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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132292, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562711

RESUMO

The insight into the neglected reduction process accompanied by UV-based oxidation process may provide new ideas for the development of advanced oxidation and reduction technologies. In this study, aniline was comprehensively investigated as an unexpected indicator of hydrated electron (eaq-) under UV irradiation. Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) was selected as the probe of eaq- and the balance of chloride ions indicated the reduction of MCAA. Further, laser flash photolysis experiments demonstrated the generation of eaq- in the UV/aniline process and the half-life period of formed eaq- was demonstrated to be 0.13 µs. The photolysis of aniline along with the decay of the excited state of aniline was responsible for the eaq- generation. Besides, the hydrogen atom (H) generated from the photolysis can subsequently reacted with OH- to generate eaq-. The photolysis pathways of aniline were proposed by the results of GC-MS. Aniline was abstracted of H in solution to the formation of aniline radical (PhNH) or form aminophenol in three different isomers (orto-, meta- and para-aminophenol). Moreover, UV/aniline showed a higher reducing capacity of MCAA compared with other organic electron donors and sustained a highly reducing ability in a wide pH. And the calculation results of quantum efficiency (Φ) showed that excessive aniline was not conducive to the elevation of Φ. This study introduced a novel pathway of eaq- generation during the photolysis of aniline and provided a new perspective for eaq--based advanced reduction processes.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos de Anilina , Oxirredução , Fotólise , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Head Neck ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to conventional intensity-modulated photon radiation therapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated proton radiation therapy (IMPT) has potential to reduce irradiation-induced late toxicities while maintaining excellent tumor control in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the relevant cost-effectiveness remains controversial. METHODS: A Markov decision tree analysis was performed under the assumption that IMPT offered normal tissue complication probability reduction (NTCP reduction) in long-term dysphagia, xerostomia, and hearing loss, compared to IMRT. Base-case evaluation was performed on T2N2M0 NPC of median age (43 years old). A Chinese societal willingness-to-pay threshold (33558 US dollars [$])/quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]) was adopted. RESULTS: For patients at median age and having NTCP reduction of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%, their incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $102684.0/QALY, $43161.2/QALY, $24134.7/QALY, $13991.6/QALY, $8259.8/QALY, and $4436.1/QALY, respectively; IMPT should provide an NTCP reduction of ≥24% to be considered cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: IMPT has potential to be cost-effective for average Chinese NPC patients and should be validated clinically.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular decompression (MVD) has become accepted as an effective therapeutic option for hemifacial spasm (HFS); however, the curative rate of MVD for HFS varies widely (50-98%) in different medical centers. This study could contribute to the improvement of the MVD procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients in whom initial MVD failed in other hospitals and who underwent a second MVD at our center. The clinical characteristics, operative findings, outcome of the second MVD, and complications were recorded. RESULTS: There were 18 women and 14 men (56.3 and 43.7%, respectively). The left-to-right ratio was 19:13. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years. We found an undiscovered conflict site located in zone 4 in 10 patients and in the root entry zone in 8 patients. The initial MVD failed in nine patients because of ignorance of the arterioles that originate from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. There were no special findings in four patients. No Teflon felts were found in the whole surgical field in one patient. CONCLUSION: Omission of the offending vessel is the most common cause of an unsuccessful MVD. Intraoperative abnormal muscle response associated with the Z-L response is a good measure to correctly identify the involved arterioles.

5.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no approved blood-based biomarker for breast cancer detection. Herein, we aimed to assess semaphorin 4C (SEMA4C), a pivotal protein involved in breast cancer progression, as a serum diagnostic biomarker. METHODS: We included 6,213 consecutive inpatients from Tongji Hospital, Qilu Hospital, and Hubei Cancer Hospital. Training cohort and two validation cohorts were introduced for diagnostic exploration and validation. A pan-cancer cohort was used to independently explore the diagnostic potential of SEMA4C among solid tumors. Breast cancer patients who underwent mass excision prior to modified radical mastectomy were also analyzed. We hypothesized that increased pre-treatment serum SEMA4C levels, measured using optimized in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, could detect breast cancer. The endpoints were diagnostic performance, including area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Post-surgery pathological diagnosis was the reference standard and breast cancer staging followed the TNM classification. There was no restriction on disease stage for eligibilities. RESULTS: We included 2667 inpatients with breast lesions, 2378 patients with other solid tumors, and 1168 healthy participants. Specifically, 118 patients with breast cancer were diagnosed with stage 0 (5.71%), 620 with stage I (30.00%), 966 with stage II (46.73%), 217 with stage III (10.50%), and 8 with stage IV (0.39%). Patients with breast cancer had significantly higher serum SEMA4C levels than benign breast tumor patients and normal controls (P < 0.001). Elevated serum SEMA4C levels had AUC of 0.920 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.900-0.941) and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.911-0.953) for breast cancer detection in the two validation cohorts. The AUCs for detecting early-stage breast cancer (n = 366) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 85) were 0.931 (95%CI: 0.916-0.946) and 0.879 (95%CI: 0.832-0.925), respectively. Serum SEMA4C levels significantly decreased after surgery, and the reduction was more striking after modified radical mastectomy, compared with mass excision (P < 0.001). The positive rate of enhanced serum SEMA4C levels was 84.77% for breast cancer and below 20.75% for the other 14 solid tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Serum SEMA4C demonstrated promising potential as a candidate biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis. However, validation in prospective settings and by other study groups is warranted.

6.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683490

RESUMO

Aquaculture is crucial for achieving the FAO's goal of a world without hunger and malnutrition. Recently, biofilm substratum has been proposed as an effective means to control waste pollution caused by excessive nutrient inputs from aquaculture, but key bacterial communities involved in the remediation remain unclear. Here we reported a freshwater mesocosm study where the addition of biofilm substrata with external carbon effectively controlled the total ammonia nitrogen and improved fish growth. 16S rRNA study and Weighted UniFrac analysis revealed that bacterial compositions were significantly different (999 permutations, p-value < 0.01) between the biofilm-substrata-added and biofilm-substrata-free systems. Planctomycetes were found, as key bacteria benefited from the biofilm substrata addition and exerted the major function of ammonia nitrogen control. Our study demonstrated that the addition of biofilm substrata and an external carbon source favored fish growth and improved the aquaculture environment by the formation of a unique bacteria community.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 719807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691027

RESUMO

According to emerging studies, the excessive activation of microglia and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact mechanisms governing chronic neuroinflammation remain elusive. Findings demonstrate an elevated level of NLRP3 inflammasome in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of PD patients. Activated NLRP3 inflammasome aggravates the pathology and accelerates the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal protein aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn), a pathologically relevant protein of PD, were reported to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome of microglia through interaction with toll-like receptors (TLRs). This eventually releases pro-inflammatory cytokines through the translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and causes an impairment of mitochondria, thus damaging the dopaminergic neurons. Currently, therapeutic drugs for PD are primarily aimed at providing relief from its clinical symptoms, and there are no well-established strategies to halt or reverse this disease. In this review, we aimed to update existing knowledge on the role of the α-syn/TLRs/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome axis and microglial activation in PD. In addition, this review summarizes recent progress on the α-syn/TLRs/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome axis of microglia as a potential target for PD treatment by inhibiting microglial activation.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673798

RESUMO

Inulin is a highly effective prebiotic and an attractive alternative to antibiotic growth promoters for increasing production and maintaining health in chickens. However, how inulin elicits its effects on members of the intestinal microbiota is unknown, even though their importance for energy metabolism and the health of chickens is well documented. A combination of 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing and transcriptomic analysis was used to investigate the effects of supplementing a corn-based basal diet with 1, 2, or 4% inulin or 400 ppm bacitracin on the composition, diversity and activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing organisms (CMOs) in the cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. We found that members of Bacteroides were the most abundant non-starch degrading CMOs, contributing 43.6-52.1% of total glycoside hydrolase genes and 34.6-47.1% activity to the meta-transcriptomes of chickens in the different dietary groups, although members of Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Alistipes, Clostridium, Barnesiella, Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium and others were also actively involved. Inulin and bacitracin inclusion in the basal diet did not change significantly the composition or diversity of these CMOs. Inulin supplementation at three levels promoted the activities of Bacteroides, Prevotella and Bifidobacterium, and 2% level appears to be the most optimal dosage for bifidobacterial activity.

9.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 355, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with high rate of metastasis and recurrence. Although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has emerged as a promising type of immunotherapy in advanced HCC, treatment with ICB alone achieves an objective remission rate less than 20%. Thus, combination therapy strategies is needed to improve the treatment response rate and therapeutic effect. METHODS:  A light-triggered disassembly of nanoplatform (TB/PTX@RTK) co-loaded an aggregation induced emission (AIE) photosensitizer (TB) and paclitaxel (PTX) was prepared for on-command drug release and synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy (chemo-PDT). Nano-micelles were characterized for drug loading content, hydrodynamic size, absorption and emission spectra, reactive oxygen species production, and PTX release from micelles. The targeted fluorescence imaging of TB/PTX@RTK micelles and the synergistic anti-tumor efficacy of TB/PTX@RTK micelles-mediated chemo-PDT combined with anti-PD-L1 were assessed both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The TB/PTX@RTK micelles could specifically accumulate at the tumor site through cRGD-mediated active target and facilitate image-guided PDT for tumor ablation. Once irradiated by light, the AIE photosensitizer of TB could produce ROS for PDT, and the thioketal linker could be cleaved by ROS to precise release of PTX in tumor cells. Chemo-PDT could not only synergistically inhibit tumor growth, but also induce immunogenic cell death and elicit anti-tumor immune response. Meanwhile, chemo-PDT significantly upregulated the expression of PD-L1 on tumor cell surface which could efficiently synergize with anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies to induce an abscopal effect, and establish long-term immunological memory to inhibit tumor relapse and metastasis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the combination of TB/PTX@RTK micelle-mediated chemo-PDT with anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies can synergistically enhance systemic anti-tumor effects, and provide a novel insight into the development of new nanomedicine with precise controlled release and multimodal therapy to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of HCC.

10.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 41(11): 1195-1227, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699681

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor originating in the nasopharynx and has a high incidence in Southeast Asia and North Africa. To develop these comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and management of NPC, the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) arranged a multi-disciplinary team comprising of experts from all sub-specialties of NPC to write, discuss, and revise the guidelines. Based on the findings of evidence-based medicine in China and abroad, domestic experts have iteratively developed these guidelines to provide proper management of NPC. Overall, the guidelines describe the screening, clinical and pathological diagnosis, staging and risk assessment, therapies, and follow-up of NPC, which aim to improve the management of NPC.

11.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574189

RESUMO

Flavor and nutritional value are important qualities of freshwater fish products, but the key factors affecting these quality parameters remain unclear. In this study, four typical aquaculture modes, including the commercial feed treatment (control), faba bean treatment (FBT), grass powder treatment (GPT), and waving water treatment with commercial feed (WWT), were used to explore the regulatory effect of water quality and feed (eaten and uneaten) on the flesh flavor and nutrition in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater fish of the largest global production. During the culture period (90 days), water quality parameters of the four modes were measured every 15 days, and the flavor quality was evaluated by volatile flavor compounds detection and electronic nose analyzer. Flesh crude protein, crude fat, free fatty acid and free amino acid profiles were also determined. The results showed that, in the late period, the FBT mode had the poorest water quality with highest concentrations of nitrite and nitrate, while the GPT mode has the best water quality among the four modes. Most flesh flavor compounds found in the flesh of the control, GPT and WWT modes were pleasant. In the FBT mode with the poorest water quality, on the other hand, we found lower flavor quality (higher contribution of fishy compounds), higher water content, and lower contents of crude protein, crude fat, free fatty acids and free amino acids, compared to the other three modes. Correlation analyses showed that nitrite and nitrate are probably key water quality factors affecting the flavor quality and nutritional values besides eaten feed and uneaten feed factors. This study can serve as an important reference for ecological regulation and feeding administration of flesh quality in freshwater aquaculture fish.

12.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 293, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the fastest-growing cancer among females and the second leading cause of female death. At present, targeted antibodies combined with hyperthermia locally in tumor has been identified as a potential combination therapy to combat tumors. But in fact, the uniformly deep distribution of photosensitizer in tumor sites is still an urgent problem, which limited the clinical application. We reported an HER2-modified thermosensitive liposome (immunoliposome)-assisted complex by reducing gold nanocluster on the surface (GTSL-CYC-HER2) to obtain a new type of bioplasma resonance structured carrier. The HER2 decoration on the surface enhanced targeting to the breast cancer tumor site and forming irregular, dense, "petal-like" shells of gold nanoclusters. Due to the good photothermal conversion ability under near-infrared light (NIR) irradiation, the thermosensitive liposome released the antitumor Chinese traditional medicine, cyclopamine, accompanied with the degradation of gold clusters into 3-5 nm nanoparticles which can accelerate renal metabolism of the gold clusters. With the help of cyclopamine to degrade the tumor associated matrix, this size-tunable gold wrapped immunoliposome was more likely to penetrate the deeper layers of the tumor, while the presence of gold nanoparticles makes GTSL-CYC-HER2 multimodal imaging feasible. RESULTS: The prepared GTSL-CYC-HER2 had a size of 113.5 nm and displayed excellent colloidal stability, photo-thermal conversion ability and NIR-sensitive drug release. These GTSL-CYC-HER2 were taken up selectively by cancer cells in vitro and accumulated at tumour sites in vivo. As for the in vivo experiments, compared to the other groups, under near-infrared laser irradiation, the temperature of GTSL-CYC-HER2 rises rapidly to the phase transition temperature, and released the cyclopamine locally in the tumor. Then, the released cyclopamine destroyed the stroma of the tumor tissue while killing the tumor cells, which in turn increased the penetration of the liposomes in deep tumor tissues. Moreover, the GTSL-CYC-HER2 enhanced the performance of multimodal computed tomography (CT) and photothermal (PT) imaging and enabled chemo-thermal combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This optically controlled biodegradable plasmonic resonance structures not only improves the safety of the inorganic carrier application in vivo, but also greatly improves the anti-tumor efficiency through the visibility of in vivo CT and PT imaging, as well as chemotherapy combined with hyperthermia, and provides a synergistic treatment strategy that can broaden the conventional treatment alone.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1020, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is a major opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it is also increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. In the early stages of cryptococcosis, limitations of the detection method may hinder the diagnosis. A molecular diagnostic technique based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) method was developed to fulfil the need for efficient diagnosis of cryptococcosis. METHODS: We compared the diagnostic performance of NASBA, PCR and cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) test (colloidal gold method) in clinical samples from 25 cryptococcosis patients (including 8 cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and 17 pulmonary cryptococcosis) who were categorized as proven cases (n = 10) and probable cases (n = 15) according to the revised EORTC/MSG definitions. 10 patients with non-Cryptococcus infection and 30 healthy individuals were categorized as control group. RESULTS: The lowest detection limit of NASBA was 10 CFU/mL, and RNA of non-target bacteria or fungi was not amplified. The sensitivity of NASBA, PCR and colloidal gold method was 92.00% (95% CI 72.50-98.60%), 64.00% (95% CI 42.62-81.29%), 100.00% (95% CI 83.42-100.00%), and the specificity was 95.00% (95% CI 81.79-99.13%), 80.00% (95% CI 63.86-90.39%) and 82.50% (95% CI 66.64-92.11%) respectively. The highest specificity (97.50%), accuracy (95.38%) and k value (0.90) were achieved when both NASBA and colloidal gold results were positive. CONCLUSIONS: NASBA is a new alternative detection method for cryptococcosis which is both accurate and rapid without expensive equipment and specialised personnel. It may be used as a tool for confirming current infection as well as monitoring the effectiveness of antifungal treatment. The use of NASBA to detect Cryptococcus RNA in blood samples is of great significance for the diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis. The combination of NASBA and colloidal gold can improve the diagnostic accuracy of cryptococcosis.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus , Antígenos de Fungos , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Cryptococcus/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Replicação de Sequência Autossustentável , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
iScience ; 24(9): 103024, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585108

RESUMO

The sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has becoming the bottleneck of largescale implementation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. However, when it comes to the ORR activity assessing of platinum group metals (PGMs) with rotating disk electrode, the corresponding potential conversion vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, test protocols, and activity calculation processes are still in chaos in many published literatures. In this work, two standard calculation processes for PGM ORR activities are demonstrated, followed by a specification for the usage of reference electrodes. Then a 4-fold discrepancy in ORR activities obtained via different test protocols is found for the same Pt/C, and an average adsorption model and the "coverage effects" are proposed to illustrate the hysteresis loop between negative and positive-going ORR polarization plots. Finally, four motions over appropriate assessment of PGM ORR activity are emphasized, hoping to bring a fair communication platform for researchers from different groups.

15.
Anesth Analg ; 133(4): 1048-1059, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity can be induced by the commonly used amide local anesthetic, bupivacaine. Bupivacaine can inhibit protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα). It can decouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhance reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Apelin enhances the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) pathways, promotes the complete fatty acid oxidation in the heart, and reduces the release of ROS. In this study, we examined whether exogenous (Pyr1) apelin-13 could reverse bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS: We used the bupivacaine-induced inhibition model in adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 48) and H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell cultures to explore the role of apelin-13 in the reversal of bupivacaine cardiotoxicity, and its possible mechanism of action. AMPKα, ACC, carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT), PI3K, AKT, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (p47-phox) were quantified. Changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure were examined, and mitochondrial DNA, cell viability, ROS release, oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were determined. RESULTS: Apelin-13 reduced bupivacaine-induced mitochondrial DNA lesions in SD rats (P < .001), while increasing the expression of AMPKα (P = .007) and PI3K (P = .002). Furthermore, apelin-13 blocked bupivacaine-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (P = .019) and the bupivacaine-induced increases in ROS (P = .001). Also, the AMPK pathway was activated by bupivacaine as well as apelin-13 (P = .002) in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Additionally, the reduction in the PI3K expression by bupivacaine was mitigated by apelin-13 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes (P = .001). While the aforementioned changes induced by bupivacaine were not abated by apelin-13 after pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor compound C; the bupivacaine-induced changes were still mitigated by apelin-13, even when pretreated with PI3K inhibitor-LY294002. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin-13 treatment reduced bupivacaine-induced oxidative stress, attenuated mitochondrial morphological changes and mitochondrial DNA damage, enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism, and ultimately reversed bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity. Our results suggest a role for the AMPK in apelin-13 reversal of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bupivacaína , Cardiotoxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/enzimologia , Cardiopatias/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(9): 2565-2566, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377830

RESUMO

We describe the mitochondrial genome sequence of a torrent frog, Amolops jinjiangensis. The mitogenome was extracted and assembled for the first time by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). The total length is 17,780 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region. The gene rearrangement was detected as the W-OL-ANCY gene cluster which consisted with several published Amolops mitogenomes. The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on 13 protein-coding genes of A. jinjiangensis and 11 closely related species by Bayesian analyses.

17.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 944, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a new-emerging cancer treatment in China but its treatment costs are high and not yet covered by Chinese public medical insurance. The advanced form of PBT, intensity-modulated proton radiation therapy (IMPT), has been confirmed to reduce normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) as compared to conventional intensity-modulated photon-radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Herein, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness and applicability of IMPT versus IMRT for OPC patients in China, aiming at guiding the proper use of PBT. METHODS: A 7-state Markov model was designed for analysis. Base-case evaluation was performed on a 56-year-old (median age of OPC in China) patient under the assumption that IMPT could provide a 25% NTCP-reduction in long-term symptomatic dysphagia and xerostomia. Model robustness was examined using probabilistic sensitivity analysis, cohort analysis, and tornado diagram. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the cost-effective scenarios. IMPT was considered as cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was below the societal willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold. RESULTS: Compared with IMRT, IMPT provided an extra 0.205 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) at an additional cost of 34,926.6 US dollars ($), and had an ICER of $170,082.4/ QALY for the base case. At the current WTP of China ($33,558 / QALY) and a current IMPT treatment costs of $50,000, IMPT should provide a minimum NTCP-reduction of 47.5, 50.8, 55.6, 63.3 and 77.2% to be considered cost-effective for patient age levels of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50-year-old, respectively. For patients at the median age level, reducing the current IMPT costs ($50,000) to a $30,000 level would make the minimum NTCP-reduction threshold for "cost-effective" decrease from 91.4 to 44.6%, at the current WTP of China (from 69.0 to 33.5%, at a WTP of $50,000 / QALY; and from 39.7 to 19.1%, at a WTP of $100,000 / QALY). CONCLUSIONS: Cost-effective scenarios of PBT exist in Chinese OPC patients at the current WTP of China. Considering a potential upcoming increase in PBT use in China, such cost-effective scenarios may further expand if a decrease of proton treatment costs occurs or an increase of WTP level.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/economia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/economia , Terapia com Prótons/normas , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(4): 615-623, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in China. However, present efforts to identify the risk factors for death in patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) are primarily focused on in-hospital mortality and 30-day mortality in the United States. Thus, a model similar to the model used for predicting the risk in patients considered for cardiovascular surgical procedures is needed to evaluate the risk of the patients admitted with a diagnosis of HF. OBJECTIVE: To identify variables that can predict post-discharge one-year HF mortality and develop a risk score to assess the risk of dying within one year. METHODS: In the present study, 1,742 Chinese patients with HF were randomly divided into two groups: a derivation sample group and a test sample group. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation method was used to identify variables that can predict the one-year post-discharge mortality. Variables with a frequency of >1% in the bivariate analysis and that were considered clinically meaningful were eligible for further modeling analyses. The posterior probability that a variable was statistically and significantly associated with the outcome was calculated as the total number of times that the variable's 95% CI did not overlap with 1 (i.e., the reference point) divided by the total number of iterations. A variable with a probability of 0.9 or higher was considered a robust risk factor for predicting the outcome, and this was included in the final variable list. The level of statistical significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: Five variables that could robustly predict the one-year post-discharge mortality were identified: age, female gender, New York Heart Association functional classification score >3, left atrial diameter, and body mass index. Both derivation and test models had a receiver operating curve area of 0.79. These selected variables were used to assess the one-year HF mortality risk score, and these were divided into three groups (low, moderate, and high). The high-risk group corresponds to nearly 86% of the deaths, while the moderate group corresponds to 12% of the deaths. CONCLUSION: A simple 5-variable risk score can be used to assess the one-year post-discharge mortality of hospitalized Chinese patients with HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Alta do Paciente , Assistência ao Convalescente , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(8): 3963-3970, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309283

RESUMO

To investigate the dominant plants in ecological restoration of tin mining areas, field investigations were conducted in a tin tailings area in Lailishan, Yunnan Provence, and 15 dominant plants and corresponding rhizosphere soils were collected. The plant root mycorrhizal infection rate; the copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn) contents; and the chemical properties of the rhizosphere tailings were determined. The transfer and enrichment coefficients of six heavy metals were calculated for each of the 15 plants to comprehensively evaluate the application potential of native plants. The rhizophere tailings had an average pH value of 3.13, which was acidic. The organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen, and available phosphorus content of the soils was 6.07 g ·kg-1, 5.74 g ·kg-1, 0.62 g ·kg-1, 8.66 g ·kg-1, 30.84 mg ·kg-1, and 2.08 mg ·kg-1 respectively, indicating relatively nutrient-poor soil. The average Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, As, and Sn contents of the soils were 347.40, 1.02, 1.34, 168.47, 25.81, and 2299.02 mg ·kg-1, respectively. Among the heavy metals, the Cd content reached a third-level pollution warning value. The soil also contained a large amount of Cu and Pb which exhibited a different spatial distribution. This area appears to have a high risk of Cu, Pb, and Cd pollution. In addition, the roots of Olea europaea L. and Eurya japonica Thunb. had a high rate of mycorrhizal infection. Alnus cremastogyne Burk., Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult. 'Alphonse-Kar' R. A. Young, Juncus effusus L., and Cyperus rotundus L. var. had a strong ability to absorb and transport heavy metals. The other plants were also adapted to the growth environment of the tin tailings, with the potential to restore the mining area.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Estanho
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