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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(6): 305, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532844

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, short rod-shaped and aerobic bacterial strain, designated as CFH 74456 T, was isolated from sediment of a hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, south-western China. Growth occurred at 20-53 ºC (optimum 45 ºC), pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and up to 2.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-1.0%, w/v). The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major fatty acids (> 10%) were C17:1 ω6c (17.9%) and summed feature 8 (38.6%). The polar lipid profile of strain CFH 74456 T was identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, three unidentified glycolipids and three unidentified polar lipids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain CFH 74456 T belongs to the genus Qipengyuania, and was most closely related to Qipengyuania sediminis CGMCC 1.12928 T (95.7%). The draft genome size of the isolate was 2.29 Mb with G + C content of 68.5%. The amino acid identity, average nucleotide identity and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CFH 74456 T and the closest relatives ranged from 67.0 to 67.9%, 73.0 to 74.2% and 18.2-19.3%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses, it is concluded that strain CFH 74456 T represents a new species of the genus Qipengyuania, for which the name Qipengyuania thermophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CFH 74456 T (= KCTC 62921 T = CCTCC AB 2018237 T).


Assuntos
Fontes Termais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565124

RESUMO

The dysbiosis of oral microbiota is linked to numerous diseases and is associated with personal lifestyles, such as alcohol drinking. However, there is inadequate data to study the effect of alcohol drinking on oral microbiota from the Chinese population. Here, we profiled the oral microbiota of 150 healthy subjects in the Chinese population by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that drinkers had significantly higher alpha diversity than non-drinkers. A significant difference in overall microbiota composition was observed between non-drinkers and drinkers. Additionally, using DESeq analysis, we found genus Prevotella and Moryella, and species Prevotella melaninogenica and Prevotella tannerae were significantly enriched in drinkers; meanwhile, the genus Lautropia, Haemophilus and Porphyromonas, and species Haemophilus parainfluenzae were significantly depleted in drinkers. PICRUSt analysis showed that significantly different genera were mainly related to metabolism pathways. The oxygen-independent pathways, including galactose, fructose and mannose metabolism pathways, were enriched in drinkers and positively associated with genera enriched in drinkers; while the pyruvate metabolism pathway, an aerobic metabolism pathway, was decreased in drinkers and negatively associated with genera enriched in drinkers. Our results suggested that alcohol drinking may affect health by altering oral microbial composition and potentially affecting microbial functional pathways. These findings may have implications for better understanding the potential role those oral bacteria play in alcohol-related diseases.

3.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e060151, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Each year, an estimated two million Australians commence opioids, with 50 000 developing longer-term (persistent) opioid use. An estimated 3%-10% of opioid-naïve patients prescribed opioids following surgery develop persistent opioid use. This study will compare rates of persistent opioid use between two commonly used postoperative opioids, oxycodone and tapentadol, to understand if initial postoperative opioid type is important in determining longer-term outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A retrospective data linkage study that analyses administrative data from hospital and community pharmacies. Data will be obtained from at least four pharmacies that service large hospitals with comparable supplies of oxycodone and tapentadol. The study will include at least 6000 patients who have been dispensed a supply of oxycodone or tapentadol to take home following their discharge from a surgical ward. The primary outcome measure will be persistent opioid use at 3 months postdischarge for opioid naïve people who receive either immediate release tapentadol or immediate release oxycodone. Hierarchical logistic regression models will be used to predict persistent opioid use, controlling for covariates including comorbidities. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained through the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (29977). We will present project findings in a peer-reviewed journal article, in accordance with the REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data statement.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Assistência ao Convalescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tapentadol
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3833, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264637

RESUMO

The traditional method for analyzing the content of instant tea has disadvantages such as complicated operation and being time-consuming. In this study, a method for the rapid determination of instant tea components by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was established and optimized. The NIR spectra of 118 instant tea samples were used to evaluate the modeling and prediction performance of a combination of binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) with support vector regression (SVR), BPSO with partial least squares (PLS), and SVR and PLS without BPSO. Under optimal conditions, Rp for moisture, caffeine, tea polyphenols, and tea polysaccharides were 0.9678, 0.9757, 0.7569, and 0.8185, respectively. The values of SEP were less than 0.9302, and absolute values of Bias were less than 0.3667. These findings indicate that machine learning can be used to optimize the detection model of instant tea components based on NIR methods to improve prediction accuracy.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Chá , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polifenóis/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Chá/química
5.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(12): 2047-2056, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254366

RESUMO

Nano drug delivery systems are a research hotspot in the field of tumor therapy. In this work, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets were selected as the base material and a natural red blood cell membrane (RBC membrane) was camouflaged on the nanosheets to enhance their dispersibility and tumor targeting profile. The camouflaged molybdenum disulfide nanocomposites (MoS2-RBC) were successfully prepared by incubation. This nanomaterial has good stability and biocompatibility with a good immune evasion ability. MoS2 has a large specific surface area and unique layered structure, which provides favorable conditions for the loading of anticancer drugs. Adriamycin hydrochloride (DOX) was used as the model drug and the drug loading capacity was 98.98%. In the tumor microenvironment, the red cell membrane modified MoS2 drug delivery system (MoS2-RBC-DOX) showed obvious pH-dependent release behavior. In addition, the excellent photothermal properties of MoS2 are conducive to the release of drugs, thus improving the efficacy. According to the cell tests, MoS2-RBC had no cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, while DOX loading induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MoS2-RBC has a favorable photothermal effect, and chemotherapy combined with photothermal therapy is more effective than any single therapy. In vivo fluorescence imaging and in vivo photothermal imaging experiments confirmed the promoted accumulation of carrier materials at the tumor site after RBC membrane modification. Finally, in vivo antitumor studies showed that photothermal/chemotherapy combined with MoS2-RBC could completely inhibit tumor growth, and the body weights of mice fluctuated within the normal range without significant decrease. In summary, this MoS2-RBC drug delivery system provides a safe, rapid and effective option for future treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Neoplasias , Animais , Biomimética , Sobrevivência Celular , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Membrana Eritrocítica , Camundongos , Molibdênio/química , Molibdênio/farmacologia , Nanocompostos/química , Terapia Fototérmica , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 464, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative health consequences of truck driving are well documented. However, despite the distinct occupational challenges between long- and short-haul driving, limited research has been conducted on how the health profile of these drivers differ. The aims of this study were to characterise the physical and mental health of Australian truck drivers overall, and to identify any differences in factors influencing the health profile of long-haul compared to short-haul drivers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cross-sectional study, 1390 Australian truck drivers completed an online survey between August 2019 and May 2020. Questions included validated measures of psychological distress, general health, work ability and health-related quality-of-life. Participants driving 500 km or more per day were categorised as long-haul and those driving less than 500 km as short-haul. RESULTS: The majority of survey respondents were classified as either overweight (25.2%) or obese (54.3%). Three in ten reported three or more chronic health conditions (29.5%) and poor general health (29.9%). The most commonly diagnosed conditions were back problems (34.5%), high blood pressure (25.8%) and mental health problems (19.4%). Chronic pain was reported by 44% of drivers. Half of drivers reported low levels of psychological distress (50.0%), whereas 13.3 and 36.7% experienced severe or moderate level of psychological distress respectively. There were a small number of differences between the health of long- and short-haul drivers. A higher proportion of short-haul drivers reported severe psychological distress compared to long-haul drivers (15.2% vs 10.4%, χ2 = 8.8, 0.012). Long-haul drivers were more likely to be obese (63.0% vs 50.9%, χ2 = 19.8, < 0.001) and report pain lasting over a year (40.0% vs 31.5%, χ2 = 12.3, 0.006). Having more than one diagnosed chronic condition was associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes in both long- and short-haul drivers. CONCLUSION: Australian truck drivers report a high prevalence of multiple physical and mental health problems. Strategies focused on improving diet, exercise and preventing chronic conditions and psychological distress, that can also be implemented within the unique occupational environment of trucking are needed to help improve driver health. Further research is needed to explore risk and protective factors that specifically affect health in both short-haul and long-haul drivers.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Saúde Mental , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Obesidade/epidemiologia
7.
Appl Opt ; 61(9): 2382-2390, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333257

RESUMO

A simplified rendering method and system for retinal 3D projection using view and depth information is proposed and demonstrated. Instead of vertex calculations, image-based techniques, including sub-image shifting, image fusion, and hole filling, combined with the depth information, are used to render the multi-view images in a display space with specific discrete depth coordinates. A set of time-division multiplexing retinal 3D projection systems with dense viewpoints is built. A near-eye display of a 3D scene with complex occlusion relationships is realized using the rendering method and system. The eye box of the retinal projection system is enlarged, and the accommodation response of the eyes is evoked at the same time, which improves the visual experience. Rendering tests are carried out using simple and complex models, which proves the effectiveness of this method. Comparative experiments prove that the proposed retinal projection method can obtain high-performance 3D images comparable to the super multi-view display method while simplifying the rendering process. Additionally, the depth of field of the experimental system can cover most of the vergence accommodation conflict sensitive range of the human eye.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Retina , Acomodação Ocular , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Integr Med Res ; 11(2): 100804, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some Western medicine schools in China established standardized patient (SP) programs for medical education. However, SP programs are rarely applied to the education of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of using standardized patient traditional Chinese medicine (SP-TCM) to improve clinical competency among TCM medical students. METHODS: This study was a prospective, 2-group, parallel-training randomized trial over the course of 5 years. Data were collected from September 2016 to December 2020. Participants in each year were randomly allocated into the traditional-method training group or the SP-TCM training group (1:1) for a 3-month curriculum. Measurement of clinical competency among all trainees was based on a standardized examination composed of scores of medical record documentation, scores of TCM syndrome differentiation and therapeutic regimen, and checklist assessment from both SP-TCMs and TCM professionals. Feedback was collected using semi-constructive questionnaires from both groups. RESULTS: Compared with those assigned to traditional-method training, those assigned to SP-TCM training demonstrated significantly greater post-training improvement in medical record documentation and TCM syndrome differentiation and therapeutic regimen. Moreover, SP-TCM trainees outscored those assigned to traditional training in the assessment for encounter performance given by independent SP-TCMs and TCM professionals. The SP-TCM method gained higher satisfaction of training efficacy and test performance than the traditional method. CONCLUSION: This SP-TCM program demonstrated great benefits for improving clinical competency among TCM medical students.

9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262893, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Truck driving is the most common vocation among males internationally with a high proportion overweight/obese due to a combination of work and lifestyle factors leading to health complications. With limited studies in this area, this systematic review aimed to identify and describe interventions addressing weight reduction in truck drivers. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched, January 2000 to June 2020 (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus). Inclusion criteria: experimental primary studies, long-distance (≥500 kms) truck drivers, peer reviewed publications in English. Weight loss interventions included physical activity, diet, behavioral therapy, or health promotion/education programs. Exclusions: non-interventional studies, medications or surgical interventions. Two independent researchers completed screening, risk of bias (RoB) and data extraction with discrepancies managed by a third. Study descriptors, intervention details and outcomes were extracted. RESULTS: Seven studies (two RCTs, five non-RCTs,) from three countries were included. Six provided either counselling/coaching or motivational interviewing in combination with other components e.g. written resources, online training, provision of exercise equipment. Four studies demonstrated significant effects with a combined approach, however, three had small sample sizes (<29). The effect sizes for 5/7 studies were medium to large size (5/7 studies), indicating likely clinical significance. RoB assessment revealed some concerns (RCTs), and for non-RCTs; one moderate, two serious and two with critical concerns. Based on the small number of RCTs and the biases they contain, the overall level of evidence in this topic is weak. CONCLUSION: Interventions that include a combination of coaching and other resources may provide successful weight reduction for truck drivers and holds clinical significance in guiding the development of future interventions in this industry. However, additional trials across varied contexts with larger sample populations are needed.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Veículos Automotores , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dietoterapia/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Seguimentos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Environ Manage ; 306: 114497, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038669

RESUMO

Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a global problem. Enhanced biological nitrate reduction by liquid organics combined with low-cost natural materials (as electron donors) can cost-effectively remove nitrate from groundwater. Dissolved Mn(II) as an electron donor has been thoroughly investigated to support microbial nitrate reduction. However, most Mn in soil and sediments is in solid form, and the ability of solid-phase natural manganese oxide ore (NMO) as electron donor and for supporting microbial nitrate reduction is unknown. Therefore, a microcosm experiment was conducted to bridge this gap in knowledge. The results demonstrated that microbial nitrate reduction (mainly converted to nitrite) was enhanced by NMO (rich in cryptomelane). The electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses suggested that NMO may be oxidized by microbial metabolism. Illumina Miseq sequencing results indicated that Acidovorax spp. played a crucial role in NMO-supported nitrate reduction. Further Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analyses indicated that bacterial extracellular electron transfer may be one of the mechanisms for the microbial NMO oxidation. The results of our study highlight the potential importance of NMO in nitrate reduction in the natural environment and may pave the way for NMO-assisted technology for nitrate removal from groundwater with less usage of organic electron donors.


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae , Água Subterrânea , Elétrons , Compostos de Manganês , Nitratos , Oxirredução , Óxidos , Filogenia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085062

RESUMO

A novel actinobacterium, designated strain CFH 90414T, was isolated from sediment sampled at a saline lake in Yuncheng, Shanxi, PR China. The taxonomic position of the strain was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CFH 90414T were Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic and non-motile. Growth occured at 4-40 °C, pH 5.0-9.0 and in the presence of up to 0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CFH 90414T was a member of the genus Agromyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis indicated that strain CFH 90414T was most closely related to Agromyces italicus JCM 14320T (98.07 %) and Agromyces lapidis JCM 14321T (97.18 %). The whole genome of CFH 90414T was 3.64 Mb, and showed a G+C content of 71.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between CFH 90414T and the other species of the genus Agromyces were found to be low (ANI <78.99 % and dDDH <22.9 %). The whole-cell sugars were rhamnose, mannose, ribose, glucose and galactose. The isolate contained l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid, d-alanine, d-glutamic acid and glycine in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-12. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain CFH 90414T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Agromyces, for which the name Agromyces agglutinans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CFH 90414T (=DSM 105966T=KCTC 49062T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Ácidos Graxos , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lagos , Filogenia , Águas Salinas , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
12.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(1): e5254, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605575

RESUMO

Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (PCC) and Atractylodis Rhizoma (AR) are frequently used as herb pair to treat eczema and gout owing to their synergistic effects. Alkaloids are the major ingredients from PCC and the effect of their combination on the in vivo processing of alkaloids remains unclear. In this study, a simple and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of six alkaloids in rat plasma was developed. This method was applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study between PCC and PCC-AR in rats. Effect of AR on absorption of alkaloids was investigated by a single-pass intestinal perfusion study. The effect of AR on urinary excretion of alkaloids was studied. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the values of rea under the concentration-time curve of phellodendrine, magnoflorine and palmatine were greater in the PCC-AR group than in the PCC group. The intestinal absorptive parameters absorption rate constant and effective permeability of phellodendrine and jatrorrhizine in PCC-AR groups were higher than those in the PCC group. Urinary excretion studies revealed that the excreted amount of alkaloids in the PCC-AR group was lower than that in the PCC group. The results revealed that the combination of PCC and AR improves intestinal absorption of alkaloids and reduces their urinary excretion, which enhances their systemic exposure. This study may explain the synergetic effects of PCC and AR in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/sangue , Alcaloides/farmacocinética , Alcaloides/urina , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
J Occup Rehabil ; 32(1): 55-63, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913056

RESUMO

Objectives To determine in Australian workers with an accepted workers' compensation claim for low back pain (LBP) (1) the prevalence of diagnostic imaging of the spine and factors associated with its use, and (2) the association between spinal diagnostic imaging events and wage replacement duration. Methods Workers with accepted workers' compensation claims for LBP longer than 2 weeks were grouped by whether workers' compensation funded no, single, or multiple diagnostic spinal imaging in the 2 years since reported LBP onset. Ordinal logistic regression was used to define the demographic, occupational and social factors associated with each group. Time-to-event analysis was used to determine the association between spinal imaging and wage replacement duration. Results In the sample of 30,530 workers, 9267 (30.4%) received single spinal imaging and 6202 (20.3%) received multiple spinal imaging. Male workers and workers from the state of Victoria had significantly higher odds of multiple imaging. Socioeconomically advantaged workers and workers from remote Australia had significantly lower odds of multiple imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was the most common imaging modality. Workers with single spinal imaging (median duration 17.0 weeks; HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9, 2.1) and multiple spinal imaging (median duration 49.0 weeks; HR 4.0, 95% CI 3.9, 4.1) had significantly longer wage replacement duration than those with no imaging (median duration 6.1 weeks). Conclusions Over half of Australian workers with an accepted workers' compensation claim for LBP longer than 2 weeks received diagnostic spinal imaging. Receipt of diagnostic imaging, particularly multiple imaging, was associated with longer wage replacement duration.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salários e Benefícios , Vitória
14.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113793, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601347

RESUMO

Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been regarded as the main receptors of microplastics in industrial and domestic wastewater. The excess sludge they generate is an important carrier for the microplastics to enter the environment. In China, relevant regional studies are still in an initial phase. In this work, microplastics in the sewage sludges at different sampling points of five WWTPs in Nanjing City (an important city in the Yangtze River basin) were investigated, including their abundance, morphology and chemical composition. Furthermore, the influence factors such as population density, economic development level, wastewater source and treatment process were also discussed. The analysis results through optical microscope and FT-IR showed that the detected microplastics were divided into fragments, films, fibers and granules. Their chemical component reached up to 19 species, including small amounts of petroleum resins which was scarcely detected in other studies. Wastewater source was the primary factor influencing the microplastic abundance and size in sludge. And the microplastic shape and chemical components were closely related to the industrial type. Furthermore, because the removal effect on the microplastics with different morphologies were varied with the treatment process, the preliminary suggestions on the technology for particular wastewater were proposed. This study provides partial regional data and analysis for the microplastics contained in the sludge of WWTPs, expecting to provide a certain theoretical support for the operations management of WWTPs and standardized sludge treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Esgotos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Food Res Int ; 150(Pt A): 110717, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865748

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a worldwide concern in recent years. Coix seed (CS) as a homologous substance of traditional Chinese medicine and food, its polysaccharides can improve the symptoms of patients with metabolic disorders. Since most plant polysaccharides are difficult to digest and absorb, we hypothesized that Coix seed polysaccharides (CSP) exert hypoglycemic effects through the gut. In this study, the underlying mechanisms regulating hypoglycemic effects of CSP on a T2DM mouse model were investigated. After treatment with CSP, serum insulin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased, while total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were decreased in T2DM mice. In addition, CSP treatment helped repair the intestinal barrier and modulated the gut microbial composition in T2DM mice, mainly facilitating the growth of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, Spearman's analysis revealed these bacteria were positively related with the hypoglycemic efficacy of CSP. Colonic transcriptome analysis indicated the hypoglycemic effect of CSP was associated with the activation of the IGF1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Correlative analysis revealed that this activation may result from the increase of SCFAs-producing bacteria by CSP. GC-MS detection verified that CSP treatment increased fecal SCFAs levels. Molecular docking revealed that SCFAs could bind with IGF1, PI3K, and AKT. Our findings demonstrated that CSP treatment modulates gut microbial composition, especially of the SCFAs-producing bacteria, activates the IGF1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, and exhibits hypoglycemic efficacy.


Assuntos
Coix , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Coix/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(23): 6271-6277, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951254

RESUMO

The present study investigated the differences in pharmacokinetics and intestinal absorption of six alkaloids in Sanmiao Pills and Simiao Pills in rats and explored the different efficacies of the two formulae. After oral administration of Sanmiao Pills and Simiao Pills in rats, blood samples were collected at different time points. Samples were prepared for the determination of six alkaloids in plasma by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatography was performed on an ACE Excel 3 C_(18 )column with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Analytes were detected in the positive ion mode. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Intestinal absorption of alkaloids was investigated by single-pass intestinal perfusion and absorption parameters of ingredients were calculated. The results showed that the UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of concentrations of six alkaloids in plasma was developed and validated by methodological investigations, such as specificity, calibration curves, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, and stability. The results of the pharmacokinetic assay revealed that C_(max) and AUC values of phellodendrine, berberine, magnoflorine, berberrubine, and jatrorrhizine in Simiao Pills were significantly increased, and CL/F values were reduced as compared with those in Sanmiao Pills, which indicated the increase in plasma concentrations of alkaloids. The intestinal absorption parameters K_(a )and P_(eff) values of phellodendrine, berberine, and jatrorrhizine in Simiao Pills were higher than those in Sanmiao Pills. The intestinal absorption and plasma concentrations of alkaloids in Simiao Pills were significantly higher than those in Sanmiao Pills, suggesting that the composition of Simiao Pills was more conducive to the alkaloids into the blood to resist inflammation and lower uric acid.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Absorção Intestinal , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Pain ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799531

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify patterns of opioid dispensing in Australian workers with low back pain (LBP) and determine the association of dispensing patterns with wage replacement duration. Australian workers' compensation claimants with LBP and at least 1 day of wage replacement were included. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify opioid dispensing patterns over a two-and-a-half-year period from reported LBP onset and quantile regression to compare wage replacement duration between each dispensing pattern group. Opioids were dispensed to one-third of workers with LBP (N = 3205, 33.3%) at least once during their claim. Three dispensing patterns were identified. Most had a short-term low-volume opioid dispensing pattern (N = 2166, 67.6%), whereas 798 (24.9%) had a long-term moderate-volume pattern and 241 (7.5%) had a long-term high-volume pattern. Workers with dispensed opioids had significantly longer wage replacement duration than those without dispensed opioids (median [weeks]: 63.6 vs 7.1, respectively). In addition, moderate-volume and high-volume long-term dispensing groups had significantly longer wage replacement duration compared with the short-term dispensing group (median [weeks]: 126.9, 126.0, and 30.7, respectively). Without controlling for pain severity, these results offer limited evidence that opioids lead to longer wage replacement duration. Further research controlling for pain severity, psychosocial factors, and recovery expectations is required to confirm whether the relationship between opioid dispensing pattern and wage replacement duration is causal in nature.

18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 250, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Screening is a confirmed way to reduce the incidence and mortality rates of CRC. This study aimed to identify a fecal-based, noninvasive, and accurate method for detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenoma (AA). METHODS: Through detection in tissue (n = 96) and fecal samples (n = 88) and tested in an independent group of fecal samples (n = 294), the methylated DNA marker ITGA4 and bacterial markers Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Pepetostreptococcusanaerobius (Pa) were identified from the candidate biomarkers for CRC and AA detection. A prediction score (pd-score) was constructed using the selected markers and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for distinguishing AA and CRC from healthy subjects by logistic regression method. The diagnostic performance of the pd-score was compared with FIT and validated in the external validation cohort (n = 117) and in a large CRC screening cohort. RESULTS: The pd-score accurately identified AA and CRC from healthy subjects with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.958, at a specificity of 91.37%; the pd-score showed sensitivities of 95.38% for CRC and 70.83% for AA, respectively. In the external validation cohort, the sensitivities of the pd-score for CRC and AA detection were 94.03% and 80.00%, respectively. When applied in screening, the pd-score identified 100% (11/11) of CRC and 70.83% (17/24) of AA in participants with both colonoscopy results and qualified fecal samples, showing an improvement by 41.19% compared to FIT. CONCLUSIONS: The current study developed a noninvasive and well-validated approach for AA and CRC detection, which could be applied widely as a diagnostic and screening test.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos
19.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1156, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504601

RESUMO

Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a chronic inflammatory breast condition that is characterized by granulomatous inflammation. GLM remains a refractory disease due to its failure to respond to routine anti-inflammatory therapies and its high recurrence rate. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the application of local heat therapy in GLM as a potential therapeutic strategy. The results revealed that the application of local heat therapy was associated with a shortened remission time for GLM, while the remission and recurrence rates were similar to those of existing therapies. The median first remission time following local heat therapy was significantly decreased compared with that following corticosteroid therapy (5.30 months vs. 11.27 months; P<0.05). The remission rates were not significantly different between the local heat therapy (76.9%), extensive excision (90.4%) and the corticosteroid therapy (85.7%) groups (P>0.05). In addition, the recurrence rates were not statistically different between the groups (local heat therapy, 8.3%; extensive excision, 10%; and corticosteroid therapy, 10%; P>0.05). The local heat therapy showed mild adverse effects and shortened healing times compared to the other therapies; however, further confirmation is required.

20.
J Occup Rehabil ; 31(4): 744-753, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495446

RESUMO

Purposes Timely delivery of treatment and rehabilitation is generally acknowledged to support injury recovery. This study aimed to describe the timing of health service use by injured truck drivers with work-related injury and to explore the association between demographic and injury factors and the duration of health service use. Methods Retrospective cohort study of injured truck drivers with accepted workers' compensation claims in the state of Victoria, Australia. Descriptive analyses examined the percentage of injured truck drivers using health services by service type. Logistic regression model examined predictors of any service use versus no service use, and predictors of extended service use (≥ 52 weeks) versus short-term use. Results The timing of health service use by injured truck drivers with accepted workers' compensation claims varies substantially by service type. General practitioner, specialist physician, and physical therapy service use peaks within the 14 weeks after compensation claim lodgement, whilst the majority of mental health services were accessed in the persistent phase beyond 14 weeks after claim lodgement. Older age, being employed by small companies, and claiming compensation for mental health conditions were associated with greater duration of health service use. Conclusions Injured truck drivers access a wide range of health services during the recovery and return to work process. Delivery of mental health services is delayed, including for those making mental health compensation claims. Health service planning should take into account worker and employer characteristics in addition to injury type.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores
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