downregulation of DCX was also observed in a ZIKV-infected fetal mouse brain model, which displayed decreased body weight, brain size and weight, as well as defective cortex structure. By screening the ten viral proteins of ZIKV, we found that both the expression of NS4A and NS5 were correlated with the downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of DCX in NPCs. These data suggest that DCX is modulated following infection of the brain by ZIKV. How these observed changes of DCX expression translate in the pathological consequences of ZIKV infection and if other cellular proteins are equally involved remains to be investigated.

13.
J Virol ; 92(17)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950413

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental damage caused by virus infections remain poorly defined. Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the leading cause of fetal brain development disorders. Previous work has linked HCMV infection to perturbations of neural cell fate, including premature differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we show that HCMV infection of NPCs results in loss of the SOX2 protein, a key pluripotency-associated transcription factor. SOX2 depletion maps to the HCMV major immediate early (IE) transcription unit and is individually mediated by the IE1 and IE2 proteins. IE1 causes SOX2 downregulation by promoting the nuclear accumulation and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, a transcriptional activator of SOX2 expression. Deranged signaling resulting in depletion of a critical stem cell protein is an unanticipated mechanism by which the viral major IE proteins may contribute to brain development disorders caused by congenital HCMV infection.IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are a leading cause of brain damage, hearing loss, and other neurological disabilities in children. We report that the HCMV proteins known as IE1 and IE2 target expression of human SOX2, a central pluripotency-associated transcription factor that governs neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate and is required for normal brain development. Both during HCMV infection and when expressed alone, IE1 causes the loss of SOX2 from NPCs. IE1 mediates SOX2 depletion by targeting STAT3, a critical upstream regulator of SOX2 expression. Our findings reveal an unanticipated mechanism by which a common virus may cause damage to the developing nervous system and suggest novel targets for medical intervention.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
14.
J Pediatr Surg ; 53(9): 1716-1721, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital intestinal anomaly resulting from a failure to form enteric ganglia in the lower bowel. Surgery is the main therapeutic strategy, although neural stem cell transplantation has recently shown promise. However, HD remains a challenging disorder to treat. Our aim was to identify drugs that could counteract the dysregulated pathways in HD and could thus be potential novel therapies. METHODS: We used microarray analysis to identify genes differentially expressed in ganglionic and aganglionic bowel samples from eight children with HD. The signature of differentially expressed genes was then used as a search query to explore the Connectivity Map (cMAP), a transcriptional expression database that catalogs gene signatures elicited by chemical perturbagens. RESULTS: We uncovered several dysregulated signaling pathways, and in particular regulation of neuron development, in HD. The cMAP search identified some compounds with the potential to counteract the effects of the dysregulated molecular signature in this disease. One of these, pepstatin A, was recently shown to rescue the migration defects observed in a mouse model of HD, providing strong support for our findings. CONCLUSIONS: This study advances our understanding of the molecular changes in HD and identifies several potential pharmacological interventions. Further testing of the identified compounds is warranted.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Transcriptoma , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Doença de Hirschsprung/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , RNA/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619087

RESUMO

Objective: The overall impact of maternal hyperglycemia on maternal and birth outcomes is largely underestimated, therefore quantifying the true burden of hyperglycemia in a whole population it is a challenging task. This study aims at examining the association between blood glucose concentration during pregnancy and a composite score of adverse maternal-birth outcomes in a large-scale prospective cohort study in China. Methods: Pregnant women within "the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study" China who underwent a standard 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance-test (OGTT) between 22 and 28 gestational weeks were included. A composite score of stillbirth, duration of pregnancy, birth weight, preeclampsia, and cesarean section was developed based on a published maternal-fetal outcomes scale, weighed by the relative severity of the outcomes. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between OGTT glucose measurements and log composite score. Logistic regression models were used to assess relations with outcome as a categorical variable (0, 1- < 3, and ≥3). Findings: Among 12,129 pregnancies, the composite score ranged from 0 to 100 with a median of 2.5 for non-zero values. Elevated fasting glucose level was associated with higher composite score (adjusted coefficients 0.03 [95% CI, 0.02-0.04] for 1-SD increase). For 1-SD increase in fasting glucose, the risk of having a composite score 1- < 3 and ≥3 rises by 13% (95% CI, 8-17%) and 15% (95% CI, 7-23%), respectively. Similar association and increase in risk was found for 1 and 2-h glucose. Conclusion: Elevated fasting, 1 and 2-h glucose levels are associated with a range of adverse maternal-birth outcomes. The composite score model can be applied to the risk assessment for individual pregnant women and to evaluate the benefits for controlling glucose levels in the population.

16.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(11): 6230-6237, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622795

RESUMO

Background: Severe pectus excavatum (PE) may be concomitant with congenital cystic lung lesions (CCLLs) that also require surgery. It is ideal to correct these two deformities concurrently, but the safety and efficacy of a simultaneous surgical technique remain unknown. Methods: Between 2007 and 2017, 635 patients with severe PE were admitted at our medical center. Eight patients underwent minimally invasive repair of PE and lobectomy simultaneously. The patient characteristics and operative data were analyzed and compared with another group of patients who underwent lobectomy alone for contemporaneous CCLLs. Results: The severity of PE (mean Haller index 5.70) and CCLLs were confirmed by computed tomography (CT). Simultaneous minimally invasive repair and lobectomy were performed successfully. There were no significant differences in the mean blood loss (14 mL/kg), the mean weaning time from mechanical ventilation (900 minutes) and the mean hospital stay (16 days) (P>0.05). The mean operative time (170 minutes) was extended, as expected (P=0.02). With a mean follow-up of 22 months, the overall cosmetic results were good. Conclusions: Simultaneous minimally invasive repair and lobectomy appears to be a technically safe and reliable method for the treatment of concurrent PE and CCLLs, although further studies are needed in the long-term follow-up.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 610-611: 1421-1427, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859274

RESUMO

Incense burning is a popular practice in Asian and Arabic countries. Previous studies show that incense burning was associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes among non-pregnant population. However, very few studies explored its health effects among pregnant women, who are more susceptible to environmental stressor. We aimed to examine the association between incense burning at home and hypertensive disorders as well as blood pressure levels during pregnancy, using data from 10,563 pregnant women recruited in Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China between January 2013 and December 2015. Information on frequency and duration of exposure to incense burning were collected at early and late pregnancy using questionnaire. Data on outcome variables, including hypertensive disorders diagnosis and blood pressure levels at the final antenatal visit before delivery, were extracted from medical records. We used Poisson regression model and general linear model to examine the associations between incense exposure and the outcomes. We found incense use at early pregnancy was not significantly associated with outcomes. Pregnant women who frequently smelled the incense burning at late pregnancy was associated with higher risk of hypertensive disorders (relative risk, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.98) and higher levels of blood pressure (1.6mmHg increase of systolic blood pressure; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-2.8mmHg) before delivery, compared to those did not burn incense. These associations tended to more evident among women without active and passive smoking. We did not observe significant dose-response relationship between exposure duration and the risk of hypertensive disorders. We firstly reported exposure to incense burning was associated with the risk of hypertensive disorders and blood pressure levels during pregnancy. Given hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are well-established risk factors for a variety of adverse outcomes and the incense burning is a modifiable factor, our finding may have important public health significance.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumaça/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatrics ; 140(6)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interventions to prevent childhood obesity targeting school age children have mostly reported limited effectiveness, suggesting such prevention programs may need to start at an earlier age, but evidence has been scarce. We reported a pilot study aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a multifaceted intervention for preschool children and to provide a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness. METHODS: This nonrandomized controlled trial recruited children aged 3 to 6 years from 6 kindergartens in Guangzhou, China. Based on the preference of the School and Parents Committees, 4 kindergartens (648 children) received a 3-component intervention (training of kindergarten staff, initiating healthy curriculum for children, and close collaboration between families and kindergartens) over 12 months, while the other 2 kindergartens (336 children), serving as controls, received routine health care provision. Outcome measures were the changes in BMI z score between baseline and the end of 12 months, and the prevalence of postintervention children who were overweight or obese. RESULTS: By 12 months, children within the intervention group had a smaller BMI z score increase (0.24) compared to the control (0.41), with a difference of -0.31 (95% CI -0.47 to -0.15). The prevalence of overweight or obesity was also lower among the intervention group at the end of the study (OR: 0.43, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.96), adjusted for baseline status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a multicomponent health behavior intervention might be effective in reducing the prevalence of obesity, but the longer term effects will need confirmation from randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/educação , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Gigascience ; 6(8): 1-12, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873967

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome can modulate metabolic health and affect insulin resistance, and it may play an important role in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 43 GDM patients and 81 healthy pregnant women via whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of their fecal samples, collected at 21-29 weeks, to explore associations between GDM and the composition of microbial taxonomic units and functional genes. A metagenome-wide association study identified 154 837 genes, which clustered into 129 metagenome linkage groups (MLGs) for species description, with significant relative abundance differences between the 2 cohorts. Parabacteroides distasonis, Klebsiella variicola, etc., were enriched in GDM patients, whereas Methanobrevibacter smithii, Alistipes spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium spp. were enriched in controls. The ratios of the gross abundances of GDM-enriched MLGs to control-enriched MLGs were positively correlated with blood glucose levels. A random forest model shows that fecal MLGs have excellent discriminatory power to predict GDM status. Our study discovered novel relationships between the gut microbiome and GDM status and suggests that changes in microbial composition may potentially be used to identify individuals at risk for GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Gravidez , Curva ROC
20.
Mol Neurodegener ; 12(1): 38, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 129 (H129) has represented a promising anterograde neuronal circuit tracing tool, which complements the existing retrograde tracers. However, the current H129 derived tracers are multisynaptic, neither bright enough to label the details of neurons nor capable of determining direct projection targets as monosynaptic tracer. METHODS: Based on the bacterial artificial chromosome of H129, we have generated a serial of recombinant viruses for neuronal circuit tracing. Among them, H129-G4 was obtained by inserting binary tandemly connected GFP cassettes into the H129 genome, and H129-ΔTK-tdT was obtained by deleting the thymidine kinase (TK) gene and adding tdTomato coding gene to the H129 genome. Then the obtained viral tracers were tested in vitro and in vivo for the tracing capacity. RESULTS: H129-G4 is capable of transmitting through multiple synapses, labeling the neurons by green florescent protein, and visualizing the morphological details of the labeled neurons. H129-ΔTK-tdT neither replicates nor spreads in neurons alone, but transmits to and labels the postsynaptic neurons with tdTomato in the presence of complementary expressed TK from a helper virus. H129-ΔTK-tdT is also capable to map the direct projectome of the specific neuron type in the given brain regions in Cre transgenic mice. In the tested brain regions where circuits are well known, the H129-ΔTK-tdT tracing patterns are consistent with the previous results. CONCLUSIONS: With the assistance of the helper virus complimentarily expressing TK, H129-ΔTK-tdT replicates in the initially infected neuron, transmits anterogradely through one synapse, and labeled the postsynaptic neurons with tdTomato. The H129-ΔTK-tdT anterograde monosynaptic tracing system offers a useful tool for mapping the direct output in neuronal circuitry. H129-G4 is an anterograde multisynaptic tracer with a labeling signal strong enough to display the details of neuron morphology.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Vias Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Animais , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
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