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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 24, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017623

RESUMO

The morphology of primitive cells has been the subject of extensive research. A spherical form was commonly presumed in prebiotic studies but lacked experimental evidence in living cells. Whether and how the shape of living cells changed are unclear. Here we exposed the rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli to a resource utilization regime mimicking a primordial environment. Oleate was given as an easy-to-use model prebiotic nutrient, as fatty acid vesicles were likely present on the prebiotic Earth and might have been used as an energy resource. Six evolutionary lineages were generated under glucose-free but oleic acid vesicle (OAV)-rich conditions. Intriguingly, fitness increase was commonly associated with the morphological change from rod to sphere and the decreases in both the size and the area-to-volume ratio of the cell. The changed cell shape was conserved in either OAVs or glucose, regardless of the trade-offs in carbon utilization and protein abundance. Highly differentiated mutations present in the genome revealed two distinct strategies of adaption to OAV-rich conditions, i.e., either directly targeting the cell wall or not. The change in cell morphology of Escherichia coli for adapting to fatty acid availability supports the assumption of the primitive spherical form.

2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 590: 163-168, 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979317

RESUMO

Liquid-phase electron microscopy is highly desirable for observing biological samples in their native liquid state at high resolution. We developed liquid imaging approaches for biological cells using scanning electron microscopy. Novel approaches included scanning transmission electron imaging using a liquid-cell apparatus (LC-STEM), as well as correlative cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy (CCLEM) imaging. LC-STEM enabled imaging at a ∼2 nm resolution and excellent contrast for the precise recognition of localization, distribution, and configuration of individually labeled membrane proteins on the native cells in solution. CCLEM improved the resolution of fluorescent images down to 10 nm. Liquid SEM technologies will bring unique and wide applications to the study of the structure and function of cells and membrane proteins in their near-native states at the monomolecular level.

3.
J Anat ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981507

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the structural features between immature and mature articular cartilage from the humeral and femoral joints of rabbits. Specimens of articular cartilage (n = 6 for immature tissue, n = 6 for mature tissue) that were still attached to the underlying bone from a humerus (shoulder joint) or femur (knee joint) were imaged using microscopic MRI (µMRI) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). Quantitative µMRI data with a pixel resolution of 11.7-13.2 µm revealed a number of differences between the immature and mature cartilage, including total thickness, and T2 and T1ρ relaxation values. Quantitative PLM data with a pixel resolution of 0.25-1 µm confirmed the µMRI results and revealed additional differences in cellular features between the tissues. The mature cartilage had a clearly defined tidemark, which was absent in the immature tissue. The ability to differentiate specific maturation-related cartilage characteristics could be beneficial to translational studies of degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis.

4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 45-60, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027826

RESUMO

Introduction: Modulating the inflammatory response of human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) is important for the control of periodontal inflammation because it is a key event in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Here, we aimed to determine whether polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyl ether (PSC)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) protect hGFs against invasion and inflammatory stimulation by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Methods: First, we determined the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of PSC-SPIONs. Then, their effects on invasion of hGFs by P. gingivalis were evaluated by counting invading P. gingivalis, fluorescence staining, and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of PSC-SPIONs on inflammation in hGFs induced by P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide was evaluated by measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting of key indicator molecules. The effects of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated SPIONs and the free form of PSC alone were also tested and compared with those of PSC-SPIONs. Results: PSC-SPIONs (25 µg/mL) are cytocompatible with hGFs and exhibit no antimicrobial effects on P. gingivalis. However, they inhibit invasion of hGFs by P. gingivalis at 15 µg/mL. They also decrease ROS production and inflammatory cytokine secretion by hGFs at 5, 15, and 25 µg/mL, by downregulating activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. Furthermore, PSC alone does not inhibit inflammation, while DMSA-SPIONs do. This indicates that the nanosize effects of PSC-SPIONs, rather than their coating material, play the dominant role in their anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: PSC-SPIONs protect hGFs against P. gingivalis invasion and inflammatory stimulation. Thus, they have potential for clinical application in control of periodontal inflammation.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 113982, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700082

RESUMO

Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. Effects of air pollution from outdoor and indoor on depression were inconsistent. We assessed 30,139 participants from Northeast China to explore the associations between long term exposures of outdoor and indoor solid fuel use and depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regressions models as well as multiplicative interaction and additive interaction analysis were used. Outdoor exposures to air pollutants of particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm, [PM2.5], odds ratio [OR] = 1.98 per standard deviation [SD], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78, 2.19; with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm, [PM10], OR = 1.83, 95% CI:1.68, 2.00), sulfur dioxide (SO2, OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.33, 1.52), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2, OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.49, 1.76) were significantly associated with higher occurrence of depressive symptoms. A significant linear trend for increased occurrence of depressive symptoms was observed in participants using both solid fuels for cooking and heating (P = 0.04). Indoor air pollution exposures from solid fuel use for heating (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.35) and high cooking frequency (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.37) were significantly associated with increased occurrence of depressive symptoms. We observed significant interactions of indoor solid fuel use and outdoor air pollution exposures on depressive symptoms (indoor fuel use for cooking and SO2, P value = 0.04; solid fuel use for heating and NO2, P value = 0.02). Solid fuel use for cooking weakened the associations between SO2(relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = -1.37, 95% CI: -1.88, -0.86) and depressive symptoms. Solid fuel use for heating weakened the associations between NO2 (RERI = -1.91, 95% CI: -2.55, -1.27) and depressive symptoms. Compared with individual associations, antagonistic interactions of outdoor air pollution and indoor solid fuel use on depressive symptoms might exist. Our findings contribute to better understandings for the associations between air pollution and depressive symptoms, which might be useful for developing effective strategies for depression prevention and air pollution control.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Culinária , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112006, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that ambient air pollution negatively affects frailty, but whether indoor air pollution exposure affects frailty is unknown. METHOD: This study was conducted on 4946 older adults (≥60 years) followed from baseline to 4 years in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Household fuel types and frailty were assessed with self-rated questionnaires and physical examination. The relationships between indoor air pollution and frailty via phenotypic frailty and a frailty index were explored with logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard regression models in both a cross-sectional and follow-up design. Additionally, the effects of indoor air pollution on phenotypic frailty together with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were further investigated. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for frailty assessment with the frailty index and phenotypic frailty were 1.28 (1.12, 1.46) and 1.36 (1.18, 1.57), respectively. Solid fuel use was a risk factor in prefrail/frail patients with [OR and 95% CI, 1.88 (1.41, 2.50)], or without MCI [OR and 95% CI, 1.37 (1.17, 1.61)], as compared with the groups with no phenotypic prefrailty/frailty and no MCI. Moreover, solid cooking fuel use was positively associated with the incidence of phenotypic prefrailty and frailty. The adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for phenotypic prefrailty and frailty were 1.26 (1.03, 1.55). CONCLUSIONS: Solid cooking fuels can be regarded as a risk factor for frailty. Moreover, our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to solid cooking fuel using as it relates to phenotypic frailty together with MCI.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Fragilidade , Idoso , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China/epidemiologia , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Intern Med ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, no study has investigated whether dietary intake can modify this effect. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of dietary pattern modification on the association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (n = 24,602) was conducted in China. NAFLD was diagnosed using liver ultrasonography considering alcohol consumption. Dietary data were assessed using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Following a 93,873 person-year follow-up, 787 (3.20%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. In a multivariable adjusted model, compared with participants without NAFLD, the HR (95% CI) of incident type 2 diabetes for NAFLD patients was 3.04 (2.51, 3.68). On subgroup analyses, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of incident type 2 diabetes for NAFLD patients with low (≤ median score) and high (> median score) vegetable pattern intakes were 4.08 (3.05, 5.46) and 2.38 (1.85, 3.07) (P for interaction < 0.01), respectively. Higher vegetable intake was also found to attenuate the risk effect of phenotype groups of NAFLD on incident type 2 diabetes, especially in the lean NAFLD group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that NAFLD is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population. Notably, adherence to a dietary pattern rich in vegetables can attenuate this risk, especially in lean NAFLD patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878250

RESUMO

Conventional antibiotic therapies for biofilm-trigged oral diseases are becoming less efficient due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is hampered by restricted access to bacterial communities embedded within the dense extracellular matrix of mature biofilms. Herein, a versatile photosensitizer nanoplatform (named MagTBO) was designed to overcome this obstacle by integrating toluidine-blue ortho (TBO) photosensitizer and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) via a microemulsion method. In this study, we reported the preparation, characterization, and application of MagTBO for aPDT. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the MagTBO microemulsion can be driven and penetrate deep sites inside the biofilms, resulting in an improved photodynamic disinfection effect compared to using TBO alone. Besides, the obtained MagTBO microemulsions revealed excellent water solubility and stability over time, enhanced the aPDT performance against S. mutans and saliva-derived multispecies biofilms, and improved the TBO's biocompatibility. Such results demonstrate a proof-of-principle for using microemulsion as a delivery vehicle and magnetic field as a navigation approach to intensify the antibacterial action of currently available photosensitizers, leading to efficient modulation of pathogenic oral biofilms.

9.
Microsc Res Tech ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859542

RESUMO

This dual-modality microscopic imaging study quantifies the interface region between the noncalcified cartilage and the subchondral bone plate, which includes the deep portion of the noncalcified articular cartilage and the zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC). This interface region is typically not visible in routine MRI but becomes visible in MRI with the application of an ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence. A number of cartilage-bone blocks from a well-documented canine humeral head were harvested for imaging by microscopic MRI (µMRI) and PLM (polarized light microscopy). In µMRI, T2 anisotropic images were acquired by 2D gradient-echo, magnetization-prepared spin-echo and UTE sequences at the 0° and 55° (the magic angle) orientations at 11.7 µm/pixel resolution. In PLM, quantitative optical retardation (nm) and collagen orientation (°) were mapped from the thin sections from the same µMRI specimens at 0.5-2 µm pixel resolutions. The orientational and organizational architecture of the collagen matrix in this interface region was quantified and correlated between the complementary imaging. The magic angle effect as seen in the noncalcified cartilage was statistically confirmed in ZCC in µMRI, which was further supported by quantitative PLM. With an enhanced understanding of the tissue properties in this important interface region, it will potentially be possible to monitor the changes of this tissue region which is instrumental to the initiation and development of osteoarthritis and other joint diseases.

10.
Front Physiol ; 12: 731523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899374

RESUMO

Objective: Both exercise and cold exposure cause physiological stress and they often occur in combination. However, the effects of exercise during severe cold on variation in bone metabolism in humans have remained elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the variations in circulating bone metabolism markers after ice swimming (IS). Methods: Eighty-seven women and men aged 42-84 years old were recruited to perform regular IS activities. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), total calcium (Ca2+), total phosphorus (Pi), total magnesium (Mg2+), N-terminal osteocalcin (N-MID), total propeptide of procollagen 1 (TPINP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (ß-CTX) were measured 30 min before and 30 min after IS. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed at lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-L4) and femoral neck (FN). The IS habits were obtained from questionnaires and the 10-year probability of osteoporotic fracture was calculated using the FRAX® tool with and without a BMD value of the FN. Results: There were significant increases in PTH (median, 40.120-51.540 pg/mL), Ca2+ (median, 2.330-2.400 mmol/L), and Pi (median, 1.100-1.340 mmol/L) and significant decreases in TPINP (median, 38.190-36.610 ng/mL) and ß-CTX (median, 0.185-0.171 ng/mL), while there was a trend for increased serum Mg2+ (P = 0.058) but no significant change in N-MID (P = 0.933) after IS in all subjects. The increases in the proportions of cases of hyperparathyroidemia, hypercalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia in those performing IS were statistically significant. The baseline levels and the changes of bone metabolism markers had associations with osteoporosis and bone status, but these may be age and sex dependent. Finally, there were significant correlations among the bone metabolism markers. Conclusion: IS caused significant alterations in bone metabolic markers, specifically, increases in PTH, Ca2+ and Pi should raise concerns about potential cardiovascular health risks in severe cold exercise. Additionally, a divergence between PTH elevation and a decline in bone turnover, which shown a special change of bone metabolism after IS and may suggest potential therapeutic implications of cold exercise in PTH and bone metabolic disorders.

11.
Cancer Lett ; 526: 205-216, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838826

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major components of the tumor microenvironment that contribute to metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The potential of TAM-derived exosomes for biomarker discovery in tumor initiation and progression has been recently reported. However, studies on macrophage-derived exosomes in LUAD remain limited. We investigated the role of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes in LUAD both in vivo and in vitro and its underlying mechanism. We showed that the infiltration of M2 macrophages was positively correlated with LUAD metastasis. M2 macrophage-derived exosomes could be taken up by LUAD cells to promote cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, miR-942 could be packaged into exosomes secreted by M2 macrophages. Mechanistically, exosomal miR-942 regulates FOXO1 protein expression by binding to the 3'-UTR region of FOXO1 and further alleviates ß-catenin inhibition in LUAD cells. Collectively, we demonstrated that M2 macrophage-derived miRNA-containing exosomes promote LUAD cell invasion and migration and facilitate angiogenesis, thereby providing a new therapeutic target for metastatic LUAD.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 754768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820326

RESUMO

Background: Targeted therapies have led to significant improvement in the management and prognosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed a network meta-analysis of frontline treatment options of ALK-positive NSCLC to provide clinical guidance. Methods: PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and international conference databases were searched to identify relevant trials from inception to June 30, 2021. Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatments for patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC in the first-line setting were included in a Bayesian network meta-analysis. Eligible studies reported at least one of the following clinical outcomes: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), risk of the central nervous system (CNS) progression, adverse events (AEs) of grade (G) 3 or higher (G3 AEs), or serious AEs (SAEs). Hazard ratios (HRs) and CI for primary outcome of PFS and secondary outcome of OS and risk of CNS progression were obtained. A multivariate, consistency model, fixed-effects analysis was used in the network meta-analysis. Data on G3 AEs and SAEs were abstracted and meta-analyzed. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Results: Nine RCTs comprising 2,484 patients were included with seven treatments: alectinib, brigatinib, ceritinib, crizotinib, ensartinib, lorlatinib, and chemotherapy. Compared with chemotherapy, ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) significantly prolong PFS and reduced risk of CNS progression except for ceritinib. Lorlatinib appears superior at reducing risk of CNS progression. None of the ALK-TKIs have a significantly prolonged OS as compared with chemotherapy. Lorlatinib increases the risk of G3 AEs as compared with alectinib (odds ratio 4.26 [95% CrI 1.22 to 15.53]), while alectinib caused the fewest G3 AEs. Conclusions: Lorlatinib is associated with the highest PFS benefit and lowest risk of CNS progression benefits for patients with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, compared with other first-line treatments, but with higher toxicity. The implementation of a newer generation of ALK-TKIs in the first-line treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC into current clinical practice is evolving rapidly.

14.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5933-5941, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795941

RESUMO

Background: Identifying the distribution of pulmonary veins with three-dimensional reconstruction images is of great significance for surgical guidance. Existing models neglect the consistency of the bilateral superior pulmonary veins (SPVs) and lack a simple unified classification pattern. This study aimed to analyze the distributional features of bilateral SPVs, based on a cohort of patients undergoing CT examination. Methods: The three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography (3D-CTBA) images of 1,520 cases were retrospectively analyzed. The reconstructed images of the right upper lobes were read in 715 cases, and left upper lobes in 805 cases. Through symmetrical analysis, the circulation of main venous branches and the spatial relationships of confluences with adjacent bronchus were compared. Results: The SPVs of bilateral upper lobes showed common distributional features and were divided into three main types. The central vein type, the semi-central vein type, and the non-central vein type accounted for 83.35% [596], 7.84% [56], 8.11% [58] of the 715 cases with right scanning, and 25.71% [207], 62.61% [504], 10.81% [87] of the 805 cases with left scanning, respectively. There were 5 (0.70%) cases with rare variations in the right upper lobe and 7 (0.87%) in the left upper lobe. The attribution of intersubsegmental vein in the posterior segment (V2b) and its position relative to the anterior segmental bronchus (B3) was the basis of classification in the right upper lobe, and the attribution of intersubsegmental vein in the apicoposterior segment (V1+2c) and its position relative to B3 was the basis of classification in the left upper lobe. In this classification system, the branching pattern of the intersegmental vein between the apical segment and the anterior segment (V1b) in the right upper lobe, and the intersegmental vein between the apicoposterior segment and the anterior segment (V1+ 2a) in the left upper lobe were used for subdivision. Conclusions: Our modified system had a high degree of consistency in classifying SPVs in bilateral upper lobes, thus providing guidance for preoperative and intraoperative procedures.

15.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 55: 102059, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757270

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with mid-to low-rectal cancer can have various dysfunctions of defecation after sphincter-saving resection. Defecation dysfunction can manifest as incontinence, urgency, or frequent bowel movements, and is called low anterior resection syndrome (LARS). This study aimed to examine LARS score and objective anorectal function indices in Chinese patients receiving sphincter-saving surgery for mid-to low-rectal cancer. METHOD: This was a single-center cross-sectional study of patients undergoing sphincter-saving resection for low- or mid-rectal cancer and had restoration of trans-anal defecation for at least 1 month seen between January 2019 and June 2020. Patients completed a questionnaire regarding clinical characteristics, and Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) score and high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) were used to assess defecation function. Multivariable analysis was used to identify variables significantly associated with defecation dysfunction. RESULTS: 146 patients completed and returned the questionnaires. 25 healthy adults also participated as control group for the anorectal manometry. Approximately 76% of patients developed LARS after surgery, of which 35.6% had major LARS. In these patients, anorectal manometry indices including initial rectal sensory capacity and rectal fecal sensory capacity, were significantly lower than normal. Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative chemo-radiotherapy and the tumor inferior margins being close to the dentate line, especially 2-5 cm, were independent risk factors for defecation dysfunction after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Defecation dysfunction is a frequent occurrence after sphincter-saving resection for mid- and low-rectal cancer. Preoperative chemo-radiotherapy and a shorter tumor inferior margins distance to the dentate line are independent factors for defecation dysfunction.


Assuntos
Incontinência Fecal , Neoplasias Retais , Adulto , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Defecação , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 752999, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778314

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the longitudinal association between hand grip strength (HGS) and the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults. Design: A cohort study. Methods: This study was conducted in a general Chinese population (n = 14,154) from 2013-2018. NAFLD was diagnosed by liver ultrasonography during evaluating alcohol consumption. The associations between the HGS and NAFLD were assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: During the study period with a mean follow-up duration of 3.20 years, 2,452 participants developed NAFLD. The risk of NAFLD decreased progressively with increasing HGS in both men and women (P for trend <0.0001). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for NAFLD incidence across the quartiles of HGS were 1 (reference), 0.90 (0.79, 1.02), 0.69 (0.60, 0.79), and 0.44 (0.37, 0.52) for men and 1 (reference), 0.82 (0.69, 0.96), 0.54 (0.45, 0.66), and 0.41 (0.33, 0.52) for women, respectively. The interaction terms for body mass index (BMI)-HGS and waist-HGS were significant in men and women (all P < 0.0001). The participants with normal BMIs and waist circumferences had the lowest hazard ratios on the subgroup analyses. The sensitivity analysis that defined NAFLD using the hepatic steatosis and fatty liver indices revealed results that were similar to the main analyses. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the HGS is inversely associated with the incidence of NAFLD.

17.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 12: 20406223211041924, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729141

RESUMO

Background: A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused outbreaks worldwide, and the number of cases is rapidly increasing through human-to-human transmission. Because of the greater transmission capacity and possible subsequent multi-organ damage caused by the virus, it is crucial to understand precisely and manage COVID-19 patients. However, the underlying differences in the clinical features of COVID-19 with and without comorbidities are not fully understood. Aim: The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of COVID-19 patients with and without complications to guide treatment and predict the prognosis. Method: We collected the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with and without different complications, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Next, we performed a baseline comparison of each index and traced the dynamic changes in these factors during hospitalization to explore the potential associations. Result: A clinical index of differential expression was used for the regression to select top-ranking factors. The top-ranking clinical characteristics varied in each subgroup, such as indices of liver function, renal function and inflammatory markers. Among them, the indices of renal function were highly ranked in all subgroups and displayed significant differences during hospitalization. Conclusion: Organ functions of COVID-19 patients, particularly renal function, should be cautiously taken care of during management and might be a crucial factor for a poor prognosis of these patients with complications.

18.
Sci Prog ; 104(4): 368504211050289, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730465
19.
Front Nutr ; 8: 642509, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604270

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver injury. We performed this umbrella review of meta-analyses to summarize the evidence on the associations of nutritional, lifestyle, and metabolic factors with NAFLD. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases from inception until July 2, 2020, to identify meta-analyses of observational studies which explored the associations of nutritional, lifestyle, and metabolic factors with NAFLD. Evidence levels were assessed using summary effect sizes, 95% prediction intervals, between-study heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and evidence of excess significance bias for each meta-analysis. (No. of PROSPERO, CRD42020200124). Results: Twenty two risk or protective factors from 10 published meta-analyses were included and studied. Three risk factors (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, serum fetuin-A, and waist circumference) with highly suggestive levels of evidence and three risk factors (soft drink consumption, former smoking, and body mass index) with suggestive levels of evidence were identified. Only two protective factors (physical activity and serum vitamin D level [among adults in Western countries]) with suggestive levels of evidence were identified. Furthermore, other six risk factors and two protective factors with weak levels of evidence were identified. Conclusions: We found varying levels of evidence of associations of nutritional, lifestyle, and metabolic factors and NAFLD. The results suggest that nutritional and lifestyle management should be considered as a major primary preventive strategy for NAFLD. Moreover, considering the low quality of included meta-analyses and limited area of research topics, future high-quality original studies and meta-analyses should be performed to study these associations.

20.
J Cancer ; 12(22): 6629-6639, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659553

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are characterized by self-renewal and unlimited proliferation, providing a basis for tumor occurrence, metastasis, and recurrence. Because CSCs are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, various immunotherapies, particularly chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy and dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine therapy, are currently being developed. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in colorectal CSCs (CCSCs) and non-CCSCs and designed a combination immunotherapy synchronously utilizing PD-L1-CAR-T cells together with CCSC-DC vaccine-sensitized T cells for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PD-L1-CAR-T cells specifically recognized the PD-L1 molecule on CCSCs by binding to the extracellular domain of programmed cell death-1. The CCSC-DC vaccine was prepared using CCSC lysates. We found that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)-positive CCSCs were abundant in samples from patient tumor tissues and cancer cell lines. Moreover, PD-L1 was highly expressed in ALDH1-positive CCSCs compared with that in non-CCSCs. Monotherapy with PD-L1-CAR-T cells or CCSC-DC vaccine only elicited moderate tumor remission both in vitro and in vivo. However, combination therapy markedly killed cancer cells and relieved the tumor burden in mice. Our findings may provide a novel strategy for the clinical treatment of colorectal malignancy.

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