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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 413: 125321, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582471

RESUMO

Biodegradable plastics (BPs), as alternatives to conventional plastics, are increasingly consumed, but pose potential threats to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the impact of natural aging on the toxicity of BPs is poorly understood. In this study, the photodegradation of polylactic acid (PLA, a typical BP) microplastics (MPs) under ultraviolet irradiation in water for 90 days was investigated, and the toxicities of virgin and degraded PLA to infantile zebrafish were compared. The results revealed that the size of MPs was reduced from ~25.56 to ~11.22 µm after degradation and nanoparticles were generated with a maximum yield of 7.13%. The formation of abundant oxygen-containing groups (i.e. CË­O and C-O-C) improved the hydrophilia and stability of MPs. Compared with pristine PLA, the efflux and detoxification of degraded PLA mediated by ABC transporters and P450 enzymes were slower, leading to higher bioaccumulation and skeletal development inhibition of zebrafish. Further, oxidative stress-triggered mitochondrial structural damage, depolarization, fission inhibition, and apoptosis were identified as crucial mechanisms underlying the elevated toxicity of PLA after degradation. These findings highlight the importance and necessity of considering natural degradation of BPs and related toxicity, which poses great implications for risk assessment and management of BPs.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(21): 13888-13898, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078945

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and pose substantial threats to the water ecosystem. However, the impact of natural aging of MPs on their toxicity has rarely been considered. This study found that visible light irradiation with hydrogen peroxide at environmentally relevant concentration for 90 days significantly altered the physicochemical properties and mitigated the toxicity of polyamide (PA) fragments to infantile zebrafish. The size of PA particles was reduced from ∼8.13 to ∼6.37 µm, and nanoparticles were produced with a maximum yield of 5.03%. The end amino groups were volatilized, and abundant oxygen-containing groups (e.g., hydroxyl and carboxyl) and carbon-centered free radicals were generated, improving the hydrophilicity and colloidal stability of degraded MPs. Compared with pristine PA, the depuration of degraded MPs mediated by multixenobiotics resistance was much quicker, leading to markedly lower bioaccumulation in fish and weaker inhibition on musculoskeletal development. By integrating transcriptomics and transgenic zebrafish [Tg(lyz:EGFP)] tests, differences in macrophages-triggered proinflammatory effects, apoptosis via IL-17 signaling pathway, and antioxidant damages were identified as the underlying mechanisms for the attenuated toxicity of degraded MPs. This work highlights the importance of natural degradation on the toxicity of MPs, which has great implications for risk assessment of MPs.

3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5460-5466, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894215

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, BIT-d1T, was isolated from the gut of plastic-eating larvae of the coleopteran insect Zophobas atratus. Its taxonomic position was analysed using a polyphasic approach. Cells were white-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, long rods without flagella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1401 bp) of strain BIT-d1T showed highest similarity (98.0%) to Myroides pelagicus SM1T and 96.6~92.6 % similarity to the other species of the genus Myroides. The results of phylogenetic analyses, based on the 16S rRNA gene, concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (gyrB, dnaK, tuf, murG, atpA and glyA) and genome sequences, placed strain BIT-d1T in a separate lineage among the genus Myroides, family Flavobacteriaceae. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6) and the major fatty acids were C15 : 0 iso, C17 : 0 iso 3-OH and summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl), which were similar to other members in the genus Myroides. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity calculations plus physiological and biochemical tests exhibited the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain BIT-d1T from the other members of the genus Myroides. Therefore, strain BIT-d1T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Myroides, for which the name Myroides albus sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is BIT-d1T (=CGMCC 1.17043T=KCTC 72447T).


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Plásticos , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genes Bacterianos , Larva , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(9): 4951-4959, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744988

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, BIT-B35T, was isolated from the gut of plastic-eating larvae of the Coleoptera insect Zophobas atratus. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were white-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, motile short rods with terminal flagella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1411 bp) of strain BIT-B35T showed highest similarity (98.1%) to Escherichia fergusonii ATCC 35469T and Citrobacter koseri LMG 5519T. The results of phylogenetic analyses, based on the 16S rRNA gene, concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, infB, rpoB, pyrG, fusA and leuS) and genome sequences, placed strain BIT-B35T in a separate lineage among the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain BIT-B35T was 57.1 mol%. The chemotaxonomic data plus results of physiological and biochemical tests also distinguished strain BIT-B35T from members of other genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, strain BIT-B35T is considered to represent a novel species of a novel genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, for which the name Intestinirhabdus alba gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BIT-B35T (=CGMCC 1.17042T=KCTC 72448T).


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Larva/microbiologia , Plásticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 790-796, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675291

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, BIT-26T, was isolated from the gut of plastic-eating mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. The taxonomic position of this new isolate was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile rods with peritrichous flagella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1412 bp) of strain BIT-26T showed the highest similarity (97.4 %) to Erwinia piriflorinigrans CFBP 5888T, followed by Citrobacter sedlakii NBRC 105722T (97.3 %), Mixta calida LMG 25383T (97.3 %), Cronobacter muytjensii ATCC 51329T (97.2 %) and Mixta theicola QC88-366 T (97.2 %). The results of phylogenetic analyses, based on the 16S rRNA gene and concatenated sequences of four housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB), placed strain BIT-26T within the genus Mixta of the family Erwiniaceae. This affiliation was also supported by the chemotaxonomic data. Strain BIT-26T had similar predominant fatty acids, including C12 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, to species of the genus Mixta. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity calculations plus physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain BIT-26T from other species of the genus Mixta with validly published names. Therefore, strain BIT-26T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Mixta tenebrionis sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is BIT-26T (=CGMCC 1.17041T=KCTC 72449T).


Assuntos
Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Plásticos , Tenebrio/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 135233, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787276

RESUMO

Polystyrene (PS) is one of the major plastic debris accumulated in environment. Previously, we reported that mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) was capable of degrading and mineralizing Styrofoam (PS foam). This finding arouses our curiosity to explore whether more other insect species have the same capability as mealworms. Here, an insect larva, superworm (Zophobas atratus), was newly proven to be capable of eating, degrading and mineralizing PS. Superworms could live with Styrofoam as sole diet as well as those fed with a normal diet (bran) over a 28-day period. The average consumption rate of Styrofoam for each superworm was estimated at 0.58 mg/d that was 4 times more than that of mealworm. Analyses of frass, using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid-state 13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric interfaced with Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) spectroscopy, demonstrated that the depolymerization of long-chain PS molecules and the formation of low molecular-weight products occurred in the larval gut. A respirometry test showed that up to 36.7% of the ingested Styrofoam carbon was converted into CO2 during a 16-day test period. The PS-degrading capability of superworm was inhibited by the antibiotic suppression of gut microbiota, indicating that gut microbiota contributed to PS degradation. This new finding extends the PS-degrading insects beyond the species within the Tenebrio genus and indicates that the gut microbiota of superworm would be a novel bioresource for pursuit of plastic-degrading enzymes.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Larva , Plásticos , Poliestirenos
7.
Microb Biotechnol ; 12(6): 1476-1486, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578818

RESUMO

Synthetic promoters are considered ideal candidates in driving robust gene expression. Most of the available synthetic promoters are minimal promoters, for which the upstream sequence of the 5' end of the core region is usually excluded. Although the upstream sequence has been shown to mediate transcription of natural promoters, its impact on synthetic promoters has not been widely studied. Here, a library of chromosomal DNA fragments is randomly fused with the 5' end of the J23119 synthetic promoter, and the transcriptional performance of the promoter is evaluated through ß-galactosidase assay, fluorescence intensity and chemical biosynthesis. Results show that changes in the upstream sequence can induce significant variation in the promoter strength of up to 5.8-fold. The effect is independent of the length of the insertions and the number of potential transcription factor binding sites. Several DNA fragments that are able to enhance the transcription of both the natural and the synthetic promoters are identified. This study indicates that the synthetic minimal promoters are susceptible to the surrounding sequence context. Therefore, the upstream sequence should be treated as an indispensable component in the design and application of synthetic promoters, or as an independent genetic part for the fine-tuning of gene expression.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Expressão Gênica , Genética Microbiana/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fusão Gênica Artificial , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Transcrição Genética
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 34(9): 1398-1409, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255674

RESUMO

Plastic pollution has become a global environmental issue, making it necessary to explore the environmental disposal technology for plastic waste. Recently, we and other researchers have individually found microorganisms or enzymes from nature that can degrade synthetic plastic. These findings indicated that the capability of these microorganisms or enzymes to degrade plastic could be used for the disposal of plastic waste. Polyurethane (PUR) was one of the most used general plastic and its plastic waste occupied 30% of the total volume of different plastic waste. This review tried to provide a comprehensive summary of the researches on microbial degradation of PUR plastic in the past 70 years since its invention, and focused on the PUR-degrading fungi, bacteria, genes or enzymes, degradation products and the corresponding biological disposal technologies. We finally proposed the key scientific challenges on the development of high efficient biological disposal for PUR waste in the perspective researches.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Poliuretanos/metabolismo
9.
Biol Lett ; 14(5)2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769301

RESUMO

Most birds sit on their eggs during incubation, a behaviour that likely evolved among non-avian dinosaurs. Several 'brooding' specimens of smaller species of oviraptorosaurs and troodontids reveal these non-avian theropods sat on their eggs, although little is known of incubation behaviour in larger theropod species. Here we examine egg clutches over a large body size range of oviraptorosaurs in order to understand the potential effect of body size on incubation behaviour. Eggshell porosity indicates that the eggs of all oviraptorosaurs were exposed in the nest, similar to brooding birds. Although all oviraptorosaur clutches consist of radially arranged eggs in a ring configuration, clutch morphology varies in that the central opening is small or absent in the smallest species, becomes significantly larger in larger species, and occupies most of the nest area in giant species. Our results suggest that the smallest oviraptorosaurs probably sat directly on the eggs, whereas with increasing body size more weight was likely carried by the central opening, reducing or eliminating the load on the eggs and still potentially allowing for some contact during incubation in giant species. This adaptation, not seen in birds, appears to remove the body size constraints of incubation behaviour in giant oviraptorosaurs.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Dinossauros/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Casca de Ovo/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Óvulo
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