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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871556

RESUMO

The surface glycoprotein (S protein) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was used to develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. However, SARS-CoV-2, especially the S protein, has undergone rapid evolution and mutation, which has remained to be determined. Here, we analyzed and compared the early (12 237) and the current (more than 10 million) SARS-CoV-2 strains to identify the mutation features and geographical distribution of the S gene and S protein. Results showed that in the early strains, most of the loci were with relative low mutation frequency except S: 23403 (4486 strains), while in the current strains, there was a surge in the mutation strains and frequency, with S: 23403 constantly being the highest one, but tremendously increased to approximately 1050 times. Furthermore, D614 (S: 23403) was one of the most highly frequent mutations in the S protein of Omicron as of March 2022, and most of the mutant strains were still from the United States, and the United Kingdom. Further analysis demonstrated that in the receptor-binding domain, most of the loci with low mutation frequency in the early strains, while S: 22995 was nowadays the most prevalent loci with 3 122 491 strains in the current strains. Overall, we compare the mutation features of the S region in SARS-CoV-2 strains between the early and the current stains, providing insight into further studies in concert with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants for COVID-19 vaccines.

2.
Life (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35743879

RESUMO

The genus Ficus is an evergreen plant, the most numerous species in the family Moraceae, and is often used as a food and pharmacy source. The phylogenetic relationships of the genus Ficus have been debated for many years due to the overlapping phenotypic characters and morphological similarities between the genera. In this study, the eight Ficus species (Ficus altissima, Ficus auriculata, Ficus benjamina, Ficus curtipes, Ficus heteromorpha, Ficus lyrata, Ficus microcarpa, and Ficus virens) complete chloroplast (cp) genomes were successfully sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were made with other Ficus species. The result showed that the eight Ficus cp genomes ranged from 160,333 bp (F. heteromorpha) to 160,772 bp (F. curtipes), with a typical quadripartite structure. It was found that the eight Ficus cp genomes had similar genome structures, containing 127 unique genes. The cp genomes of the eight Ficus species contained 89-104 SSR loci, which were dominated by mono-nucleotides repeats. Moreover, we identified eight hypervariable regions (trnS-GCU_trnG-UCC, trnT-GGU_psbD, trnV-UAC_trnM-CAU, clpP_psbB, ndhF_trnL-UAG, trnL-UAG_ccsA, ndhD_psaC, and ycf1). Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the subgenus Ficus and subgenus Synoecia exhibit close affinities and based on the results, we prefer to merge the subgenus Synoecia into the subgenus Ficus. At the same time, new insights into the subgeneric classification of the Ficus macrophylla were provided. Overall, these results provide useful data for further studies on the molecular identification, phylogeny, species identification and population genetics of speciation in the Ficus genus.

3.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 8(3): 231-245, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702702

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3)-205 in renal inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Materials and Methods: lncRNA microarray profiling was used to examine differentially expressed lncRNAs of kidney tissues in db/db mice compared to db/m mice. Mouse mesangial cells (mMCs) were cultured in vitro with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) via transfection with lncRNA MEG3-205 siRNAs or plasmids. The role of lncRNA MEG3-205 in vivo was examined in db/db mice treated with long-acting lncRNA MEG3-205 siRNA. The interaction between lncRNA MEG3-205 and let-7a was investigated using luciferase assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. Results: lncRNA MEG3-205 was markedly upregulated in renal tissues of db/db mice, DN patients, and AGEs-treated mesangial cells. Overexpression of lncRNA MEG3-205 promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in mesangial cells. Both lncRNA MEG3-205 and myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) could bind to let-7a, and lncRNA MEG3-205 overexpression can significantly rescue the silencing effect of let-7a on MyD88 protein expression in mMCs. Mechanistically, we identified that lncRNA MEG3-205 could act as a competing endogenous RNA by binding with let-7a and thus regulate MyD88. Knockdown of lncRNA MEG3-205 alleviated albuminuria and attenuated renal inflammation and fibrosis in db/db mice. Conclusion: These findings indicated an important role of the lncRNA MEG3-205/let-7a/MyD88 axis in regulating renal inflammation and fibrosis in DN. Targeting lncRNA MEG3-205 might present a promising therapeutic strategy for DN.

4.
Gene ; 837: 146696, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738448

RESUMO

Cupressaceae is a conifer family distributed around the world. Cupressus and Juniperus are the main genera of the Cupressaceae family and have important medicinal value. This leads to confusion between Cupressus and Juniperus due to similar morphologies. Here, the complete cp genomes of two Cupressus (C. duclouxiana and C. funebri) and four Juniperus (J. chinensis, J. gaussenii J. pingii and J. procumbens) were sequenced. The results revealed that the length of the cp genomes ranged from 126,996 bp to 129,959 bp, with 119 genes comprising 82 protein-coding genes, 33 transfer RNAs and 4 ribosomal RNAs. All chloroplast genomes of Cupressus and Juniperus lost whole IR regions, which is consistent with gymnosperm cp genome studies. In addition, the number of SSRs per species ranged from 54 to 73 and was dominated by mononucleotide repeats. In the six cp genomes of Cupressus and Juniperus, five highly divergent regions, including accD, accD-rpl2, ycf1, ycf2 and rrn23-rrn4.5, can be used as DNA barcodes of interspecific relationships and potential genetic markers. We compared the gene selection pressures (C. chengiana as reference species), and 6 genes underwent positive selection, the majority of which were related to photosynthesis. Phylogenetic results showed that the monophyly of Cupressus and Juniperus supported most bootstrap support. Cupressus funebris and J. chinensis were resolved to be early diverging species within Cupressus and Juniperus, and the two genera were sister groups to each other. This research revealed a new understanding of the structural pluralism and phylogenetic relationships of Cupressaceae cp genomes. These results will facilitate comprehension of the complexity and diversity of conifer cp genomes.


Assuntos
Cupressaceae , Cupressus , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Juniperus , Cupressaceae/genética , Cupressus/genética , Juniperus/genética , Filogenia
5.
Front Nutr ; 9: 801979, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399692

RESUMO

Background: Although the ratio of apolipoprotein B (apo B) to apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1) (apo B/apo A1) seems to be associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients, the association of apo B/apo A1 ratio with death remains not clear in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Aims: The study targets to examine the relationship of apo B/apo A1 ratio with survival in patients receiving PD treatment. Methods: In this single-center prospective observational cohort study, we enrolled 1,616 patients receiving PD treatment with a median follow-up time of 47.6 months. We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to examine the relationship between apo B/apo A1 ratio and cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality. The association of apo B/apo A1 ratio with atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic CV mortality was further evaluated by competing risk regression models. Results: During the follow-up, 508 (31.4%) patients died, 249 (49.0%) died from CV events, of which 149 (59.8%) were atherosclerotic CV mortality. In multivariable models, for 1-SD increase in apo B/apo A1 ratio level, the adjusted hazard ratios for CV and all-cause mortality were 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.47; P = 0.005] and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.07-1.35; P = 0.003), respectively. The adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios for atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic CV mortality were 1.43 (95% CI, 1.19-1.73; P < 0.001) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.64-1.13; P = 0.256), respectively. For quartile analysis, patients in quartile 4 had higher CV, all-cause, and atherosclerotic CV mortality compared with those in quartile 1. Moreover, apo B/apo A1 ratio had a diabetes-related difference in CV, all-cause, and atherosclerotic CV mortality. Conclusion: Elevated apo B/apo A1 ratio level was significantly associated with CV, all-cause, and atherosclerotic CV mortality in patients undergoing PD. Moreover, the association was especially statistically significant in patients with diabetes.

6.
Toxicology ; 471: 153163, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378374

RESUMO

Ketamine is an anesthetic and addictive drug that can cause cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that carboxy-terminal fragment derived from ß-secretase (CTF-ß) and amyloid beta (Aß), the amyloidogenic products of amyloid precursor protein (APP), can also induce neuroinflammation and impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear whether ketamine regulates the amyloidogenic pathway. In the endosome, APP is cleaved by beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), whose activity is influenced by pH. Endosomal acidification is mainly regulated by sodium hydrogen exchanger 6 (NHE6), which leaks protons out of endosomes, and vacuolar proton translocating ATPases (V-ATPase), which pump protons into endosomes. Therefore, we hypothesized that ketamine lowers the endosomal pH by reducing the endosomal NHE6 protein level, and this hyperacidification promotes the amyloidogenic pathway. We set up C57BL/6 J mouse models using 10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 mg/kg ketamine administration and SH-SY5Y cell models using 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µM ketamine administration to investigate its effects on the amyloidogenic pathway at different doses. Western blotting results showed that 100 mg/kg ketamine treatment in vivo and 1000 µM ketamine treatment in vitro increased endosomal BACE1 and CTF-ß protein levels and reduced endosomal NHE6 and APP protein levels. The endosomal accumulation of BACE1 caused by ketamine administration was also observed using confocal imaging. Moreover, flow cytometry indicated that ketamine treatment lowered the endosomal pH value of SH-SY5Y cells. Later, cells were pretreated with monensin to restore the endosomal pH. Monensin did not affect amyloidogenic-related proteins or NHE6 directly; therefore, ketamine-promoted endosomal amyloidogenic processing and BACE1 accumulation were depleted by restoring endosomal acidity through monensin pretreatment. Finally, knockdown of NHE6 promoted the amyloidogenic pathway similarly and prevented further enhancement by ketamine. These results indicated that the effects of ketamine on the amyloidogenic pathway were dependent on the reduction of NHE6 and endosomal pH.

7.
Theranostics ; 12(5): 2015-2027, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265196

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of rectal neuroendocrine tumors (RNET) has increased substantially over the past decades. Little is known on mechanistic alteration in the pathogenesis of such disease. We postulate that perturbations of human gut microbiome-metabolome interface influentially affect the development of RNET. The study aims to characterize the composition and function of faecal microbiome and metabolites in RNET individuals. Methods: We performed deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing and untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomic profiling of faecal samples from the discovery cohort (18 RNET patients, 40 controls), and validated the microbiome and metabolite-based classifiers in an independent cohort (15 RNET participants, 19 controls). Results: We uncovered a dysbiotic gut ecological microenvironment in RNET patients, characterized by aberrant depletion and attenuated connection of microbial species, and abnormally aggregated lipids and lipid-like molecules. Functional characterization based on our in-house and Human Project Unified Metabolic Analysis Network 2 (HUMAnN2) pipelines further indicated a nutrient deficient gut microenvironment in RNET individuals, evidenced by diminished activities such as energy metabolism, vitamin biosynthesis and transportation. By integrating these data, we revealed 291 robust associations between representative differentially abundant taxonomic species and metabolites, indicating a tight interaction of gut microbiome with metabolites in RNET pathogenesis. Finally, we identified a cluster of gut microbiome and metabolite-based signatures, and replicated them in an independent cohort, showing accurate prediction of such neoplasm from healthy people. Conclusions: Our current study is the first to comprehensively characterize the perturbed interface of gut microbiome and metabolites in RNET patients, which may provide promising targets for microbiome-based diagnostics and therapies for this disorder.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Humanos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
PeerJ ; 10: e12844, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186461

RESUMO

Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid is a plant used both as food and traditional folk medicine. The leaves of D. delavayi are rich in polyphenols, plants with phenolic content are known to be extremely beneficial in terms of human nutrition. In the present study, we used metabolome technology (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) to examine the young and mature D. delavayi leaves on metabolites changes, which were then analyzed and compared. As a result, 477 metabolites (including 111 flavonoids, 47 others (consisted of nine vitamin, 18 saccharides and alcohols, and 20 unassigned metabolites), 71 phenolic acids, 52 amino acids and derivatives, 18 alkaloids, 61 lipids, 24 terpenoids, 33 nucleotides and derivatives, 18 lignans and coumarins, 12 tannins, 30 organic acids) were identified, of which 281 differentially accumulated metabolites, including 146 up-regulated metabolites and 135 down-regulated metabolites. The result of clustering and PCA analyses showed that young and mature leaves were separated, which indicated that there was a great difference in metabolites between young and mature leaves. Meanwhile, we also found that both young and mature leaves displayed unique metabolites with important biological functions. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that 90 of the differential metabolites were mainly concentrated in 68 KEGG pathways. The result will greatly complement the existing knowledge on the D. delavayi leaves for lays a foundation for subsequent development and utilization.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206638

RESUMO

This paper aims to examine the influence of Economic Policy Uncertainty (EPU) on environmental performance, as well as the moderating effect of social development and the political regimes in EPU's influence on environmental performance. To investigate such essential issues, we conducted Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimations by utilizing cross-country data covering 137 countries during the period of 2001-2018, according to the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model. Our empirical estimations support that EPU negatively affects environmental performance; this idea was still supported when we conducted an empirical analysis by changing the measurements, employing alternative estimations and constructing new samples. Furthermore, not only would the absolute level of EPU bring worse environmental performance, but so would an increase in EPU. Moreover, higher economic performance, globalization and a high quality of governance can help countries to alleviate the adverse environmental effect of EPU. Additionally, EPU's negative effect on environmental performance is stronger in right-wing countries, autocracies and non-OECD countries, compared to their counterparts. Our study provides substantial policy implications for governments participating in the international treaties of environmental protection, to mitigate environmental degradation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Mudança Social , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Internacionalidade , Incerteza
10.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2022: 8760615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study is aimed at exploring the relationship of platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR), all-cause, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients based on gender. METHODS: A total of 1438 PD patients from January 1,2007 to December 31, 2014 in PD center at The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, were included. Patients were followed up until December 31, 2019. The endpoint was all-cause mortality and CVD mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of PLR with all-cause and CVD mortality to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: After a median of 48.9 (interquartile range [IQR]: 23.4-79.3) months of follow-up, 406 (28.2%) patients died based on all-cause death, among which 200 (49.3%) patients died from CVD. In the multivariate Cox regression model, we found that PLR was independently related to an increased risk of CVD mortality only in female PD patients, with HR of 1.003 (95% CI: 1.001-1.006). Interaction test showed that the correlation between PLR level for all-cause and CVD mortality varied with gender (p = 0.042 and p = 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSION: Higher PLR was associated with a higher risk of CVD mortality in female PD patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diálise Peritoneal , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Lasers Med Sci ; 37(3): 1605-1614, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480664

RESUMO

It had been suggested, after facilitating the hatching process, improved pregnancy outcomes could be attained in embryos with thick and hard zona. This study aimed to determine the effect of zona thinning on pregnancy outcomes in poor-quality frozen-thawed blastocysts. This retrospective study included 230 women (≤ 40 years) who underwent frozen embryo transfer of poor-quality blastocysts (scored < 3BB). In total, 105 patients were in the assisted hatching group in which the zona was thinned by laser before transfer and 125 patients were in the control group in which the blastocysts were non-manipulated. Patients' demographics, cycle characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes were compared between the assisted hatching group and the control group. Further, regression analysis was applied to test the correlation between assisted hatching and live birth. All parameters in the patients' demographic characteristics and the cycle's characteristics were not significantly different between two groups. As for pregnancy outcomes, the second trimester pregnancy loss was significantly higher in the assisted hatching group (P = 0.035). Other pregnancy outcomes, including implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, biochemical miscarriage rate, the first trimester pregnancy loss, ongoing pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were comparable between two groups. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated no association between live birth and assisted hatching (univariate, OR = 0.787, P > 0.05; multivariate, OR = 0.652, P > 0.05), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the regression model was almost 0.7. It suggested that zona thinning may not be supposed to perform on poor-quality, frozen-thawed blastocysts. The indications of assisted hatching were still needed to further investigate.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Resultado da Gravidez , Blastocisto , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 305(4): 1033-1040, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746994

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate optimal warming time, the early warming or the routine warming time, for transferring vitrified-warmed and cultured overnight cleavage stage of the slow-growing embryos on day 3 in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from January 2017 to July 2018. A total of 705 FET patients aged < 40 years were included and 1486 embryos were formed, of which 1366 embryos were eventually transferred. RESULTS: For slow-growing embryos, the clinical pregnancy rate of early warming group [152/468 (32.5%)] was significantly higher than that of routine warming group (55/235 (23.4%)) [OR 1.39 (CI 1.06-1.81), p = 0.01], while there was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy loss in early warming group [39/170 (22.9%)] versus in routine warming group [16/62 (25.8%)] [OR 0.89 (CI 0.53-1.47), p = 0.65]. CONCLUSION: For slow-growing embryos, higher pregnancy outcomes were shown in early warming strategy as compared to the routine warming, which suggested that the improvement of endometrium-embryo synchronism may correct the time difference brought by the slow-growing embryos.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Vitrificação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151217, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717999

RESUMO

An outdoor solar assisted large-scale cleaning system (SALSCS) was constructed to mitigate the levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in urban areas of Xi'an China, providing a quasi-experimental opportunity to examine the biologic responses to the changes in pollution level. We conducted this outdoor SALSCS based real-world quasi-interventional study to examine the associations of the SALSCS intervention and changes in air pollution levels with the biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy elders. We measured the levels of 8-hydrox-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), Interlukin-6 (IL-6), as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) from urine samples, and IL-6 from saliva samples of 123 healthy retired participants from interventional/control residential areas in two sampling campaigns. We collected daily 24-h PM2.5 samples in two residential areas during the study periods using mini-volume samplers. Data on PM10, gaseous pollutants and weather factors were collected from the nearest national air quality monitoring stations. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine the percent change in each biomarker associated with the SALSCS intervention and air pollution levels, after adjusting for time trend, seasonality, weather factors and personal characteristics. Results showed that the SALSCS intervention was significantly associated with decreases in the geometric mean of biomarkers by 47.6% (95% confidence interval: 16.5-67.2%) for 8-OHdG, 66% (31.0-83.3%) for TNF-α, 41.7% (0.2-65.9%) and 43.4% (13.6-62.9%) for urinary and salivary IL-6, respectively. An inter-quartile range increase of ambient PM2.5 exposure averaged on the day of the collection of bio-samples and the day before (34.1 µg/m3) was associated, albeit non-significantly so, with 22.8%-37.9% increases in the geometric mean of these biomarkers. This study demonstrated that the SALSCS intervention and decreased ambient air pollution exposure results in lower burden of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in older adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Gene ; 808: 145973, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Abnormal expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor NMDA type subunit 1, the key subunit of the NMDA receptor, may be related to many neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we explored the functional sequence of the 5' regulatory region of the human GRIN1 gene and discussed the transcription factors that may regulate gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve recombinant pGL3 vectors with gradually truncated fragment lengths were constructed, transfected into HEK-293, U87, and SK-N-SH cell lines, and analyzed through the luciferase reporter gene assay. JASPAR database is used to predict transcription factors. RESULTS: In SK-N-SH and U87 cell lines, regions from -337 to -159 bp, -704 to -556 bp inhibited gene expression, while -556 to -337 bp upregulated gene expression. In HEK-293 and U87 cell lines, the expression of fragment -1703 to + 188 bp was significantly increased compared to adjacent fragments -1539 to + 188 bp and -1843 to + 188 bp. The protein expressions of fragments -2162 to + 188 bp and -2025 to + 188 bp, -1539 to + 188 bp and -1215 to + 188 bp, -1215 to + 188 bp and -1066 to + 188 bp were significantly different in HEK-293 and SK-N-SH cells. According to the predictions of the JASPAR database, the transcription factors REST, EGR1, and CREB1/HIC2 may bind the DNA sequences of GRIN1 gene from the -337 to -159, -556 to -337, and -704 to -556, respectively. In addition, zinc finger transcription factors may regulate the expression of other differentially expressed fragments. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal transcription regulation in the proximal promoter region of GRIN1 (-704 to + 188 bp) may be involved in the course of neuropsychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948579

RESUMO

Even though some existing literature has studied the impact of globalization on forest growth, this research remains inconclusive; moreover, little clarification has emerged as to whether the influence of globalization on forest growth is consistent among different countries. To fill this research gap, we investigated the impact of globalization on forest growth and considered what factors could change the influence of the former upon the latter. To empirically investigate these essential issues, we utilized cross-country data covering 108 countries during the period 1991-2018 to conduct a system generalized method of moment (GMM) estimation. The baseline results confirm the positive impact of globalization on forest growth, which is also supported by several robustness tests, such as changing the measurements and setting new samples. Furthermore, an increase in globalization would bring about higher forest growth. Aside from this, two specific dimensions of globalization, namely economics and trade, can also protect forest growth. Additionally, a higher FDI strengthens the positive impact of globalization on forest growth, while aging, industrial share, and CO2 emissions weaken it. Finally, the impact of globalization on forests is weaker in democracies, emerging markets, and countries with higher fiscal freedoms, while it is stronger in countries with higher political stability. Our study provides substantial policy implications for governments participating in international treaties related to forest growth. The structure of this paper is organized as follows.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade , Dióxido de Carbono , Florestas , Cooperação Internacional
16.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 419, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate fetal and maternal outcomes in women with active lupus nephritis (LN). Specifically, we compared women who had new-onset LN and those with pre-existing LN during pregnancy. METHODS: Patients with active LN during pregnancy were divided into the new-onset group (LN first occurred during pregnancy) and the pre-existing group (a history of LN) on the basis of the onset time of LN. Data on clinical features, laboratory findings, and pregnancy outcome were collected and analyzed between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to compare the effects of active LN on adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: We studied 73 pregnancies in 69 women between 2010 and 2019. Of these, 38 pregnancies were in the pre-existing LN group and 35 were in the new-onset group. Patients with pre-existing LN had a higher risk of composite adverse fetal outcomes than those with new-onset LN [adjusted odds ratio (ORs), 44.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-1664.82; P = 0.039]. However, the two groups had similar adverse maternal outcomes (ORs, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.36-4.29). Serum albumin and proteinuria significantly improved after pregnancy (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the long-term renal outcome was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant patients with pre-existing LN were associated with a higher risk of composite adverse fetal outcomes than those with new-onset LN. However, these two groups of patients had similar adverse maternal outcomes. The long-term renal outcomes were not different after pregnancy between these two groups.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769936

RESUMO

This study aims to examine the impact of globalization on environmental performance by employing panel data for 148 countries from 2001 to 2018, via the indicator of Environmental Performance Index to capture the overall environmental quality and KOF index to measure the multi dimensions of globalization. The empirical results suggest that globalization is critical to environmental performance, which is reliable while we conduct several robustness tests. Furthermore, if globalization increases, it would be beneficial for the environmental performance; moreover, among specific dimensions of globalization, economic globalization, social globalization and political globalization would bring about better environmental performance. Besides, the improvement of globalization, social globalization and political globalization would bring about better environmental performance, while that of economic globalization cannot change the overall environmental performance. Our study offers more insight into the relationship between globalization and environmental performance.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0062521, 2021 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612668

RESUMO

Metabolomics is a powerful tool that can systematically describe global changes in the metabolome of microbes, thus improving our understanding of the mechanisms of action of antibiotics and facilitating the development of next-generation antibacterial therapies. However, current sample preparation methods are not efficient or reliable for studying the effects of antibiotics on microbes. In the present study, we reported a novel sample preparation approach using cold methanol/ethylene glycol for quenching Escherichia coli, thus overcoming the loss of intracellular metabolites caused by cell membrane damage. After evaluating the extraction efficiency of several extraction methods, we employed the optimized workflow to profile the metabolome of E. coli exposed to cephalexin. In doing so, we proved the utility of the proposed approach and provided insights into the comprehensive metabolic alterations associated with antibiotic treatment. IMPORTANCE The emergence and global spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria and genes are a global problem. It is critical to understand the interactions between antibiotics and bacteria and find alternative treatments for infections when we are moving closer to a postantibiotic era. It has been demonstrated that the bacterial metabolic environment plays an important role in the modulation of antibiotic susceptibility and efficacy. In the present study, we proposed a novel metabolomic approach for intracellular metabolite profiling of E. coli, which can be used to investigate the metabolite alterations of bacteria caused by antibiotic treatment. Further understanding of antibiotic-induced perturbations of bacterial metabolism would facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets and pathways.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Etilenoglicol/farmacologia , Transcriptoma
19.
J Off Stat ; 37(1): 71-95, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483435

RESUMO

Standard randomization-based inference conditions on the data in the population and makes inference with respect to the repeating sampling properties of the sampling indicators. In some settings these estimators can be quite unstable; Bayesian model-based approaches focus on the posterior predictive distribution of population quantities, potentially providing a better balance between bias correction and efficiency. Previous work in this area has focused on estimation of means and linear and generalized linear regression parameters; these methods do not allow for a general estimation of distributional functions such as quantile or quantile regression parameters. Here we adapt an extended Dirichlet Process Mixture model that allows the DP prior to be a mixture of DP random basis measures that are a function of covariates. These models allow many mixture components when necessary to accommodate the sample design, but can shrink to few components for more efficient estimation when the data allow. We provide an application to the estimation of relationships between serum dioxin levels and age in the US population, either at the mean level (via linear regression) or across the dioxin distribution (via quantile regression) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

20.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(12): 2521-2529, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487425

RESUMO

Long-term ketamine abuse can cause significant lower urinary tract symptoms in humans, termed ketamine-associated cystitis (KC). Here, we established a model of long-term (6 months) ketamine administration in wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. We elucidated the pathological effects of ketamine in the bladder and investigated changes in autophagy-associated protein expression (i.e., LC3, Beclin-1, and P62) and inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6 and IL-1ß) in the bladder smooth muscle tissue. Long-term ketamine administration reduced the number of layers in the bladder mucosal epithelial cells (4-5 layers in the saline group vs. 2-3 layers in the ketamine groups), but increased the number of mast cells and collagen fibers. LC3-II/LC3-I, Beclin-1, IL-6, and IL-1ß protein expression in the bladder smooth muscle tissues of ketamine-treated mice was significantly increased. The mRNA and protein levels of P62 in the Ket-60 mg/kg group were also significantly increased, but not the Ket-30 mg/kg group. Our results reveal that long-term ketamine administration can cause cystitis-like pathological changes in mice, and the disordered autophagy in the bladder tissue may be involved in the persistent bladder damage following long-term administration of ketamine at 60 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Autofagia , Ketamina/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso
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