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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599099

RESUMO

Alternative splicing of G protein-coupled receptors has been observed, but their functions are largely unknown. Here, we report that a splice variant (SV1) of the human growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) is capable of transducing biased signal. Differing only at the receptor N terminus, GHRHR predominantly activates Gs while SV1 selectively couples to ß-arrestins. Based on the cryogenic electron microscopy structures of SV1 in the apo state or GHRH-bound state in complex with the Gs protein, molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the N termini of GHRHR and SV1 differentiate the downstream signaling pathways, Gs versus ß-arrestins. As suggested by mutagenesis and functional studies, it appears that GHRH-elicited signal bias toward ß-arrestin recruitment is constitutively mediated by SV1. The level of SV1 expression in prostate cancer cells is also positively correlated with ERK1/2 phosphorylation but negatively correlated with cAMP response. Our findings imply that constitutive signal bias may be a mechanism that ensures cancer cell proliferation.

2.
Ecol Evol ; 11(19): 13475-13486, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646484

RESUMO

The silver fox and blue fox are economically important fur species and were domesticated by humans from their wild counterparts, the arctic fox and red fox, respectively. Farmed foxes show obvious differences from their wild counterparts, including differences in physiology, body size, energy metabolism, and immunity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences are presently unclear. In this study, we built transcriptome libraries from multiple pooled tissues for each species of farmed fox, used RNA-seq to obtain a comprehensive dataset, and performed selection analysis and sequence-level analyses of orthologous genes to identify the genes that may be influenced by human domestication. More than 153.3, 248.0, 81.6, and 65.8 million clean reads were obtained and assembled into a total of 118,577, 401,520, 79,900, and 186,988 unigenes with an average length range from 521 to 667 bp for AF, BF, RF, and SF, respectively. Selective pressure analysis showed that 11 and 14 positively selected genes were identified, respectively, in the two groups (AF vs. BF and RF vs. SF). Several of these genes were associated with natural immunity (CFI and LRRFIP1), protein synthesis (GOLGA4, CEP19 and SLC35A2), and DNA damage repair (MDC1). Further functional enrichment analyses demonstrated that two positively selected genes (ACO1 and ACAD10) were involved in metabolic process (GO:0008152, p-value = .032), representing a significant enrichment. Sequence analysis of 117 orthologous genes shared by the two groups showed that the LEMD2, RRBP1, and IGBP1 genes might be affected by artificial selection in farmed foxes, with mutation sites located within sequences that are otherwise highly conserved across most mammals. Our results provide a valuable transcriptomic resource for future genetic studies and improvement in the assisted breeding of foxes and other farmed animals.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elucidate the core clinical and genetic characteristics and identify the phenotypic variation between different regions and genotypes of fatal familial insomnia (FFI). METHODS: A worldwide large sample of FFI patients from our case series and literature review diagnosed by genetic testing were collected. The prevalence of clinical symptoms and genetic profile were obtained, and then the phenotypic comparison between Asians versus non-Asians and 129Met/Met versus 129Met/Val were conducted. RESULTS: In total, 131 cases were identified. The age of onset was 47.51±12.53 (range 17-76) years, 106 patients died and disease duration was 13.20±9.04 (range 2-48) months. Insomnia (87.0%) and rapidly progressive dementia (RPD; 83.2%) occurred with the highest frequency. Hypertension (33.6%) was considered to be an objective indicator of autonomic dysfunction. Genotype frequency at codon 129 was Met/Met (84.7%) and Met/Val (15.3%), and allele frequency was Met (92.4%) and Val (7.6%).129 Met was a risk factor (OR: 3.728, 95% CI: 2.194 to 6.333, p=0.000) for FFI in the non-Asian population. Comparison of Asians and non-Asians revealed clinical symptoms and genetic background to show some differences (p<0.05). In the comparison of 129 polymorphisms, a longer disease duration was found in the 129 MV group, with alleviation of some clinical symptoms (p<0.05). After considering survival probability, significant differences in survival time between genotypes remained (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia, RPD and hypertension are representative key clinical presentations of FFI. Phenotypic variations in genotypes and geographic regions were documented. Prion protein gene 129 Met was considered to be a risk factor for FFI in the non-Asian population, and 129 polymorphisms could modify survival duration.

4.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 6(5): 1228-1234, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667869

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to construct an induction system for polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs), as well as to investigate PGCC features and clinical significance. Methods: A laryngeal neoplasm-PGCC induction system was constructed using paclitaxel liposomes (PTX). We used western blots to compare expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins, stem cell interrelated proteins, and cyclin-associated proteins. We then measured PGCC count in tissue samples of patients with laryngeal neoplasms and analyzed its relationship with prognosis. Statistical significance was determined using t-tests. Results: PTX successfully induced PGCCs. Western blotting showed that CyclinB1, CDC25C, CDK1, E-cadherin, and EIF-4A expression decreased in PGCCs compared with normal cancer cells, whereas vimentin and CD133 expression increased. Number of PGCCs in laryngeal cancer tissues and overall survival time were inversely correlated (P < .05). Conclusions: PTX successfully induces PGCC formation in laryngeal carcinoma, which may be the cause of poor prognosis in patients with laryngeal cancer.Level of Evidence: 4.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 722273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526995

RESUMO

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are specialized CD4+ helper T cells that provide help to B cells in humoral immunity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying generation of TFH cells is incompletely understood. Here, we reported that Damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (Ddb1) was required for expansion of CD4+ helper T cells including TFH and Th1 cells, germinal center response, and antibody response to acute viral infection. Ddb1 deficiency in activated CD4+ T cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2-M phase and increased cell death, due to accumulation of DNA damage and hyperactivation of ATM/ATR-Chk1 signaling. Moreover, mice with deletion of both Cul4a and Cul4b in activated CD4+ T cells phenocopied Ddb1-deficient mice, suggesting that E3 ligase-dependent function of Ddb1 was crucial for genome maintenance and helper T-cell generation. Therefore, our results indicate that Ddb1 is an essential positive regulator in the expansion of CD4+ helper T cells.

7.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 668888, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532341

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of our study was to develop a prognostic risk model based on differential genomic instability-associated (DGIA) long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of left-sided and right-sided colon cancers (LCCs and RCCs); therefore, the prognostic key lncRNAs could be identified. Methods: We adopted two independent gene datasets, corresponding somatic mutation and clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Identification of differential DGIA lncRNAs from LCCs and RCCs was conducted with the appliance of "Limma" analysis. Then, we screened out key lncRNAs based on univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Meanwhile, DGIA lncRNAs related prognostic model (DRPM) was established. We employed the DRPM in the model group and internal verification group from TCGA for the purpose of risk grouping and accuracy verification of DRPM. We also verified the accuracy of key lncRNAs with GEO data. Finally, the differences of immune infiltration, functional pathways, and therapeutic sensitivities were analyzed within different risk groups. Results: A total of 123 DGIA lncRNAs were screened out by differential expression analysis. We obtained six DGIA lncRNAs by the construction of DRPM, including AC004009.1, AP003555.2, BOLA3-AS1, NKILA, LINC00543, and UCA1. After the risk grouping by these DGIA lncRNAs, we found the prognosis of the high-risk group (HRG) was significantly worse than that in the low-risk group (LRG) (all p < 0.05). In all TCGA samples and model group, the expression of CD8+ T cells in HRG was lower than that in LRG (all p < 0.05). The functional analysis indicated that there was significant upregulation with regard to pathways related to both genetic instability and immunity in LRG, including cytosolic DNA sensing pathway, response to double-strand RNA, RIG-Ⅰ like receptor signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Finally, we analyzed the difference and significance of key DGIA lncRNAs and risk groups in multiple therapeutic sensitivities. Conclusion: Through the analysis of the DGIA lncRNAs between LCCs and RCCs, we identified six key DGIA lncRNAs. They can not only predict the prognostic risk of patients but also serve as biomarkers for evaluating the differences of genetic instability, immune infiltration, and therapeutic sensitivity.

8.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 721990, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568427

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common malignant disease in eastern countries. However, a study of the metabolomic characteristics associated with other biological factors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is limited. Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) and ILF3, double-stranded RNA-binding proteins, have been reported to contribute to the occurrence and development of various types of malignancy. Nevertheless, the underlying functions of ILF2 and ILF3 in ESCC metabolic reprogramming have never been reported. This study aimed to contribute to the metabolic characterization of ESCC and to investigate the metabolomic alterations associated with ILF2 and ILF3 in ESCC tissues. Here, we identified 112 differential metabolites, which were mainly enriched in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism pathways, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry approaches using ESCC tissues and paired para-cancer tissues from twenty-eight ESCC patients. In addition, ILF2 and ILF3 expression were significantly elevated in EC tissues compared to the histologically normal samples, and closely associated with PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in ESCC. Moreover, in ESCC tissues with a high ILF2 expression, several short-chain acyl-carnitines (C3:0, C4:0, and C5:0) related to the BCAA metabolic pathway and long-chain acyl-carnitines (C14:0, C16:0, C16:0-OH, and C18:0) involved in the oxidation of fatty acids were obviously upregulated. Additionally, a series of intermediate metabolites involved in the glycolysis pathway, including G6P/F6P, F1,6BP, DHAP, G3P, and 2,3BPG, were remarkably downregulated in highly ILF3-expressed ESCC tissues compared with the corresponding para-cancer tissues. Overall, these findings may provide evidence for the roles of ILF2 and ILF3 during the process of ESCC metabolic alterations, and new insights into the development of early diagnosis and treatment for ESCC. Further investigation is needed to clarify the underlying mechanism of ILF2 and ILF3 on acyl-carnitines and the glycolysis pathway, respectively.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1003, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in head and neck. Platinum-based chemotherapy is an important treatment for NPC. However, the molecular mechanism of resistance to platinum drug remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44(ERp44), an unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced endoplasmic reticulum(ER) protein, is induced during ER stress. This research explored the mechanism of ERp44 in strengthening cisplatin resistance in NPC. METHODS: Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of ERp44 and Glucose-Regulated Protein 78(GRP78) in NPC. We took CCK8 to detect the role of ERp44 on cell chemosensitivity. Flow cytometric analysis and western blot were taken to analyze cell apoptosis. We performed differential centrifugation to isolate exosomes from serum or conditioned media of cells and analyzed the impact of exosomal ERp44 on cells cisplatin sensitivity. Finally, the results were confirmed in vivo. RESULTS: We found the increased expression of ERp44 and GRP78 in NPC and ERp44 was highly expressed in ER-stressed tissues. Cell proliferation was inhibited after cisplatin treatment when ERp44 was knocked down and ERp44 strengthened cisplatin resistance by influencing cell apoptosis and pyroptosis. Then we also collected exosomes and cell viability was increased after the addition of NPC-derived-exosomes with cisplatin treatment. More importantly, our results showed under ERS, NPC cells secreted exosomes containing ERp44 and could transfer them to adjacent cells to strengthen chemoresistance. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that exosomal ERp44 derived from ER-stressed NPC cells took an inevitable role in NPC chemoresistance and might act as a treatment target.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Exossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Exossomos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500882

RESUMO

Selective laser melting was used to prepare the ceramic particles reinforced nickel alloy owing to its high designability, high working flexibility and high efficiency. In this paper, a carbides particles reinforced Haynes 230 alloy was prepared using SLM technology to further strengthen the alloy. Microstructures of the carbide particles reinforced Haynes 230 alloy were investigated using electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the tensile tests were carried out to determine the strengths of the composite. The results show that the microstructure of the composite consisted of uniformly distributed M23C6 and M6C type carbides and the strengths of the alloy were higher than the matrix alloy Haynes 230. The increased strengths of the carbide reinforced Haynes 230 alloy (room temperature yield strength 113 MPa increased, ~ 33.2%) can be attributed to the synergy strengthening including refined grain strengthening, Orowan strengthening and dislocation strengthening.

11.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(10): 851, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531375

RESUMO

Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a histone methyltransferase responsible for the symmetric dimethylation of histone H4 on Arg 3 (H4R3me2s), is an enzyme that participates in tumor cell progression in a variety of hematological malignancies. However, the biological functions of PRMT5 in multiple myeloma (MM) and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis and found that PRMT5 expression was significantly upregulated in MM. In vitro and in vivo phenotypic experiments revealed that knockdown of PRMT5 expression enhanced cell pyroptosis in MM. Moreover, we found that CASP1 expression was negatively correlated with PRMT5 expression, and repressing PRMT5 expression rescued both the phenotype and expression markers (N-GSDMD, IL-1b, and IL-18). Inhibition of PRMT5 activity increased CASP1 expression and promoted MM cell pyroptosis. Finally, high expression of PRMT5 or low expression of CASP1 was correlated with poor overall survival in MM. Collectively, our results provide a mechanism by which PRMT5 regulates cell pyroptosis by silencing CASP1 in MM.

12.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 146, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGCs) present unique molecular signatures, but the tumorigenesis of EBVaGCs and the role EBV plays during this process remain poorly understood. METHODS: We applied whole-exome sequencing, EBV genome sequencing, and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to multiple samples (n = 123) derived from the same patients (n = 25), which covered saliva samples and different histological stages from morphologically normal epithelial tissues to dysplasia and EBVaGCs. We compared the genomic landscape between EBVaGCs and their precursor lesions and traced the clonal evolution for each patient. We also analyzed genome sequences of EBV from samples of different histological types. Finally, the key molecular events promoting the tumor evolution were demonstrated by MTT, IC50, and colony formation assay in vitro experiments and in vivo xenograft experiments. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed increasing mutational burden and EBV load from normal tissues and low-grade dysplasia (LD) to high-grade dysplasia (HD) and EBVaGCs, and oncogenic amplifications occurred late in EBVaGCs. Interestingly, within each patient, EBVaGCs and HDs were monoclonal and harbored single-strain-originated EBV, but saliva or normal tissues/LDs had different EBV strains from that in EBVaGCs. Compared with precursor lesions, tumor cells showed incremental methylation in promotor regions, whereas EBV presented consistent hypermethylation. Dominant alterations targeting the PI3K-Akt and Wnt pathways were found in EBV-infected cells. The combinational inhibition of these two pathways in EBV-positive tumor cells confirmed their synergistic function. CONCLUSIONS: We portrayed the (epi) genomic evolution process of EBVaGCs, revealed the extensive genomic diversity of EBV between tumors and normal tissue sites, and demonstrated the synergistic activation of the PI3K and Wnt pathways in EBVaGCs, offering a new potential treatment strategy for this disease.

13.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 1245-1255, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511043

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Icariin has attracted increasing attention because of its wide variety of pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether icariin could promote fracture healing in young and old rats and its mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Wistar rat model for the tibia fracture in relatively young and old rats, respectively, was established. The rats were divided into four groups: model group, L-icariin (50 mg/kg icariin), M-icariin (100 mg/kg icariin) and H-icariin (200 mg/kg icariin), and intragastric administration of icariin was performed for 10 days or 20 days. In addition, isolated and cultured rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) from young and old rats were cultured with 5% and 20% of icariin-containing serum, respectively, then cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. RESULTS: Icariin administration induced the expression of Runx2, Osterix, BMP-2, p-Smad5 and osteocalcin secretion (young rats: model: 2.50 ± 0.71; L-icariin: 10.10 ± 1.55; M-icariin: 24.95 ± 2.19; H-icariin: 36.80 ± 2.26; old rats: model: 1.55 ± 0.49; L-icariin:6.55 ± 0.50; M-icariin: 15.00 ± 0.85; H-icariin:20.50 ± 2.27) at the fracture site, and increased the levels of bone formation markers (OC, BAP, NTX-1 and CTX-1) in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro, icariin treatment promoted rBMSC viability, increased ALP activity and the expression of BMP-2/Smad5/Runx2 pathway proteins. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Icariin may accelerate fracture healing by activating the BMP-2/Smad5/Runx2 pathway in relatively young and old rats. The research on the mechanism of icariin to promote fracture healing can provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application and promotion of icariin.

14.
Ecol Evol ; 11(17): 12129-12140, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522365

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the effects of host species on the gut microbial flora in three species (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Pseudois nayaur, and Ovis orientalis) from the subfamily Caprinae, by excluding the impact of environment factors. We investigated the differences in intestinal flora of three species belonging to Caprinae, which were raised in identical conditions. Fecal samples were collected from tahr, mouflon, and bharal, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals that fecal samples were mainly composed of four phyla: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria. The most abundant phyla included Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes accounting for >90% of the bacteria, and a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was observed in tahrs. Moreover, significant differences existed at multiple levels of classifications in the relative abundance of intestinal flora, differing greatly between species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene indicated that mouflon is closely related to bharal, and it is inconsistent with previous reports in the species evolutionary relationships. In this study, we demonstrated that the gut microbiota in tahr had a stronger ability to absorb and store energy from the diet compared with mouflon and bharal, and the characteristics of host-microbiome interactions were not significant.

15.
Small ; 17(38): e2102545, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363305

RESUMO

Nanocellulose including cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) has attracted much attention due to its exceptional mechanical, chemical, and rheological properties. Although considered biocompatible, recent reports have demonstrated nanocellulose can be hazardous, including serving as drug carriers that accumulate in the liver. However, the nanocellulose effects on liver cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes are unclear. Here, the toxicity of nanocellulose with different lengths is compared, including the shorter CNCs (CNC-1, CNC-2, and CNC-3) and longer CNF (CNF-1 and CNF-2), to liver cells. While all CNCs triggered significant cytotoxicity in KCs and only CNC-2 induced toxicity to hepatocytes, CNFs failed to induce significant cytotoxicity due to their minimal cellular uptake. The phagocytosis of CNCs by KCs induced mitochondria ROS generation, caspase-3/7 activation, and apoptotic cell death as well as lysosomal damage, cathepsin B release, NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and IL-1ß production. The cellular uptake of CNC-2 by hepatocytes is through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and it induced the caspase-3/7-mediated apoptosis. CNC-2 shows the highest levels of uptake and cytotoxicity among CNCs. These results demonstrate the length-dependent mechanisms of toxicity on liver cells in a cell type-dependent fashion, providing information to safely use nanocellulose for biomedical applications.

16.
ChemSusChem ; 14(20): 4556-4562, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378359

RESUMO

A pyrimidine-modified covalent organic framework (COF-Pyr) was designed to be synthesized via the Povarov reaction. The nitrogen atom on the pyrimidine showed excellent coordination ability to metal ions. Their stable metal composite material (Co@COF-Pyr) exhibited remarkable performance for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 1.0 m KOH aqueous solution. The overpotential was 450 mV at 10 mA cm-2 . The Co@COF-Pyr with large specific surface area (392 m2 g-1 ) and regular crystal structure provided free passage for H2 O to move and make them fully contact with the uniformly dispersed cobalt ions on the surface. Thus, the turnover frequency of Co@COF-Pyr was 0.1 s-1 at the overpotential of 370 mV, which was higher than most reported OER catalysts. This work provided a new way to design and prepare nitrogen-containing heterocyclic functionalized COFs. They can be combined with metal ions to expand the application of COFs in the field of electrocatalysis.

17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111927, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339914

RESUMO

Recent studies demonstrated that dihydromyricetin (DHM) has prominent therapeutic effects on liver injury and liver cancer. By summarizing the current preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, the present review examines the preventive and therapeutic effects of DHM on liver disorders as well as its potential mechanisms. Briefly, in both chemical- and alcohol-induced liver injury models, DHM ameliorates hepatocyte necrosis and steatosis while promoting liver regeneration. In addition, DHM can alleviate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via regulating lipid/glucose metabolism, probably due to its anti-inflammatory or sirtuins-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, DHM treatment inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and autophagy and regulates redox balance in liver cancer cells, thus exhibiting remarkable anti-cancer effects. The pharmacological mechanisms of DHM may be associated with its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and apoptosis-regulatory benefits. With the accumulating interests in utilizing natural products to target common diseases, our work aims to improve the understanding of DHM acting as a novel drug candidate for liver diseases and to accelerate its translation from bench to bedside.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26775, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397824

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most typical type of rhabdomyosarcoma. The heterogeneity, etiology, and origin of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma remain unknown.After obtaining the gene expression data of every cell in the tumor tissue by single-cell RNA sequencing, we used the Seurat package in R studio for quality control, analysis, and exploration of the data. All cells are divided into tumor cells and non-tumor cells, and we chose tumor cells by marker genes. Then, we repeated the process to cluster the tumor cells and divided the subgroups by their differentially expressed genes and gene ontology/Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Additionally, Monocle 2 was used for pseudo-time analysis to obtain the evolution trajectory of cells in tumor tissues.Tumor cells were divided into 5 subgroups according to their functions, which were characterized by high proliferation, sensing and adaptation to oxygen availability, enhanced epigenetic modification, enhanced nucleoside phosphonic acid metabolism, and ossification. Evolution trajectory of cells in tumor tissues is obtained.We used pseudo-time analysis to distinguish between mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts, proved that embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the pelvic originated from skeletal muscle progenitor cells, showed the evolutionary trajectory of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and improved the method of evaluating the degree of malignancy of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/patologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Pelve/anormalidades , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Célula Única/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(13): 1072, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422984

RESUMO

Background: CSF1R-related encephalopathy refers to adult-onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) due to CSF1R mutations, which is a rare autosomal dominant white matter disease including two pathological entities, hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD). The aim of this study was to identify additional causative mutations in the CSF1R gene and clarify their pathogenic effects. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was conducted for nine Chinese patients diagnosed with possible ALSP based on clinical and neuroimaging findings from March 2014 to June 2020 at Xuanwu Hospital (Beijing, China). Variant pathogenicity was assessed according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) Standards and Guidelines. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (range) age of disease onset in the nine patients was 39.22±9.63 [25-54] years. Four of the nine patients were male, and four out of nine had a remarkable family history. Seven CSF1R mutations were identified in the nine patients; four (p.G17C, p.R579Q, p.I794T and c.2909_2910insATCA) have been previously reported, while three (p.V613L, p.W821R and c.2442+2_2442+3dupT) were novel. Of the latter, two (p.V613L and p.W821R) were likely pathogenic and 1 (c.2442+2_2442+3dupT) was of uncertain significance according to ACMG/AMP criteria. Conclusions: These findings expand the mutational spectrum of ALSP and provide a basis for future investigations on etiologic factors and potential management strategies for this disease.

20.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(7): 1417-1425, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446144

RESUMO

A highly efficient method for constructing indomethacin-peptide conjugates was developed using the natural amino acid tyrosine (Y) as the anchor for indomethacin (Idm). With pH = 6, Idm-YEE conjugate self-assembled in a low critical micelle concentration (CMC, 0.037 mg/mL) and formed a transparent hydrogel (0.4 wt%). The formed Idm-YEE hydrogel presented sustained drug release of indomethacin with a maximum of 40% during first 24 hours, which was superior to the reported Idm-containing supramolecular hydrogel systems. As kept at 4 °C, the Idm-YEE hydrogel showed good storage stability up to 30 days without obvious hydrolysis. As shown by MTT assay, the Idm-YEE hydrogel exhibited good cell compatibility against retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). Ocular irritation test (i.e., clinical observations, fluorescein staining and H&E histological analysis) results showed good integrity of corneal architecture and no edema after Idm-YEE hydrogel treatment, which proved its good ocular biocompatibility. Besides, the LPS-stimulated levels of key inflammatory mediators, including NO, PGE2 and IL-6, were greatly reduced by Idm-YEE hydrogel even in a low concentration (50 µM) in Raw264.7 cells, which indicated its comparable in vitro anti-inflammatory activity to indomethacin. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of Idm-YEE hydrogel was evaluated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) rabbit model. By treating with dm-YEE hydrogel, the rabbit eyes had significantly lowered inflammation and exudation in the anterior chamber. The results of histological analysis, clinical score, inflammatory cell counts, aqueous protein concentration and immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated its good in vivo therapeutic activity towards ocular inflammation. Therefore, with good ocular biocompatibility and comparable anti-inflammatory effect towards ocular inflammation, the novel indomethacin-tripeptide hydrogel (Idm-YEE) developed in this work provides a potential treatment for anterior uveitis.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Uveíte , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Indometacina , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Coelhos , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico
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