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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 237: 118397, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361321

RESUMO

A density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to study the sensing mechanism of an ON1-OFF-ON2 type fluoride anion fluorescent chemosensor (Bis[[7-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-2H-chromene]methyl-ene]­carbonothioic dihydrazide (CTC). The current theoretical calculation presents a different sensing mechanism from the experimentally proposed one (Sensor and Actuators B 2016, 222, 823-828). Instead of the combination of CTC deprotonation and poorly emissive excited state tautomer or ICT mechanism, the theoretical results predict the sensing mechanism based on dissociation reaction and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT). The calculated vertical excitation energies both in the ground states and first excited states of different forms of CTC, as well as the potential-energy curves, have completely reproduced the experimental results, providing powerful evidence for our proposed CTC sensing mechanism for fluoride anion.

2.
Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; : e3348, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368868

RESUMO

Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been widely used to capture cross sectional lumen frames of coronary arteries. This kind of medical imaging modalities provide detailed and significant information of lumen contour shape. Numerous learning based techniques have been used for coronary artery segmentation due to their impressive results. In this work, a supervised machine learning method for coronary artery lumen segmentation with high accuracy and minimal user interaction is designed. The fully discriminative lumen segmentation method jointly learning a classifier the weak learners rely on and the features of the classifier is developed. Additionally, the theoretical supports of the Gradient Boosting framework used in this work and its quadratic approximation are presented. The proposed algorithm is tested on the public datasets of boundary detection of lumen in IVUS challenge held in MICCAI 2011 and achieves a higher average Jaccard similarity of 96.8% and a lower mean error distance of 0.55 (in Cartesian coordinates), which shows higher accuracy compared to the existing learning based methods. Moreover, three real patient IVUS datasets are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed coronary artery lumen segmentation algorithm, which is shown to achieve lower percent error of lumen area of 1.861% +/- 0.965%, 1.968% +/- 0.864% and 1.671% +/- 0.584%, respectively, compared to the manually measured lumen area (ground truth). The proposed lumen segmentation method is superior to the latest learning based segmentation techniques. Given the efficiency and robustness, our method has great potential in IVUS images processing and coronary artery segmentation and quantification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229494

RESUMO

KBP-7072 is a semi-synthetic aminomethylcycline with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including multidrug resistant bacterial strains. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of KBP-7072 after oral and intravenous (IV) administration of single and multiple doses were investigated in animal models including during fed and fasted states and also evaluated the protein binding and excretion characteristics. In Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, Beagle dogs, and CD-1 mice, KBP-7072 demonstrated a linear PK profile after administration of single oral and IV and multiple oral doses. Oral bioavailability ranged from 12% to 32%. Mean Tmax ranged from 0.5 to 4 hours, and mean half-life ranged from approximately 6 to 11 hours. Administration of oral doses in the fed state resulted in a marked reduction in Cmax and AUC compared with dosing in fasted animals. The mean bound fractions of KBP-7072 were 77.5%, 69.8%, 64.5%, 69.3%, and 69.2% in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human plasma, respectively. Following a single 22.5 mg/kg oral dose of KBP-7072 in SD rats, cumulative excretion in feces was 64% and in urine was 2.5% of the administered dose. The PK results in animal models are consistent with single and multiple ascending dose studies in healthy volunteers and confirm the suitability of KBP-7072 for once daily oral and IV administration in clinical studies.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stevia has been proposed as a potential antidiabetic sweetener, mainly based on inconsistent results from stevioside or the plant extract, yet lacking relative experimental evidence from individual steviol glycosides (SGs) and their metabolites. RESULTS: The results systematically revealed that the typical SGs and their final metabolite (steviol) presented an antidiabetic effect on streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice in all assayed antidiabetic aspects. In general, the performance strength of the samples followed the sequence steviol > steviol glucosyl ester > steviolbioside > rubusoside > stevioside > rebaudioside A, which is opposite to their sweetness strength order, and generally in accordance with the glucosyl group numbers in their molecules. This may imply that the antidiabetic effect of the SGs might be achieved through steviol, which presented antidiabetic performance similar to that of metformin with a dose of 1/20 that of metformin. Moreover, the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose traced micro-PET experiment revealed that stevioside and steviol could increase the uptake of glucose in the myocardium and brain of the diabetic mice within 60 min, and decrease the accumulation of glucose in the liver and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: The SGs and steviol presented an antidiabetic effect on STZ diabetic mice in all assayed aspects, with an induction time to start the effect of the SGs. Stevioside and steviol could increase uptake of glucose in the myocardium and brain of the diabetic mice, and decrease accumulation of glucose in the liver and kidney. The performance strength of the SGs is generally in accordance with glucosyl group numbers in their molecules.

5.
J Dairy Sci ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331873

RESUMO

Microorganisms such as thermophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria cause spoilage of milk and milk products [e.g., powdered infant formula (PIF)], mainly because they produce heat-stable extracellular enzymes. However, the dynamic changes in microbial diversity during PIF production are still not well understood. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to investigate bacterial community structure and distribution during the major stages of PIF production: raw milk, pasteurization, mixing, evaporation, and spray-drying. Our PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant bacteria at the raw milk and pasteurization stages; Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus spp. were abundant during mixing, evaporation, and spray-drying. Our HTS analysis showed that Pseudomonas had an abundance of 96.79% at the raw milk stage. Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Thermus, Acinetobacter, and Bacteroides spp. were most common after pasteurization. The index of bacterial diversity was highest at the evaporation stage, suggesting a high potential risk of microbial contamination. The results from DGGE and HTS were consistent in reflecting changes in dominant flora, but different in reflecting the richness of bacterial communities present during PIF production: HTS revealed a much higher richness of bacterial species than DGGE. Our findings from DGGE and HTS showed that psychrophilic and thermophilic bacteria were the main flora present during PIF production: psychrophilic bacteria were mainly Pseudomonas spp. and thermophilic bacteria were mainly Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Bacillus spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report dynamic changes in microbial communities during PIF production. Our results provide insight into bacterial communities and identify potential contamination sources that could serve as a guide for reducing microbial risk.

6.
Bioorg Chem ; 97: 103695, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120073

RESUMO

A series of 3-(((9H-purin-6-yl) amino) methyl) pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives were designed, synthesized and confirmed as tubulin polymerization inhibitors. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities on three colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines. Among these compounds, SKLB0565 displayed noteworthy potency against eight CRC cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.012 µM and 0.081 µM. Besides, SKLB0565 inhibited tubulin polymerization, caused G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, depolarized mitochondria and induced cell apoptosis in CRC cells. Furthermore, SKLB0565 suppressed cell migration and disrupted the capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data clarified that SKLB0565 is a promising anti-tubulin agent for CRC therapy which is worthy of further evaluation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217472

RESUMO

Multi-modal neuroimages, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), can provide complementary structural and functional information of the brain, thus facilitating automated brain disease identification. Incomplete data problem is unavoidable in multi-modal neuroimage studies due to patient dropouts and/or poor data quality. Conventional methods usually discard data-missing subjects, thus significantly reducing the number of training samples. Even though several deep learning methods have been proposed, they usually rely on pre-defined regions-of-interest in neuroimages, requiring disease-specific expert knowledge. To this end, we propose a spatially-constrained Fisher representation framework for brain disease diagnosis with incomplete multi-modal neuroimages. We first impute missing PET images based on their corresponding MRI scans using a hybrid generative adversarial network. With the complete (after imputation) MRI and PET data, we then develop a spatially-constrained Fisher representation network to extract statistical descriptors of neuroimages for disease diagnosis, assuming that these descriptors follow a Gaussian mixture model with a strong spatial constraint (i.e., images from different subjects have similar anatomical structures). Experimental results on three databases suggest that our method can synthesize reasonable neuroimages and achieve promising results in brain disease identification, compared with several state-of-the-art methods.

8.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146438

RESUMO

Background Evidence-based evaluation of laboratory performances including pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical stages of the total testing process (TTP) is crucial to ensure patients receiving safe, efficient and effective care. To conduct risk assessment, quality management tools such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and the Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) were constantly used for proactive or reactive analysis, respectively. However, FMEA and FRACAS faced big challenges in determining the scoring scales and failure prioritization in the assessment of real-world cases. Here, we developed a novel strategy, by incorporating Sigma metrics into risk assessment based on quality indicators (QIs) data, to provide a more objective assessment of risks in TTP. Methods QI data was collected for 1 year and FRACAS was applied to produce the risk rating based on three variables: (1) Sigma metrics for the frequency of defects; (2) possible consequence; (3) detection method. The risk priority number (RPN) of each QI was calculated by a 5-point scale score, where a value of RPN > 50 was rated as high-risk. Results The RPNs of two QIs in post-analytical phase (TAT of Stat biochemistry analyte and Timely critical values notification) were above 50 which required rigorous monitoring and corrective actions to eliminate the high risks. Nine QIs (RPNs between 25 and 50) required further investigation and monitoring. After 3 months of corrective action the two identified high-risk processes were successfully reduced. Conclusions The strategy can be implemented to reduce identified risk and assuring patient safety.

9.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23281, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is vital for the diagnosis of hepatitis B infection. A novel test loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been successfully applied to detect various pathogens. However, the accuracy of LAMP in diagnosing HBV remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, the accuracy of LAMP for HBV detection was evaluated systematically. METHODS: Embase, Cochrane Library, and PubMed databases were searched for studies using LAMP to detect HBV. Then, two researchers extracted data and assessed the quality of literature using the QUADAS-2 tool independently. I2 statistic and chi-square test were analyzed to investigate the heterogeneity, and Deek's funnel plot assessed the publication bias. The pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive LR (PLR), negative LR (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and 95% confidence intervals were displayed in forest plots. We calculated the area under the curve (AUC) to assess the overall efficiency of LAMP for HBV detection. RESULTS: A total of nine studies with 1298 samples were finally included in this evaluation. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of HBV detection were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.89 ~ 0.92) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94 ~ 0.99), respectively. The PLR, NLR, and DOR were 16.93 (95% CI: 6.15 ~ 46.55), 0.08 (95% CI: 0.05 ~ 0.14), and 397.57 (95% CI: 145.41 ~ 1087.07). Besides, the AUC was 0.9872, and Deek's plot suggested that there existed publication bias in the studies. CONCLUSION: Compared with PCR, LAMP is a simple, rapid, and effective assay to diagnose HBV. However, additional evidence is essential to confirm that LAMP can replace other methods in diagnosing HBV infection.

10.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128852

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. Multiple long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently identified as crucial oncogenic factors or tumour suppressors. In this study, we explored the effects of LINC00174 on the progression of HCC. Expression levels of LINC00174 and microRNA-320 (miR-320) in HCC tissue samples were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The association between pathological indices and LINC00174 was also analysed. Human HCC cell lines Hep3B and Huh7 were used as cell models. CCK-8 and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays were used to assess the effect of LINC00174 on HCC cell line proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to study the effect of LINC00174 on HCC apoptosis. Transwell assay was conducted to detect the effect of LINC00174 on migration and invasion. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay were used to confirm the binding relationship between miR-320 and LINC00174. Additionally, western blot was used to detect the regulatory function of LINC00174 on oncogene S100 calcium binding protein A10 (S100A10). We demonstrated that LINC00174 expression in HCC clinical samples was significantly increased and this was correlated with higher T stage. Its overexpression remarkably accelerated proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells while reduced apoptosis. Accordingly, knockdown of it suppressed the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells. Overexpression of LINC00174 significantly reduced the expression of miR-320 by sponging it, in turn enhanced the expression of S100A10. In conclusion, LINC00174 is a sponge of tumour suppressor miR-320, enhances the expression of S100A10 indirectly and functions as an oncogenic lncRNA in HCC. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: LINC00174 is a novel lncRNA, whose function is rarely investigated. It is reported that it is oncogenic in colorectal cancer, while its role in HCC remains unclear. Herein, we report that LINC00174 is significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues and promotes the malignant phenotypes. We demonstrate that LINC00174 functions as a sponge for miR-320, increases the expression level of oncogene S100A10 in HCC. This study helps clarify the mechanism of HCC tumorigenesis and progression, and uncover the role of LINC00174 in human disease.

11.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(6): 548-560, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective adjuvant treatment after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important area of research. Radioactive iodine (131I)-labelled metuximab is a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against the CD147 (also known as basigin or HAb18G) antigen that is expressed in HCC. We aimed to examine the role of 131I-metuximab as an adjuvant therapy after HCC resection. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial was done at five medical centres in China. Patients aged 18-75 years who underwent curative-intent resection of histologically confirmed HCC expressing CD147 were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated random sequence, stratified by centre, to receive either adjuvant transarterial injection of one dose of 27·75 MBq/kg 131I-metuximab 4-6 weeks after the hepatectomy (treatment group) or no adjuvant treatment (control group). Patients and physicians were not masked to the study groups. The primary outcome was 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00819650. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2009, and Nov 30, 2012, 485 patients were screened for eligibility. 329 (68%) of these patients were excluded and 156 (32%) were randomly assigned to receive either 131I-metuximab (n=78) or no adjuvant treatment (n=78). The median follow-up was 55·9 months (IQR 18·6-79·4). In the intention-to-treat population, the 5-year RFS was 43·4% (95% CI 33·6-55·9) in the 131I-metuximab group and 21·7% (14·2-33·1) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·49 [95% CI 0·34-0·72]; Z=2·96, p=0·0031). 131I-metuximab-associated adverse events occurred within the first 4 weeks in 34 (45%) of 76 patients, seven (21%) of whom had grade 3 or 4 adverse events. These adverse events were all resolved with appropriate treatment within 2 weeks of being identified. INTERPRETATION: Adjuvant 131I-metuximab treatment significantly improved the 5-year RFS of patients after hepatectomy for HCC tumours expressing CD147. This treatment was well tolerated by patients. FUNDING: State Key Project on Infectious Diseases of China.

12.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 20: 140-154, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169802

RESUMO

The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse model is a useful model for investigating the fundamental mechanisms involved in the age-related learning and memory deficits of Alzheimer's disease (AD), while the SAM/resistant 1 (SAMR1) mouse model shows normal features. Recent evidence has shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play an important role in AD pathogenesis. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the function of AD-related lncRNAs and their associated nearby coding genes in AD is still lacking. In this study, we collected the hippocampus, the main area of AD pathological processes, of SAMP8 and SAMR1 animals and performed microarray analysis to identify aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and their associated nearby coding genes, which may contribute to AD pathogenesis. We identified 3,112 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 3,191 differentially expressed mRNAs in SAMP8 mice compared to SAMR1 mice. More than 70% of the deregulated lncRNAs were intergenic and exon sense-overlapping lncRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses of the AD-related transcripts were also performed and are described in detail, which imply that metabolic process reprograming was likely related to AD. Furthermore, six lncRNAs and six mRNAs were selected for further validation of the microarray results using quantitative PCR, and the results were consistent with the findings from the microarray. Moreover, we analyzed 780 lincRNAs (also called long "intergenic" non-coding RNAs) and their associated nearby coding genes. Among these lincRNAs, AK158400 had the most genes nearby (n = 13), all of which belonged to the histone cluster 1 family, suggesting regulation of the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber by affecting nearby genes during AD progression. In addition, we also identified 97 aberrant antisense lncRNAs and their associated coding genes. It is likely that these dysregulated lncRNAs and their associated nearby coding genes play a role in the development and/or progression of AD.

13.
Neural Netw ; 126: 153-162, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222424

RESUMO

In the early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, the morphological attributes of blood vessels play an essential role to construct a retinal computer-aided diagnosis system. However, due to the challenges including limited densely annotated data, inter-vessel differences and structured prediction problem, it remains challenging to segment accurately the retinal vessels, particularly the capillaries on color fundus images. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose a novel deep learning-based model called NFN+ to effectively extract multi-scale information and make full use of deep feature maps. In NFN+, the front network converts an image patch into a probabilistic retinal vessel map, and the followed network further refines the map to achieve a better post-processing module, which helps represent the vessel structures implicitly. We employ the inter-network skip connections to unite two identical multi-scale backbones, which enables the useful multi-scale features to be directly transferred from shallow layers to deeper layers. The refined probabilistic retinal vessel maps produced from the augmented images are then averaged to construct the segmentation results. We evaluated this model on the digital retinal images for vessel extraction (DRIVE), structured analysis of the retina (STARE), and the child heart and health study (CHASE) databases. Our results indicate that the elaborated cascaded designs can produce performance gain and the proposed NFN+ model, to our best knowledge, achieved the state-of-the-art retinal vessel segmentation accuracy on color fundus images (AUC: 98.30%, 98.75% and 98.94%, respectively).

14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3066-3075, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037182

RESUMO

Although freeze-drying is an excellent method for preserving microorganisms, it inevitably reduces cell activity and function. Moreover, probiotic strains differ in terms of their sensitivity to the freeze-drying process. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the variables relevant to this process. The pre-freezing temperature is a critical parameter of the freeze-drying process, but it remains unclear whether the optimal pre-freezing temperature differs among strains and protectants. This study explored the effects of 4 different pre-freezing temperatures on the survival rates of different Lactobacillus plantarum strains after freeze-drying in the presence of different protectants. Using phosphate-buffered saline solution and sorbitol as protectants, pre-freezing at -196°C, -40°C, and -20°C ensured the highest survival rates after freeze-drying for AR113, AR307, and WCFS1, respectively. Using trehalose, pre-freezing at -20°C ensured the best survival rate for AR113, and -60°C was the best pre-freezing temperature for AR307 and WCFS1. These results indicate that the pre-freezing temperature can be changed to improve the survival rate of L. plantarum, and that this effect is strain-specific. Further studies have demonstrated that pre-freezing temperature affected viability via changes in cell membrane integrity, membrane permeability, and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In summary, pre-freezing temperature is a crucial factor in L. plantarum survival after freeze-drying, and the choice of pre-freezing temperature depends on the strain and the protectant.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070946

RESUMO

Automated skin lesion segmentation and classification are two most essential and related tasks in the computer-aided diagnosis of skin cancer. Despite their prevalence, deep learning models are usually designed for only one task, ignoring the potential benefits in jointly performing both tasks. In this paper, we propose the mutual bootstrapping deep convolutional neural networks (MB-DCNN) model for simultaneous skin lesion segmentation and classification. This model consists of a coarse segmentation network (coarse-SN), a mask-guided classification network (mask-CN), and an enhanced segmentation network (enhanced-SN). On one hand, the coarse-SN generates coarse lesion masks that provide a prior bootstrapping for mask-CN to help it locate and classify skin lesions accurately. On the other hand, the lesion localization maps produced by mask-CN are then fed into enhanced-SN, aiming to transfer the localization information learned by mask-CN to enhanced-SN for accurate lesion segmentation. In this way, both segmentation and classification networks mutually transfer knowledge between each other and facilitate each other in a bootstrapping way. Meanwhile, we also design a novel rank loss and jointly use it with the Dice loss in segmentation networks to address the issues caused by class imbalance and hard-easy pixel imbalance. We evaluate the proposed MB-DCNN model on the ISIC-2017 and PH2 datasets, and achieve a Jaccard index of 80.4% and 89.4% in skin lesion segmentation and an average AUC of 93.8% and 97.7% in skin lesion classification, which are superior to the performance of representative state-of-the-art skin lesion segmentation and classification methods. Our results suggest that it is possible to boost the performance of skin lesion segmentation and classification simultaneously via training a unified model to perform both tasks in a mutual bootstrapping way.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 151: 932-943, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088239

RESUMO

In this paper, a sequential gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry route was proposed for characterization of polysaccharides in Panax ginseng (PG), P. notoginseng (PN), and P. quinquefolius (PQ). Due to the reflection of stepped structure parameters, the resulting integrative profiles were tentatively defined as structural-fingerprinting of polysaccharides (SFP) with monosaccharide compositional fingerprinting (MCF), Smith degradation and non-degradation fingerprinting (SDF and SNF), and oligosaccharide compositional fingerprinting (OCF). The MCF, OCF and SDF did not allow for visual discrimination of the three species due to the high interspecific similarity of PG and PQ, whereas SNF could intuitively distinguish PG, PN, and PQ by the presence or absence of Rha and the peak area ratio of Glc/Gal. Similarity analysis, heatmap analysis and principal component analysis were further performed to discern three Panax species based on SNF data sets. The linear →4)-Hexp-(1 â†’ structures were clearly identified as the common structural backbones in side chains or smooth regions of the main chain in PPG, PPN, and PPQ using HILIC-UHPLC-ESI--MS/MS for characterization of partial acid hydrolyzates. The experimental results displayed that the established SFP approach possesses high comprehensibility as well as satisfactory generalization capability for analysis of plant polysaccharides.

17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 254: 112681, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087320

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a rare functional fungus in Taiwan and contains a variety of biologically active ingredients. Antrodin A (AdA) is one of the main active ingredients in the solid-state fermented A. camphorata mycelium. It protects the liver from alcohol damage by improving the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of the liver and maintaining the stability of the intestinal flora. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate layer extract (EALE), AdA, and Antroquinonol (Aq) from mycelium of A. camphorata on alcoholic liver injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were given with intragastrically vehicle (NC, 2% CMC-Na), alcohol (AL, 12 mL/kg bw), or different A. camphorata samples (EALE, AdA, Aq) at low (100 mg/kg bw) or high (200 mg/kg bw) dosages. The positive control (PC) group was given with silymarin (200 mg/kg bw). Except the NC group, each group of mice was fasted for 4 h after the last treatment and was intragastrically administrated with 50% alcohol (12 mL/kg bw). At the end of experiment, mouse serum was collected and the liver was excised. A portion of the liver was fixed in formalin and used for histopathological analysis, whereas the rest was used for biochemical analysis and real-time PCR analysis. The intestinal flora structure of feces was analyzed by determining the v3-v4 region sequence in 16S rDNA. RESULTS: The high-dose groups of the three samples (EALEH, AdAH, and AqH) significantly alleviated the alcohol-induced increases in liver index, serum ALT, AST, and AKP activities. Serum TG level was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. The increase of HDL-C content indicated that active ingredients of A. camphorata could reduce the lipid content in serum. Furthermore, MDA contents of the AdAH and AqH groups in liver were significantly reduced, accompanying with the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH elevated to various extents. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities in the liver were increased in the AdAH group, as evidenced by the mRNA expression levels of Nrf-2 and HO-1 were significantly increased; while those of CYP2e1, TNF-α, and TLR-4 were significantly decreased. Analysis of intestinal flora of feces showed that alcohol treatment significantly changed the composition of intestinal flora. Supplementation with AdA could mitigate dysbiosis of intestinal flora induced by alcohol. Flora of Faecalibaculum, Lactobacillus, and Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002 showed significantly negative correlations with ALT, AST, AKP, and MDA levels. CONCLUSION: Antrodin A could improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of the liver and maintain the stability of intestinal flora. It is potentially a good candidate compound against acute alcoholic liver injury.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012021

RESUMO

Breast density is widely adopted to reflect the likelihood of early breast cancer development. Existing methods of mammographic density classification either require steps of manual operations or achieve only moderate classification accuracy due to the limited model capacity. In this study, we present a radiomics approach based on dilated and attention-guided residual learning for the task of mammographic density classification. The proposed method was instantiated with two datasets, one clinical dataset and one publicly available dataset, and classification accuracies of 88.7% and 70.0% were obtained, respectively. Although the classification accuracy of the public dataset was lower than the clinical dataset, which was very likely related to the dataset size, our proposed model still achieved a better performance than the naive residual networks and several recently published deep learning-based approaches. Furthermore, we designed a multi-stream network architecture specifically targeting at analyzing the multi-view mammograms. Utilizing the clinical dataset, we validated that multi-view inputs were beneficial to the breast density classification task with an increase of at least 2.0% in accuracy and the different views lead to different model classification capacities. Our method has a great potential to be further developed and applied in computer-aided diagnosis systems.

20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(7): 3257-3261, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese rice wine (CRW; a traditional alcoholic beverage in China with unique flavor and high nutritional value) containing high level of biogenic amines (BAs) may be deleterious to human health. The processes of rice soaking, primary fermentation and secondary fermentation were found to be the major factors for accumulation of BAs during industrial CRW production. RESULTS: To reduce the risk of the formation of BAs in CRW production, Enterococcus durans AR315, a BA-negative lactic acid bacterium, was isolated from CRW samples by PCR-based molecular marker reverse screening in this work. With addition of AR315 during steeping rice phase, the level of total BAs was significantly decreased by 45.1% in comparison with the control. Moreover, the final BA concentration with the addition of AR315 was 27.6% lower than that of the control during fermentation phase. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of decreased accumulation of BAs in CRW production using a BA-negative lactic acid bacterium. Hence, using a BA-negative lactic acid bacterium as a starter culture could be an efficient strategy for significantly reducing the formation of BAs, which has the potential for industrial application in CRW production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

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