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J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339


BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

Nat Genet ; 43(6): 570-3, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21602798


In search of common risk alleles for prostate cancer that could contribute to high rates of the disease in men of African ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study, with 1,047,986 SNP markers examined in 3,425 African-Americans with prostate cancer (cases) and 3,290 African-American male controls. We followed up the most significant 17 new associations from stage 1 in 1,844 cases and 3,269 controls of African ancestry. We identified a new risk variant on chromosome 17q21 (rs7210100, odds ratio per allele = 1.51, P = 3.4 × 10(-13)). The frequency of the risk allele is ∼5% in men of African descent, whereas it is rare in other populations (<1%). Further studies are needed to investigate the biological contribution of this allele to prostate cancer risk. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting genome-wide association studies in diverse populations.

Afro-Americanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
Cancer Res ; 67(8): 3565-8, 2007 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17440066


Variation in the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, a key regulator of type II cytochrome P450 enzymes, may affect exposure to endogenous steroid hormones and breast cancer risk. We sequenced the POR locus and tested candidate polymorphisms G5G and A503V for association with breast cancer risk among women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1,615 cases and 1,962 controls). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A503V was common in all racial/ethnic populations (minor allele frequency, > or =0.05) but was not associated with risk. SNP G5G (A --> G nucleotide change), which lies in a suggestive exonic splicing enhancer motif in exon 1, was common only in African Americans (minor allele frequency, 0.21) and the homozygous state was modestly associated with increased breast risk among all cases [345 cases and 426 controls; odds ratio (OR), 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-3.04; P = 0.12] and among cases with advanced disease (95 cases: OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.42-6.70; P = 0.005). In an attempt to replicate this association, we genotyped SNP G5G in additional African American case-control studies (747 cases and 468 controls). Nonsignificant positive associations were noted with the GG genotype class in all studies. In the pooled analysis (1,038 cases and 877 controls with genotype data), the association was statistically significant among all cases (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.04-2.41; P = 0.03) and stronger in those with advanced disease (411 cases and 877 controls; OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.56-4.34; P = 0.0002). These data suggest that African Americans harbor an allele at the POR locus that may increase breast cancer risk.

Afro-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
Hum Genet ; 116(6): 497-506, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15726418


We sequenced the entire coding region of BRCA1 to improve our understanding of the frequency and nature of BRCA1 variants in African-American and Latina women identified from a multiethnic cohort in Los Angeles, California. The study included 109 African-American and 140 Latina sibships from families with two or more cases of breast or ovarian cancer among first-degree relatives. BRCA1 was sequenced in 278 breast or ovarian cancer cases and 229 unaffected sisters. The proportion of cases with known disease-causing mutations was low (0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0-1.7%). In total, 33 sequence variants were identified, including two protein truncation mutations, one deletion, and six silent and 24 missense variants. Two novel rare variants were identified that appeared to act as benign polymorphisms. Four rare variants may be unique to women of African descent based on existing literature, and three have been described exclusively in Latina women. The frequency of common variants was similar for cases and controls, but the frequency of common variants for African-American women significantly differed from those previously described for Caucasian women. We believe this to be the largest study of high-risk African-American and Latina women sequenced for variants in the BRCA1 gene to date.

Afro-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA