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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metastasis is the leading cause of recurrence in gastric cancer. However, the imaging techniques and pathological examinations for tumor metastasis have a high false-positive rate or a high false-negative rate, and many proposed that metastasis-related molecular biomarkers can hardly be validated in independent datasets. METHODS: We propose to use significantly stable gene pairs with reversal relative expression orderings (REOs) between non-metastasis and metastasis gastric cancer samples as the metastasis-related gene pairs. Based on the REOs of these gene pairs, we developed a qualitative transcriptional signature for predicting the recurrence risk of stages II-III gastric cancer patients after surgical resection. RESULTS: A REOs-based signature, consisting of 19 gene pairs (19-GPS), was selected from 77 stages II-III gastric cancer patients and validated in two independent datasets. Samples in the high-risk group had shorter disease-free survival time and overall survival time than those in the low-risk group. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the high- and low-risk groups classified by 19-GPS were highly reproducible comparing with those between lymph node metastasis and lymph node non-metastasis groups. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in metastasis-related pathways, such as PI3K-Akt and Rap1 signaling pathways. The multi-omics analyses suggested that the epigenetic and genomic features might cause transcriptional differences between two subgroups, which help to characterize the mechanism of gastric cancer metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: The signature could robustly identify patients at high recurrence risk after resection surgery, and the multi-omics analyses might aid in revealing the metastasis-related characteristics of gastric cancer.

2.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386704

RESUMO

CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonists that disrupt CCR2/MCP-1 interaction are expected to treat a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The lack of CCR2 crystal structure limits the application of structure-based drug design (SBDD) to this target. Although a few three-dimensional theoretical models have been reported, their accuracy remains to be improved in terms of templates and modeling approaches. In this study, we developed a unique ligand-steered strategy for CCR2 homology modeling. It starts with an initial model based on the X-ray structure of the closest homolog so far, that is, CXCR4. Then, it uses Elastic Network Normal Mode Analysis (EN-NMA) and flexible docking (FD) by AutoDock Vina software to generate ligand-induced fit models. It selects optimal model(s) as well as scoring function(s) via extensive evaluation of model performance based on a unique benchmarking set constructed by our in-house tool, that is, MUBD-DecoyMaker. The model of 81_04 presents the optimal enrichment when combined with the scoring function of PMF04, and the proposed binding mode between CCR2 and Teijin lead by this model complies with the reported mutagenesis data. To highlight the advantage of our strategy, we compared it with the only reported ligand-steered strategy for CCR2 homology modeling, that is, Discovery Studio/Ligand Minimization. Lastly, we performed prospective virtual screening based on 81_04 and CCR2 antagonist bioassay. The identification of two hit compounds, that is, E859-1281 and MolPort-007-767-945, validated the efficacy of our model and the ligand-steered strategy.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 187-193, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced decision-making ability in depressive people has been observed both in daily life and experimental behavioral studies. However, the neurobiology of dysfunction in decision-making among depressive people is still unclear. METHODS: The study included 63 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 49 healthy controls (HCs). The balloon analog risk task (BART), a risky decision-making paradigm, was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate how brain activation was modulated by different levels of risk. RESULTS: No significant difference in behavioral performance was found. In prespecified brain regions, the activation of the left ventral stratum (VS) in MDD patients showed reduced modulation by risk levels compared with HCs. No significant group difference was found in prespecified dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). LIMITATIONS: BART did not isolate stages of making a choice and experiencing the outcome of the choice. CONCLUSION: The left VS was less sensitive to risk levels in MDD patients compared with HCs, indicating inefficient reward processing in risky decision-making in MDD.

4.
Theranostics ; 11(2): 805-823, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391506

RESUMO

Rationale: Viruses hijack the host cell machinery to promote viral replication; however, the mechanism by which metabolic reprogramming regulates innate antiviral immunity in the host remains elusive. Herein, we explore how the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and O-linked-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) regulate host antiviral response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. Methods: We conducted a metabolomics assay to evaluate metabolic responses of host cells to HBV infection. We systematically explored the role of HBP and protein O-GlcNAcylation in regulating HBV infection in cell and mouse models. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) target proteins were identified via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Additionally, we also examined uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcNAc biosynthesis and O-GlcNAcylation levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Results: HBV infection upregulated GLUT1 expression on the hepatocyte surface and facilitated glucose uptake, which provides substrates to HBP to synthesize UDP-GlcNAc, leading to an increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation. Pharmacological or transcriptional inhibition of HBP and O-GlcNAcylation promoted HBV replication. Mechanistically, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)-mediated O-GlcNAcylation of sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) on Ser93 stabilizes SAMHD1 and enhances its antiviral activity. Analysis of clinical samples revealed that UDP-GlcNAc level was increased, and SAMHD1 was O-GlcNAcylated in patients with CHB. Conclusions: HBP-mediated O-GlcNAcylation positively regulates host antiviral response against HBV in vitro and in vivo. The findings reveal a link between HBP, O-GlcNAc modification, and innate antiviral immunity by targeting SAMHD1.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 48(12): e1365, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255131
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 167: 279-288, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275969

RESUMO

α-Amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) delay digestion of dietary starch by inhibiting α-amylase in the gut, thereby reducing the postprandial glycemia, which is beneficial to the patients with obesity and diabetes. The proteinaceous α-AIs from wheat can effectively control starch digestion and regulate postprandial hyperglycemia. However, their gastric intolerance remains a challenge, which limits its commercial production and industrial application. In this study, sodium alginate/chitosan aerogels loaded with wheat protein α-AIs were prepared and evaluated as potential transportation and protection matrices for important components in food or pharmaceutical applications. Specifically, the biodegradable aerogel cross-linked with sodium alginate-chitosan-calcium chloride, has a large surface area and open porous structure, which can adsorb staple wheat proteins as an integrated edible material to block around 88,660 U/g of α-amylase activity. The aerogel particles were able to protect the activity of wheat α-AIs in the stomach, leading to the slow passage of the wheat α-AIs through the small intestine to inhibit starch digestion more effectively. Animal experiments further showed that the postprandial blood glucose levels in rats were effectively controlled through delayed increase, after administration of wheat protein-functionalized aerogel particles loaded with wheat α-AIs, which are natural biological macromolecules. This is a novel, safe, and economical method for the prevention and pretreatment of diabetes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269513

RESUMO

The upgrading of plastic waste is one of the grand challenges for the 21 st century owing to its disruptive impact on environment. Here, we show the first example of the catalytic conversion of various aromatic plastic wastes with C-O and/or C-C linkages to arenes (75-85% yield)  via catalytic hydrogenolysis over Ru/Nb 2 O 5  catalyst. This catalyst not only allows the selective conversion of single-component aromatic plastic, and more importantly, enables the simultaneous conversion of a mixture of aromatic plastic to arenes. The excellent performance is attributed to the unique features including: (1) the small sized Ru clusters on Nb 2 O 5  , which prevent the adsorption of aromatic ring and its hydrogenation; (2) the strong oxygen affinity of NbO x species for C-O bond activation and Brønsted acid sites for C-C bond activation. This study offers a catalytic path to integrate aromatic plastic waste back into the supply chain of plastic production under the context of circular economy.

8.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2779-2786, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177815

RESUMO

Purpose: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) would have a poor prognosis if they were not continuously managed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. We aim to develop a model to classify whether COPD patients have been continuously managed according to GOLD in the previous year. Methods: The Managed group were COPD patients from a prospective cohort from November 2017 to November 2019, who have been continuously managed according to GOLD for 1 year. The Control group were COPD patients who were not continuously managed according to GOLD. They were from a retrospective cohort from October 2016 to October 2017 in the same hospitals as the Managed group. A synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) algorithm was used to up-sample the Managed group in a training dataset. Features for classification were selected using a support vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) algorithm. The classification model was developed using LibSVM, and its performance was assessed on the testing dataset. Results: The final analysis included 15 subjects in the Managed group and 191 in the Control group. SVM-RFE selects nine features including smoking history, post-bronchodilator (post-)FVC before management, and those after 1-year follow-up (BMI, moderate and severe AECOPD frequency in previous 12 months, mMRC score, post-FEV1, post-FEV1%pred, post-FVC, and post-FEV1/FVC). For our model, positive predictive value is 66.7%, F1 score is 0.978, and AUC is 0.987. Conclusion: SVM classifier combined with SVM-REF feature selection algorithm could achieve good classification between COPD patients who are or are not continuously managed. This model could be applied in clinical practice to help doctors make decisions and enhance COPD patients' compliance with standard treatment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounts for about 90% of pancreatic cancer, which is one of the most aggressive malignant neoplasms with a 9.3% five-year survival rate. The pathological biopsy is the current golden standard for confirming suspicious lesions of PDAC, but it is not entirely reliable because of the insufficient sampling amount and inaccurate sampling location. Therefore, developing a robust signature to aid the accurate diagnosis of PDAC is critical. METHODS: Based on the within-sample relative expression orderings of gene pairs, we identified a qualitative signature to discriminate both PDAC and adjacent samples from both chronic pancreatitis and normal samples in the training datasets and validated it in other independent datasets produced by different laboratories with different measuring platforms. RESULTS: A six-gene-pair signature was identified in the training data and validated in eight independent datasets. For surgical samples, 96.63% of 356 PDAC tissues, 100% of 11 pancreatitis tissues of non-cancer patients, and 23 of 24 normal pancreatic tissues were correctly classified. Especially, 59 of 60 cancer-adjacent normal tissues of PDAC patients were correctly identified as PDAC. For biopsy samples, all of 11 PDAC biopsy tissues were correctly classified as PDAC. CONCLUSION: The signature can distinguish both PDAC and PDAC-adjacent normal tissues from both chronic pancreatitis and normal tissues of non-cancer patients even when the sampling locations are inaccurate, which can aid the diagnosis of PDAC.

10.
Front Psychol ; 11: 2228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132946

RESUMO

Background: Anxiety can be classified as state anxiety and trait anxiety which present the current level of anxiety and the generalized anxiety tendencies of individuals, respectively. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-Y) is a reliable instrument used to test both the levels of state and trait anxiety across various countries. However, the optimal factor structure of STAI-Y in different populations is not consistent and is not clear in Chinese university students. In addition, the gender invariance is the premise for comparing the scores of STAI-Y between men and women which also need to be verified. Therefore, this study explored the optimal factor structure of STAI-Y and examined whether the optimal factor structure satisfied measurement invariance across gender in Chinese university students. Method: A sample of 2117 Chinese university students participated in this study including 748 men and 1369 women. The optimal factor structure was decided by singer group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Furthermore, the configural invariance, metric invariance, scalar invariance, and strict invariance models were administrated in multigroup CFA to detect the measurement equivalence of STAI-Y across gender in Chinese university students. The reliability of STAI-Y was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and McDonald's omega coefficients. Results: The optimal factor structure of STAI-Y was four-factor model and reached strict gender invariance in Chinese university students. Moreover, the STAI-Y also had adequate reliability in Chinese university students. Conclusion: This study explored the factor structure and gender invariance of STAI-Y in Chinese university students. In sum, the four-factor structure of STAI-Y obtained the best goodness-of-fit and satisfied gender invariance which deepened the understanding of STAI-Y in Chinese university students.

11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 13: 4209-4219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192083

RESUMO

Objective: Ketogenic diet (KD) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have preclinical benefits for type 2 diabetes (Db). However, the health risks of long-term KD use in diabetes should be ascertained and prevented. We hypothesized that KD-induced liver fibrosis in type 2 diabetic mice could be ameliorated by HIIT. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice were divided into high-fat diet (HFD) control (Db+HFD+Sed), KD control (Db+KD+Sed), HFD coupled with HIIT (Db+HFD+HIIT), and KD coupled with HIIT (Db+KD+HIIT) groups (n=6, per group). Control mice were kept in sedentary (Sed), while HIIT group mice underwent 40-minute high-intensity interval training three alternate days per week. After 8-week intervention, the indicators of body weight and insulin resistance, oxidative stress markers, hepatic fibrosis, genetic and protein expression of related pathways were tested. Results: We found that fasting blood glucose level was reduced in the Db+HFD+HIIT, Db+KD+Sed, and Db+KD+HIIT groups. Insulin sensitivity was increased in diabetic mice of these groups, whereas ROS levels were decreased in mice that underwent HIIT. The immunohistochemical staining of liver, serum index, and hepatic parameters of diabetic mice in the KD group revealed liver fibrosis, which was significantly attenuated by HIIT. Besides, these effects of HIIT were the outcome of hepatic stellate cell's inactivation, reduced protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, and the inhibition of TGF-ß1/Smad signaling. Conclusion: KD had a profound fibrotic effect on the liver of type 2 diabetic mice, whereas HIIT ameliorated this effect. KD did not show any apparent benefit as far as glucose tolerance and homeostasis were concerned. Concisely, our results demonstrated that KD should be coupled with HIIT for the prevention and preclinical mitigation of type 2 diabetes.

12.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(9): 5080-5094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising strategy for multiple cancers. Chlorin e6 and its derivative 131-[2'-(2-pyridyl)ethylamine] Chlorin e6 (Chlorin A) are effective photosensitizers, although their cytotoxic mechanisms have not yet been fully characterized. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by CCK8 assay, TUNEL assay, and Annexin V/PI staining. The expression levels of different proteins were analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The crosstalk between autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), PERK inhibitor GSK2606414, autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, and mitochondrial stabilizer elamipretide. Furthermore, the extent of ROS production, lysosomal damage, autophagy flux, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were tracked using established probes. An in vivo xenograft model of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) was established in BALB/c-nude mice by inoculation with EGI-1 cells, and Chlorin A was administered topically or intravenously, followed by light irradiation. RESULTS: Chlorin A-PDT decreased the viability of CCA cells and induced apoptosis. Intriguingly, Chlorin A-PDT promoted autophagy via activation of ROS-induced ERS-related PERK/p-eif2α/CHOP axis, and blocked the ensuing autophagy flux by lysosomal damage. The PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 and NAC alleviated apoptosis and autophagy induced by Chlorin A-PDT. Furthermore, mitochondrial dysfunction aggravated ERS, and stabilizing the mitochondria reduced both apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, Chlorin A-PDT significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorin A-PDT induced apoptosis in CCA cells by initiating autophagy and impaired the autophagy flux via ROS-mediated ERS and lysosomal damage.

13.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030766

RESUMO

Childhood trauma (CT) is a well-established risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying mechanism linking CT and MDD remains not fully understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that CT have effects on specific types of anhedonia in depression via reward system. To do so, we evaluated different aspects of anhedonia and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in reward system among 66 patients with MDD (44 with moderate-to-severe and 22 with no or low CT), and 57 healthy controls (HC; 23 with moderate-to-severe and 34 with no or low CT). Results showed that MDD patients with moderate-to-severe CT suffered more severe state anhedonic depression than patients with no or low level of CT. Individuals with moderate-to-severe CT, irrespective of MDD diagnosis, had elevated physical, social and anticipatory but not consummatory trait anhedonia, and demonstrated decreased left nucleus accumbens (NAcc)-right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and left ventral caudate-left OFC connectivity compared to those with no or low exposure. Left NAcc-right OFC connectivity mediated relationship between CT and state anhedonia in MDD. The total altered ventral striatum (VS)-OFC connectivity mediated links between CT and physical trait anhedonia in HC. These findings highlight specific types of anhedonia and the core reward system as targets of CT. Blunted hedonic responses via decreased coupling within core reward system may be involved in the mechanism of depression following CT. Implications for clinical interventions are also discussed.

14.
Radiother Oncol ; 155: 65-72, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Currently, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (ACRT) is a preferred regimen for post-surgery gastric cancer (GC). However, the survival outcome of 5-FU-based ACRT varies greatly among different GC patients. Thus, it is necessary to classify which patients may benefit from 5-FU-based ACRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected 577 GC and 84 adjacent normal samples for training and 675 GC samples for validation. Based on the within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) of gene expression levels, reversal gene pairs were selected, and the pairs correlating with overall survival (OS) of GC patients receiving 5-FU-based ACRT were identified as candidates. Finally, an optimized set of candidate gene pairs was selected as a classification signature in training data and validated in validation data. RESULTS: A signature consisting of 34 gene pairs was identified in training data and validated in three independent datasets. The classified low-risk group had better OS than the classified high-risk group. We also analyzed the recurrent free survival or disease free survival (RFS/DFS) of the validation datasets, and the similar results were shown. Furthermore, although the signature was identified based on the OS of GC patients receiving ACRT, it was not a prognostic signature for patients treated with surgery alone, but may be a potential signature for 5-FU-based chemotherapy alone. CONCLUSIONS: The signature can accurately classify GC patients who may benefit from 5-FU-based ACRT, which could aid clinicians in tailoring more effective GC treatments.

15.
Mol Inform ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067876

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is a potential drug target for treatment of human diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Machine learning (ML) as an essential cheminformatics approach has been widely used for QSAR modeling. However, none of them has been applied to HDAC3. To this end, we carefully compiled a set of 1098 compounds from the ChEMBL database that have been assayed against HDAC3 and calculated three different sets of molecular features for each compound, i. e. two-dimensional Mordred descriptors, MACCS keys (166 bits) and Morgan2 fingerprints (1024 bits). Five ML classifiers, i. e. k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random forest (RF), eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Deep Neural Network (DNN) were trained on each feature set and optimized for classification. A total of 15 models were generated and carefully compared, among which the best-performing one was the XGBoost model based on the Morgan2 fingerprints, i. e. XGBoost_morgan2. Evaluated on a well-curated benchmarking set named MUBD-HDAC3, this model achieved a high early ROC enrichment (ROCE0.5 %: 41.02). A further retrospective screening of an annotated chemical library in PubChem demonstrated that the best model could identify 8 novel-scaffold HDAC3 inhibitors while assaying only 1 % of the compounds. To make this model accessible for the scientific community, we developed a python GUI application named HDAC3i-Finder to facilitate prospective screening for HDAC3 inhibitors. The source code of HDAC3i-Finder is available at https://github.com/jwxia2014/HDAC3i-Finder.

16.
Epigenetics ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965167

RESUMO

Accurate diagnosis of the origin of brain metastases (BMs) is crucial for tailoring an effective therapy to improve patients' prognosis. BMs of unknown origin account for approximately 2-14% of patients with BMs. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the original cancer type of BMs based on their DNA methylation profiles. The DNA methylation profiles of glioma (GM), BM, and seven other types of primary cancers were collected. In comparison with GM, the reversal CpG site pairs were identified for each of the seven other types of primary cancers based on the within-sample relative methylation orderings (RMOs) of the CpG sites. Then, using the reversal CpG site pairs, GMs were distinguished from BMs and the seven other types of primary cancers. All 61 of the GM samples were correctly identified as GM. The cancer type was also identified for the non-GM samples. For the seven other types of primary cancers, greater than 93% of samples of each cancer type were correctly identified as their corresponding cancer type, except for breast cancer, which had an 88% accuracy. For 133 BM samples, 132 BM samples were identified as non-GM, and 95% of the 133 BM samples were correctly classified into their corresponding original cancer types. The RMO-based method can accurately identify the origin of BMs, which is important for precision treatment.

17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 424, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993783

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stromal cells that reside in virtually all postnatal tissues. Due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory capacities, MSCs have attracted growing attention during the past two decades. MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) are able to duplicate the effects of their parental cells by transferring functional proteins and genetic materials to recipient cells without cell-to-cell contact. MSC-EVs also target macrophages, which play an essential role in innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated that MSC-EVs reduce M1 polarization and/or promote M2 polarization in a variety of settings. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of macrophage polarization and roles of MSC-EV-induced macrophage polarization in the outcomes of cardiovascular, pulmonary, digestive, renal, and central nervous system diseases. In conclusion, MSC-EVs may become a viable alternative to MSCs for the treatment of diseases in which inflammation and immunity play a critical role.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6418460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802863

RESUMO

The within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) of genes, which are stable qualitative transcriptional characteristics, can provide abundant information for a disease. Methods based on REO comparisons have been proposed for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the individual level and for detecting disease-associated genes based on one-phenotype disease data by reusing data of normal samples from other sources. Here, we evaluated the effects of common potential confounding factors, including age, cigarette smoking, sex, and race, on the REOs of gene pairs within normal lung tissues transcriptome. Our results showed that age has little effect on REOs within lung tissues. We found that about 0.23% of the significantly stable REOs of gene pairs in nonsmokers' lung tissues are reversed in smokers' lung tissues, introduced by 344 DEGs between the two groups of samples (RankCompV2, FDR <0.05), which are enriched in metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, glutathione metabolism, and other pathways (hypergeometric test, FDR <0.05). Comparison between the normal lung tissue samples of males and females revealed fewer reversal REOs introduced by 24 DEGs between the sex groups, among which 19 DEGs are located on sex chromosomes and 5 DEGs involving in spermatogenesis and regulation of oocyte are located on autosomes. Between the normal lung tissue samples of white and black people, we identified 22 DEGs (RankCompV2, FDR <0.05) which introduced a few reversal REOs between the two races. In summary, the REO-based study should take into account the confounding factors of cigarette smoking, sex, and race.

20.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(7): 484-492, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807267

RESUMO

Objective: Long-term seroprotection via the hepatitis A vaccine is essential for the prevention of disease from the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Due to documented difficulties during decade-long follow-ups after receiving vaccines, statistical-modeling approaches have been applied to predict the duration of immune protection. Methods: Based on five-year follow-up data from a randomized positive-controlled trial among Chinese children (1-8 years old) following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule, a power-law model accounting for the kinetics of B-cell turnover, as well as a modified power-law model considering a memory-B-cell subpopulation, were fitted to predict the long-term immune responses induced by HAV vaccination (Healive or Havrix). Anti-HAV levels of each individual and seroconversion rates up to 30 years after vaccination were predicted. Results: A total of 375 participants who completed the two-dose vaccination were included in the analysis. Both models predicted that, over a life-long period, participants vaccinated with Healive would have close but slightly higher antibody titers than those of participants vaccinated with Havrix. Additionally, consistent with previous studies, more than 90% of participants were predicted to maintain seroconversion for at least 30 years. Moreover, the modified power-law model predicted that the antibody titers would reach a plateau level after nearly 15 years post-vaccination. Conclusions: Based on the results of our modeling, Healive may adequately induce long-term immune responses following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule in children via induction of memory B cells to provide stable and durable immune protection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/administração & dosagem , Hepatite A/imunologia , Imunidade Ativa , Vacinação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
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