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1.
Int Wound J ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691483

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to study the role of Th1/Th2 cell-associated chemokines in the formation of hypertrophic scars in rabbit ears. Twenty-six New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish the hypertrophic scar model of rabbit ear and the normal scar model of rabbit's back. Two rabbits were sacrificed on days 0 and 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 63 after operation. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE). Scar elevation index (SEI) was used to detect the expression of 10 chemokines related to Th1/Th2 cells in both scar formation expressions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results showed that two chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL12) were highly expressed during the formation of normal scar, and there was almost no expression during the formation of hypertrophic scar (*P < 0.05). The chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, CX3CL1) were almost non-expressed in the formation of normal scars but were expressed for a long time in the formation of hypertrophic scars. The four chemokines, CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, and CX3CL1, maintained a long-term high expression level during the formation of hypertrophic scars (P < 0.01). There were also three chemokines (CCL14, CCL19, CCL21) that were almost undetectable in normal scarring, but there was transiently low-level expression (P < 0.05) only during the peak proliferative phase in proliferative scarring. Th1/Th2 cell-associated chemokines are different in the type, quantity and expression, and maintenance time of rabbit ear hypertrophic scars.

2.
J Clin Nurs ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715044

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study mapped the quitting patterns (trajectories) of Hong Kong Chinese women smokers who had received counselling via a quitline service, and examined factors correlated with different trajectories. BACKGROUND: Quitting smoking is always a gradual and progressive process. However, most existing studies on smoking cessation have adopted a cross-sectional approach to conduct evaluation. Little is known about the quitting trajectories of smokers, particularly those who are women after receiving smoking cessation counselling. METHODS: We used a retrospective longitudinal design and analyzed 474 women smokers who had called the quitline. Quitting trajectories were mapped using latent growth modeling. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with class membership. A STROBE checklist was completed. RESULTS: We identified three trajectory groups: "quitters" who quit smoking at 6 months and abstained from cigarettes up to 6 years; "reducers" who cut down cigarette consumption ≥ 50% at 3 years and maintained reduced levels up to 6 years; "increasers" who increased smoking ≥ 20% at 3 years and continued smoking up to 6 years. Participants who perceived more difficulties in quitting were more likely to be increasers. Those with higher daily cigarette consumption at baseline were more likely to be reducers. CONCLUSIONS: We clarified three trajectory groups of women smokers. The results indicate that existing cessation services need to be improved, especially for women smokers who do not quit after receiving telephone counselling. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Existing cessation services need to be improved, especially for women smokers who do not quit after receiving telephone counselling. For those who reduce smoking but fail to quit, quit plans should be developed that provide step-by-step guidance in achieving abstinence through smoking reduction. Instant messages may complement telephone counselling to deliver cessation support for those who increase their cigarette consumption.

3.
Theriogenology ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711688

RESUMO

Genetic modification provides a means to enhancing disease resistance in animals. In this study, the first generation of genetically modified (GM) sheep overexpressing TLR4 was produced by microinjection for better disease resistance. To compare semen characteristics including sperm quality, seminal plasma biochemical index, sperm DNA methylation and pregnancy rate of three-year old transgenic sheep with TLR4 overexpressed (toll like receptor 4, TLR4) and non-transgenic ram. Sixteen transgenic ram of F0 generation were produced by microinjection of the TLR4 plasmid into the pronucleus of fertilized ova. Seven transgenic sheep of F1 generation was produced by breeding F0 transgenic founders with non-transgenic sheep of the same breed. There were no significant differences between transgenic and control rams for all semen quality parameters, including semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, and percentages of sperm with an intact plasma membrane, acrosomal integrity, and viable sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential in both F0 and F1 generation. Furthermore, no significant differences were found for seminal plasma concentrations of zinc, neutral alpha-glucosidase, acid phosphatase or fructose, nor for levels of H19 and IGF2R methylation in sperm DNA. In addition, pregnancy rate was also similar between these two groups. In conclusion, there was no evidence that TLR4 overexpression altered the sperm quality, seminal plasma or sperm DNA of transgenic sheep.

4.
Environ Int ; 134: 105282, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have demonstrated that cadmium exposure induces alterations on immune function, but epidemiological evidence is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between prenatal and postnatal cadmium exposure and cellular immune responses among pre-school children. METHODS: Pre-school aged children (n = 407) were followed from a prospective birth cohort study in Wuhan, China. Maternal urinary and children's plasma cadmium concentrations were measured as biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal cadmium exposure, respectively. Children's cellular immune responses were assessed by peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and plasma cytokines. Multivariable adjusted models were applied to estimate the associations of prenatal and postnatal cadmium exposure with T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines, and the effect modification by child gender were also examined. RESULTS: Maternal urinary cadmium was associated with reduced absolute counts of CD3+CD4+ cells (-12.45%; 95% CI: -23.74%, 0.40% for the highest vs. lowest quartile; p for trend = 0.045). Inverse associations of maternal urinary cadmium with %CD3+CD4+ cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were only observed among females (both p-interaction < 0.050); whereas an inverse association with absolute counts of CD3+CD8+ cells was only observed among males (p-interaction = 0.057). Positive associations of maternal urinary cadmium with %CD3+CD4+ cells, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-6 were only observed among females, although there were no significant interactions. We observed no clear associations of children's plasma cadmium with T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines. CONCLUSION: Prenatal but not postnatal cadmium exposure was associated with sex-specific alterations on children's cellular immune responses.

5.
Environ Int ; 134: 105304, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) may cause some adverse effects on human health by mimicking estrogen activities. In vitro andanimalstudies have observed the non-monotonic associations between BPA and natural estrogens, but the evidence in human study is lacking, particularly at multiple points in time during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between BPA and estrogens in the three trimesters among Chinese pregnant women and their gender variations. METHODS: This study included 851 participants from a birth cohort conducted in Wuhan, China between 2014 and 2015. We measured concentrations of BPA and three estrogens (estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3)) in urine samples collected in the three trimesters of pregnancy (mean for each visit: 13.0, 23.6, and 35.9 weeks' gestation). We calculated the estimated daily intakes using urinary BPA concentrations and compared them with the tolerable intake value to assess potential health risks. We used multivariate linear regression models stratified by trimester and gender to explore trimester-specific and gender-specific associations of BPA with E1, E2, and E3. RESULTS: We found the decreased levels of estrogens (ß < 0, P < 0.05) in the upper BPA quartiles over three trimesters, except for the elevated levels of E3 (ß = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.38) in the highest BPA quartile in the 2nd trimester. There were significant non-linear associations (overall associations P < 0.05, non-linear associations P < 0.05) between BPA and E3 in the three trimesters. In the gender-stratified analysis, we observed significant negative relationships (ß < 0, P < 0.05) between BPA and E2 among mothers carrying male fetuses in the 1st trimester and significant associations between BPA and E3 among mothers carrying female fetuses in the 2nd trimester. However, we found no significant relationship between BPA and E2 among mothers carrying female fetuses over three trimesters. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support experimental evidence of non-monotonic relationships between BPA and three major estrogens, even at low doses of BPA. Mothers delivering male fetuses may be more sensitive to E2 at early pregnancy, and those delivering female fetuses may be more susceptive to E3 at mid-pregnancy.

6.
Chemistry ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633249

RESUMO

The coordination number between copper and nitrogen in copper-nitrogen based electrocatalysts is quite important for boosting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, it is difficult to control the unsaturated copper-nitrogen constructions as well as compare their ORR performance in a similar carbon matrix by a simple but efficient way. Herein, we easily attained two types of Cu + -N 2 and Cu 2+ -N 4 constructions just by etching the pyrolyzed Cu-doped zeolitic imidazolate framework nanoleaf (Cu-ZIF-L) with sulfuric acid or nitric acid, respectively. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were adopted to further confirm the different copper-nitrogen constructions after different acid treatment. By comparison, electrochemical studies demonstrate that Cu + -N 2 sites get higher activity for boosting the ORR performance than that of Cu 2+ -N 4 sites. Furthermore, Cu-N/C-H 2 SO 4 acted as air cathode in the Zinc-air battery exhibits an excellent performance and stability.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107001, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that affects fetal growth in experimental studies. Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), which have been substituted for BPA in some consumer products, have also shown endocrine-disrupting effects in experimental models. However, the effects of BPF and BPS on fetal growth in humans are unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate trimester-specific associations of urinary concentrations of BPA, BPF, and BPS with size at birth. METHODS: The present study included 845 pregnant women from Wuhan, China (2013-2015), who provided one urine sample in each of the first, second, and third trimesters. Linear regressions with generalized estimating equations were applied to estimate trimester-specific associations of urinary bisphenol concentrations with birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify potential critical windows of susceptibility to bisphenols by comparing the exposure patterns of newborns in the 10th percentile of each birth anthropometric measurement to that of those in the 90th percentile. RESULTS: Medians (25th-75th percentiles) of urinary concentrations of BPA, BPF, and BPS were 1.40 (0.19-3.85), 0.65 (0.34-1.39), and 0.38 (0.13-1.11) ng/mL, respectively. Urinary BPA concentrations in different trimesters were inversely, but not significantly, associated with birth weight and ponderal index. Urinary concentrations of BPF and BPS during some trimesters were associated with significantly lower birth weight, birth length, or ponderal index, with significant trend p-values (ptrend<0.05) across quartiles of BPF and BPS concentrations. The observed associations were unchanged after additionally adjusting for other bisphenols. In addition, newborns in the 10th percentile of each birth anthropometry measure had higher BPF and BPS exposures during pregnancy than newborns in the 90th percentile of each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to BPF and BPS was inversely associated with size at birth in this cohort. Replication in other populations is needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4664.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031834, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628132

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nausea and vomiting are two most common symptoms reported by children with cancer when they undergo active treatment. However, pharmacological treatment is not sufficient to manage these two symptoms, with over 40% of children still experience nausea and vomiting after receiving antiemetics. There has been an exponential growth of studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of different complementary complementary medicine (CAM) to control nausea and vomiting during cancer treatment. Appropriate application of CAM enhances the effectiveness of antiemetics, thus reducing the symptom burden on children as well as improving their general condition and quality of life during cancer treatment. Nevertheless, it remains unclear which CAM is the best approach to help children to prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting during and after cancer treatment. This paper describes a protocol for identifying, analysing and synthesising research evidence on the effectiveness of CAM on nausea and vomiting in children with cancer. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 10 databases will be searched to identify appropriate literature: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, OpenSIGLE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Chinese Medical Current Contents and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. All randomised controlled trials which meet the inclusion criteria will be included. The primary outcome is the changes in nausea and vomiting either assessed by self-reported and/or objective measures. Review Manager 5.3 will be used to synthesise the data, calculate the treatment effects, perform any subgroup analysis and assess the risk of bias. ETHICAL AND DISSEMINATION: The results will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. As no individual data will be involved in this review, ethical approval is not required. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019135404.

9.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(5): 794-799, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612398

RESUMO

To evaluate the anesthetic effect of ultrasound-guided (USG) ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve (II/IHN) block combined with genital branch of genitofemoral nerve (GFN) block in the elderly undergoing inguinal hernia repair, 54 old patients (aged 60-96years, ASA I-III) with indirect hernia were enrolled and scheduled for unilateral tension-free herniorrhaphy. Patients were grouped randomly to receive either USG II/IHN plus GFN block (Group G) or USG II/IHN block alone (Group I). The intraoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were recorded at skin incision, at spermatic cord/round ligament traction and at sac ligation. The resting and dynamic VAS scores were recorded postoperatively. The requirements of extra sedatives and analgesics for intra- and postoperative analgesia were assessed. Occurrence of complications of the block, postoperative nausea and vomiting and femoral nerve palsy was also reported. Both groups showed similar sensory block. When stretching spermatic cord/round ligament, the patients in group G had significantly lower VAS scores than in group I. And group G used much fewer adjuvant sedatives and analgesics to achieve adequate anaesthesia. In addition, group G was presented with better intraoperative anaesthesia and lower postoperative dynamic VAS scores at all time points tested. No significant difference was found in the postoperative requirement of rescue medication. Both groups showed no complications related to the block and group G reported no femoral nerve palsy. The addition of GFN block to II/IHN block improves the quality of perioperative anesthesia and analgesia in the elderly and reduces the consumption of extra sedatives and analgesics during the surgery.

10.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 343, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is the second leading causes of cancer-related death globally. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1) plays a critical role in metabolic profiles of tumors. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the mechanisms of PYCR1 on cell growth and survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Protein and mRNA expression levels of PYCR1 in 140 pairs of tumor and adjacent normal liver tissues of HCC patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expressions of PYCR1 were inhibited in BEL-7404 cells and SMMC-7721 cells using gene interference technology. The cell proliferation was detected by Celigo and MTT assay. The colony formation assay was also performed. The cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometric assay. The effect of PYCR1 interference on tumor growth was observed by xenograft nude mice assay in vivo. The downstream pathway of PYCR1 interference was searched by microarray and bioinformatics analysis, and validated by qRT-PCR and western blot. RESULTS: PYCR1 levels were significantly up-regulated in HCC tumor tissues than adjacent normal liver tissues in both protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.01). In vitro, the cell proliferation was significantly slower in shPYCR1 group than shCtrl group in BEL-7404 and SMMC-7721 cells (P < 0.001). The colony number was significantly smaller after PYCR1 interference (P < 0.01). The percentage of apoptosis cells significantly increased in shPYCR1 group (P < 0.01). In vivo, PYCR1 interference could obviously suppress tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. The volume and weight of tumors were significantly smaller via PYCR1 interference. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway significantly altered, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) were significantly down-regulated by PYCR1 interference in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: PYCR1 interference could inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis in HCC through regluting JNK/IRS1 pathway. Our study will provide a drug target for HCC therapy and a potential biomarker for its diagnosis or prognosis.

11.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647576

RESUMO

The prevalence of maternal and child overweight/obesity and gestational hyperglycemia has increased greatly in China in recent years. However, studies examining the relationship between maternal hyperglycemia, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (ppBMI), and offspring obesity in China are limited. Here, we conducted a prospective study of 6684 mother-child pairs in Wuhan, China in 2012-2015. Maternal glucose concentrations were measured at approximately 24-28 weeks of gestation; children's weight and length were measured at birth and at 6, 12, and 24 months of age; and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated for different time points. We found that maternal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations were positively associated with offspring ponderal index and the risk of macrosomia at birth, but not with BMIZ or the risk of overweight/obesity at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. By contrast, maternal ppBMI was positively associated with both an increased risk of macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Here, we observed an interaction effect of the association of FPG and ppBMI on offspring macrosomia and a mediating effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on the pathway between ppBMI and macrosomia. Our findings suggest that maternal ppBMI is a more pronounced predictor than gestational FPG concentrations in both the relation to BMIZ and the risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood.

12.
Chemistry ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647595

RESUMO

Transition-metal-based phosphides (TMPs) have been considered as attractive electrocatalysts for water splitting due to their earth-abundance and remarkable catalytic activity. As a representative type of precursors, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provide ideal plateaus for the design of nanostructured TMPs. In this work, the hierarchically structured iron phosphide nano-bundles (FeP-500) were fabricated via one-step phosphorization of an iron-based MOF (MET(Fe)) precursor. The derived FeP-500 nano-bundles were constructed by quasi-paralleled one-dimensional nanorods with uneven surface, which provided channels for electrolyte penetration, mass transport, and effective exposure of active sites during water splitting process. With the addition of conductive Super P, the obtained FeP-500-S exhibited good electrocatalytic performance towards hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline electrolyte (1 mol L-1 KOH). Furthermore, to investigate the influence of secondary metal doping, a series of isoreticular MOF precursors and bimetallic TMPs were fabricated. The results indicated that the catalytic performance is structure-dominated.

13.
Epigenetics ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588838

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, the roles of specific miRNAs in RA pathogenesis remain largely unclear. This study performed dual-omics (miRNA and mRNA) integration analysis and in-depth cellular and molecular functional exploration to identify novel RA-associated miRNAs and to understand their underlying pathogenic mechanism. Based on the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a discovery sample set (25 RA cases and 18 healthy controls), 18 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMIRs) (|Fold-change|>2 and P < 0.05) were identified and corresponding interaction networks of DEMIRs and mRNA were constructed. After the expression validation of the DEMIRs in a validation sample set (35 RA cases and 35 healthy controls), miR-99b-5p was highlighted. The over-expression of newly discovered miR-99b-5p is able to suppress T cell apoptosis, promote cell proliferation and activation, increase expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ), and inhibit expression of its target genes mTOR and RASSF4. This study comprehensively identified PBMC-expressed miRNAs along with corresponding regulatory networks significant for RA and discovered miR-99b-5p as a novel post-transcriptional mediator involved in RA pathogenesis. The findings improved our understanding of RA pathogenesis and provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying RA pathogenesis.

14.
Acad Radiol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630998

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Silent T1W and T2W magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to study myelination in children, but the success rate of silent diffusion-weighted imaging is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the success rate and image quality of silent MRI for the brain of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 3-36-month children who underwent silent or conventional brain MRI at the People's Hospital of Northern Jiangsu from 01/2015 to 02/2018. The success rates were compared. The acoustic noise of each sequence was measured using a decibel meter. The signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio of the diffusion-weighted imaging, T2W, and T1W sequences were analyzed. Subjective image quality (lesion delineation, visibility, gray-white differentiation, and overall diagnostic usefulness) was determined. RESULTS: The success rate of silent MRI (n = 443) was higher than that of conventional MRI (n = 391) (97.7% vs. 88.2%, p < 0.001). The acoustic noise of all silent sequences was lower than that of the conventional sequence (all p < 0.05). Silent sequences showed decreased signal-to-noise ratio vs. conventional sequences but increased contrast-to-noise ratio (all p < 0.05). Lesion delineation was not significantly different. Lesion visibility and gray-white differentiation of all silent sequences were higher (all p < 0.05). The overall diagnostic usefulness of the silent group was higher (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Silent MRI can effectively improve the success rate of MRI in children of 3-36 months. Noise is reduced, and the overall diagnostic usefulness is higher than that of conventional MRI. Silent MRI is more suitable for children's brain scan than conventional MRI.

15.
BMC Immunol ; 20(1): 38, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helios has been reported to stabilize regulatory T (Treg) suppressive function. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression in three human monocyte subsets modulates immune responses. Recently, our team reported that three monocyte subsets are associated with T helper cell differentiation in HIV-1-infected patients. Until now, the effects of monocyte subsets and their PD-1 expression on Foxp3+Helios+ Treg cells have not been fully characterized, especially during acute HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: The frequency of Foxp3+Helios+CD45RA+ Treg cells is significantly higher in patients with acute HIV-1 infection than those of healthy controls and chronic HIV-1-infected patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy. The frequency of Foxp3+Helios+CD45RA+ Treg cells is inversely correlated with CD4 T-cell counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio in chronic HIV-1-infected patients. During acute HIV-1 infection, the frequency of Foxp3+Helios+CD45RA+ Treg cells is inversely correlated with the frequency of the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte subset, but positively correlated with PD-1 expression in both intermediate CD14++CD16+ and non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocyte subsets. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the perturbations of Foxp3+Helios+ Treg cells were characterized, and the association between monocyte subsets and their PD-1 expression and Foxp3+Helios+ Treg cells was evaluated during HIV-1 infection. Our observations provide new evidence of the roles for Foxp3+Helios+ Treg cells and PD-1 expression on monocyte subsets in HIV pathogenesis.

16.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105222, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested exposure to heavy metals and endocrine disrupting chemicals could disturb the homeostasis of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), but no epidemiology study concerning the influence of rare earth elements (REE) exposure during pregnancy on neonatal TSH levels. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between prenatal REE exposure and neonatal TSH levels. METHODS: A total of 7367 pregnant women were recruited from Wuhan Children's Hospital between September 2012 and October 2014 in Wuhan, China. Urinary concentrations of cerium (Ce), and ytterbium (Yb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect neonatal TSH levels. The associations between REE exposure and neonatal TSH levels were evaluated using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS: The geometric means of maternal urinary Ce and Yb concentrations were 0.060 µg/g creatinine and 0.025 µg/g creatinine, respectively. The results showed that per doubling of maternal urinary Ce and Yb were associated with 4.07% (95% CI: -5.80%, -2.31%), 5.13% (95% CI: -6.93%, -3.30%) decreased neonatal TSH levels respectively in the adjusted model. Sex stratified analysis demonstrated that the decreased neonatal TSH levels were observed both in male infants and female infants, and the decrease was greater in male infants in urinary Ce. There were no significant interactions between maternal urinary Ce, Yb and infant sex (Ce: P for interaction = 0.173, Yb: P for interaction = 0.967). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that increased maternal urinary Ce and Yb were associated with decreased neonatal TSH levels. Further researches from different populations are warranted to verify the association and to explore the mechanisms.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570775

RESUMO

Increased expression of the 3.1 isoform of the KCNH2 potassium channel has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and with schizophrenia, yet little is known about the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Here, by using in vivo wireless local field potential recordings during working memory processing, in vitro brain slice whole-cell patching recordings and in vivo stereotaxic hippocampal injection of AAV-encoded expression, we identified specific and delayed disruption of hippocampal-mPFC synaptic transmission and functional connectivity associated with reductions of SERPING1, CFH, and CD74 in the KCNH2-3.1 overexpression transgenic mice. The differentially expressed genes in mice are enriched in neurons and microglia, and reduced expression of these genes dysregulates the complement cascade, which has been previously linked to synaptic plasticity. We find that knockdown of these genes in primary neuronal-microglial cocultures from KCNH2-3.1 mice impairs synapse formation, and replenishing reduced CFH gene expression rescues KCNH2-3.1-induced impaired synaptogenesis. Translating to humans, we find analogous dysfunctional interactions between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in coupling of the fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during working memory in healthy subjects carrying alleles associated with increased KCNH2-3.1 expression in brain. Our data uncover a previously unrecognized role of the truncated KCNH2-3.1 potassium channel in mediating complement activation, which may explain its association with altered hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity and synaptic function. These results provide a potential molecular link between increased KCNH2-3.1 expression, synapse alterations, and hippocampal-prefrontal circuit abnormalities implicated in schizophrenia.

18.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with shorter telomere lengths in adults, but evidence on the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure is limited. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal second-hand smoke exposure and newborn telomere length. METHODS: We recruited 762 mother-newborn pairs from Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital) between November 2013 and March 2015. Information on second-hand smoke exposure was obtained via questionnaires. Relative telomere length was measured in DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood. We used linear regression to assess the associations between prenatal second-hand smoke exposure and newborn telomere length. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, prenatal second-hand smoke exposure was associated with 9.7% shorter newborn telomere length (percent difference: -9.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -15.0, -4.0). The estimate for boys was lower (percent difference: -10.9%; 95% CI: -18.6, -2.5) than that for girls (percent difference: -8.5%; 95% CI: -15.8, -0.5), but the interaction term between newborn sex and prenatal second-hand smoke was not significant (P = 0.751). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that prenatal second-hand smoke exposure may be a preventable risk factor for accelerated biological aging in the intrauterine stage, and further suggested possible sex differences in the susceptibility to prenatal second-hand smoke.

19.
Small ; : e1901718, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515944

RESUMO

2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received widespread interest by virtue of their excellent electrical, optical, and electrochemical characteristics. Recent studies on TMDs have revealed their versatile utilization as electrocatalysts, supercapacitors, battery materials, and sensors, etc. In this study, MoS2 nanosheets are successfully assembled on the porous VS2 (P-VS2 ) scaffold to form a MoS2 /VS2 heterostructure. Their gas-sensing features, such as sensitivity and selectivity, are investigated by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. The QCM results and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the impressive affinity of the MoS2 /VS2 heterostructure sensor toward ammonia with a higher adsorption uptake than the pristine MoS2 or P-VS2 sensor. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics of the MoS2 /VS2 heterostructure sensor toward ammonia follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The excellent sensing features of the MoS2 /VS2 heterostructure render it attractive for high-performance ammonia sensors in diverse applications.

20.
J Med Virol ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513283

RESUMO

Emerging suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the occurrence and development of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectious disease. However, miRNAs in occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI), a special stage of HBV infection, remain largely unknown. Herein, we conducted this study to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and then to investigate the potential roles of these miRNAs in OBI. Plasma miRNA expression profiles of three OBI patients and three healthy controls were analyzed with high through-put miRNA sequencing technology. Altered expression of miRNAs was further confirmed with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Finally, bioinformatics analysis was conducted to investigate the involved pathways and target genes for these differentially expressed miRNAs. Totally, 32 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified between OBI and healthy controls by miRNA sequencing (fold change ≥ 1.5, P < .1, and counts per million reads ≥ 1), including 16 downregulated and 16 upregulated miRNAs. Differential expression of hsa-miR-486-5p, -25-3p, and -92a-3p and -1-3p was further validated by qRT-PCR analysis, which was consistent with miRNA sequencing analysis. Moreover, these four miRNAs might distinguish OBI from HCs efficiently. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that the differentially expressed miRNAs were primarily involved in various biological processes related to gene expression and transcription, cell development and metabolism, protein modification and kinase activity regulation, as well as multiple signaling pathways such as PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study provided a global view of miRNA expression in plasma from OBI patients. These differentially expressed miRNAs might play important roles in the development of OBI, which provided intriguing insights into the screening and molecular mechanism of OBI.

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