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1.
Planta ; 253(2): 56, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527150

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Two novel QTLs for early seedling growth in rice were fine mapped, with one of which to a 4-kb identical to the known GW6a gene, and another one to a 43-kb region that contains six candidate genes. Leaves are extremely important for plant photosynthesis: the size and shape of which determine the rate of transpiration, carbon fixation and light interception, and their robust growth at seedling stage endow crops with the ability to compete with weeds. So far, many genes for the traits have been cloned with mutants; however, identification of those quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control early seedling growth has seldom been reported. In this study, we report the identification of two QTLs, qLBL1 and qLBL2 on the rice chromosome 6 for leaf blade length at early seedling stage. Fine mapping revealed that qLBL1 was placed into a 4-kb, and qLBL2 was delimited to a 43-kb genomic interval. We further found that LBL1 was equivalent to the known grain-size gene GW6a and the qLBL2 region contains 6 candidate genes. Genetic analysis using nearly isogenic lines and transgenic rice plants revealed that both genetic factors were positive regulators. The genetic effects were mainly due to alterations of cell division by cytological observations. RT-qPCR results showed that LBL1 was preferentially expressed in leaf blades, and consistently, histochemical staining of pGW6a::GUS plants showed that GUS signal was strong in the vascular tissues of leaf blade of seedlings. Thus, we fine mapped and characterized two QTLs for early seedling growth and provided useful information to improve crop breeding.

2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574569

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers, with a minimal difference between its incidence rate and mortality rate. Advances in oncology over the past several decades have dramatically improved the overall survival of patients with multiple cancers due to the implementation of new techniques in early diagnosis, therapeutic drugs, and personalized therapy. However, pancreatic cancers remain recalcitrant, with a 5-year relative survival rate of <9%. The lack of measures for early diagnosis, strong resistance to chemotherapy, ineffective adjuvant chemotherapy and the unavailability of molecularly targeted therapy are responsible for the high mortality rate of this notorious disease. Genetically, PDAC progresses as a complex result of the activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressors. Although next-generation sequencing has identified numerous new genetic alterations, their clinical implications remain unknown. Classically, oncogenic mutations in genes such as KRAS and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressors, such as TP53, CDNK2A, DPC4/SMAD4, and BRCA2, are frequently observed in PDAC. Currently, research on these key driver genes is still the main focus. Therefore, studies assessing the functions of these genes and their potential clinical implications are of paramount importance. In this review, we summarize the biological function of key driver genes and pharmaceutical targets in PDAC. In addition, we conclude the results of molecularly targeted therapies in clinical trials and discuss how to utilize these genetic alterations in further clinical practice.

3.
Nat Plants ; 7(2): 129-136, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594262

RESUMO

MicroRNA168 (miR168) is a key miRNA that targets Argonaute1 (AGO1), a major component of the RNA-induced silencing complex1,2. Previously, we reported that miR168 expression was responsive to infection by Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease3. However, how miR168 regulates immunity to rice blast and whether it affects rice development remains unclear. Here, we report our discovery that the suppression of miR168 by a target mimic (MIM168) not only improves grain yield and shortens flowering time in rice but also enhances immunity to M. oryzae. These results were validated through repeated tests in rice fields in the absence and presence of rice blast pressure. We found that the miR168-AGO1 module regulates miR535 to improve yield by increasing panicle number, miR164 to reduce flowering time, and miR1320 and miR164 to enhance immunity. Our discovery demonstrates that changes in a single miRNA enhance the expression of multiple agronomically important traits.

5.
Chem Asian J ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617127

RESUMO

A series of bis -acryl functionalized porphyrins and their corresponding metalloporphyrins (M = Co, Mn) were synthesized and investigated for their antimicrobial properties through MIC screening and bacteria time-kill kinetic studies. The Mn(III) 4-(bis)methylphenyl-substituted-porphyrins showed superior batericidal activities even in the dark with low hemotoxicity and good cytotoxicity profile.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy is associated with nodal downstaging and improved oncological outcomes in patients with lymph node (LN)-positive pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to develop and validate a nomogram to preoperatively predict LN-positive disease. METHODS: A total of 558 patients with resected pancreatic cancer were randomly and equally divided into development and internal validation cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to construct the nomogram. Model performance was evaluated by discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness. An independent multicenter cohort consisting of 250 patients was used for external validation. RESULTS: A four-marker signature was built consisting of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), CA125, CA50, and CA242. A nomogram was constructed to predict LN metastasis using three predictors identified by multivariate analysis: risk score of the four-marker signature, computed tomography-reported LN status, and clinical tumor stage. The prediction model exhibited good discrimination ability, with C-indexes of 0.806, 0.742 and 0.763 for the development, internal validation, and external validation cohorts, respectively. The model also showed good calibration and clinical usefulness. A cut-off value (0.72) for the probability of LN metastasis was determined to separate low-risk and high-risk patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a good agreement of the survival curves between the nomogram-predicted status and the true LN status. CONCLUSIONS: This nomogram enables the identification of pancreatic cancer patients at high risk for LN positivity who may have more advanced disease and thus could potentially benefit from neoadjuvant therapy.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 141999, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254870

RESUMO

N-doped carbon materials have been proven to be effective catalysts for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS). Marine algae biomass is rich in nitrogenous substances , which can reduce the cost of N-doping process and can obtain excellent N-doped catalysts cheaply and easily. In this study, kelp biomass was selected to prepare N-doped kelp biochar (KB) materials. The high defect degree, high specific surface area, and participation of graphite N make KB have excellent catalytic degradation ability. The KB degraded 40 mg/L ofloxacin (OFL) close to 100% within 60 min, applied with PMS. Through quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, the degradation process dominated by non-radical pathways was determined. At the same time, O2·- and 1O2 were closely related, and a significant impact of quenching O2·- on the reaction was observed. The non-radical approach made the system excellent performance over a wide pH range and in the presence of multiple anions. The experiments of reusability confirmed the stability of the material. Its catalytic performance was restored after low-temperature pyrolysis. This research supports the use of endogenous nitrogen in biomass. It provides more options for advanced oxidation process application and marine resource development.


Assuntos
Kelp , Carvão Vegetal , Ofloxacino , Peróxidos
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123294, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629354

RESUMO

The copper in the waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is cleanly recycled by physical methods and presented in the form of nano copper particles by hydrometallurgical, which provides environmental approach to the advanced utilization of metal copper. Copper in WPCBs was first pre-concentrated by gradient enrichment process including gravity separation, mechanical grinding and flotation. The leaching method was then used to dissolve copper from the flotation concentrate in ammoniacal/ammonium salt solutions. Subsequently, reduction treatment was conducted to synthesize nano-copper from leaching solution. The enrichment results of the clean physical separation process show that the grade of copper increased from 16.22% to -38.05% by gravity separation, and the grade of copper further increased to 72.62 % by flotation after dissociation, which avoids overgrinding of low value components. Copper nanoparticles can be prepared effectively, and the recovery of copper in the leaching process reaches 99 %. The particle size of copper nanoparticles obtained by ascorbic acid reduction is tens of nanometers, and the surface of copper nanoparticles is smooth and nearly spherical. The present study proposes an environmentally friendly process of preparing nano-copper from the copper in WPCBs.

9.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129114, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296754

RESUMO

TiO2-based nanomaterials are among the most promising photocatalysts for degrading organic dye pollutants. In this work, Au-TiO2 nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning technique, followed by calcination in air at 500 °C. Morphological and structural analyses revealed that the composite consists of TiO2 nanofibers with embedded Au nanoparticles that are extensively distributed throughout the porous fibrous structure of TiO2. The photocatalytic performance of these Au-embedded TiO2 nanofibers was evaluated in the photodegradation of Rhodamine B and methylene blue under solar simulator irradiation. Compared with pristine TiO2 nanofibers, the Au-embedded TiO2 nanofibers displayed far better photocatalytic degradation efficiency. The plasmon resonance absorption of Au nanoparticles in the visible spectral region and the effective charge separation at the heterojunction of the Au-TiO2 hybrid are the key factors that have led to the considerable enhancement of the photocatalytic activity. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the potential of Au-TiO2 electrospun nanofibers as solar-light-responsive photocatalysts for the effective removal of dye contaminants from aquatic environments.

10.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 18: 3606-3614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304458

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy that is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage when curative surgery is no longer an option. Robust diagnostic biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for early detection are urgently needed. Systems biology provides a powerful tool for understanding diseases and solving challenging biological problems, allowing biomarkers to be identified and quantified with increasing accuracy, sensitivity, and comprehensiveness. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of efforts to identify biomarkers of PDAC using genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabonomics, and bioinformatics. Systems biology perspective provides a crucial "network" to integrate multi-omics approaches to biomarker identification, shedding additional light on early PDAC detection.

11.
Biomaterials ; 268: 120547, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307366

RESUMO

Vitreous endo-tamponades are commonly used in the treatment of retinal detachments and tears. They function by providing a tamponading force to support the retina after retina surgery. Current clinical vitreous endo-tamponades include expansile gases (such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and perfluoropropane (C3F8)) and also sislicone oil (SiO). They are effective in promoting recovery but are disadvantaged by their lower refractive indices and lower densities as compared to the native vitreous, resulting in immediate blurred vision after surgery and necessitating patients to assume prolonged face-down positioning respectively. While the gas implants diffuse out over time, the SiO implants are non-biodegradable and require surgical removal. Therefore, there is much demand to develop an ideal vitreous endo-tamponade that can combine therapeutic effectiveness with patient comfort. Polymeric hydrogels have since attracted much attention due to their favourable properties such as high water content, high clarity, suitable refractive indices, suitable density, tuneable rheological properties, injectability, and biocompatibility. Many design strategies have been employed to design polymeric hydrogel-based vitreous endo-tamponades and they can be classified into four main strategies. This review seeks to analyse these various strategies and evaluate their effectiveness and also propose the key criteria to design successful polymeric hydrogel vitreous endo-tamponades.

12.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20246868

RESUMO

Facing shortages of personal protective equipment, some clinicians have advocated the use of barrier enclosures (typically mounted over the head, with and without suction) to contain aerosol emissions from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. There is however little evidence for its usefulness. To test the effectiveness of such a device, we built a manikin that can expire micron-sized aerosols at flow rates close to physiological conditions. We then placed the manikin inside the enclosure and used a laser sheet to visualize the aerosol leaking out. We show that with sufficient suction, it is possible to effectively contain aerosol from the manikin even at high flow rates (up to 60 L min-1) of oxygen, reducing aerosol exposure outside the enclosure by 99%. In contrast, a passive barrier without suction only reduces aerosol exposure by 60%.

13.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(11): 1024-1025, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159191
14.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169915

RESUMO

Particulate matters (PMs), e. g. dusts, fibres, smokes, fumes, mists, liquid droplets and airborne respirable solid or liquid particles, are the major sources of air pollution concerning outdoor and indoor air quality. Among various PMs, bioaerosols are airborne particles that are either living organisms (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) or originate from living organisms (endotoxin, allergen, etc). PMs and/or bioaerosols have adverse health effects of infection, allergy, and irritation. Proper management and source identification of PMs and bioaerosols will reduce their negative health impact. In this review, we will discuss the analytical technologies and sensors for PMs and bioaerosols. We will first introduce four types of PM analysers, namely, filter-based gravimetric method (GMM), optical method, ß-ray absorption method (BAM), and tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). We will provide examples of how commercial PM analyzers of different principles have been compared and calibrated for specific applications under different climate conditions of specific geographic locations. For bioaerosols, having more complex biological and biochemical identity, we will start from air sampling techniques, followed by a discussion of various detection methods (plate culture, molecular methods, immunoassays and biosensors) in association with compatible sampling technologies. Using Influenza A (H1 N1) virus and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus as examples, we have highlighted air sampling and detection challenges for viral aerosols relative to bacterial and fungal aerosols. Finally, we provide a perspective for future trends according to the limitation of current commercial products and the key challenges in this field.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203817

RESUMO

Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are phytochrome-related photoreceptor proteins in cyanobacteria and cover a wide spectral range from ultraviolet to far-red. A single GAF domain that they contain can bind bilin(s) autocatalytically via heterologous recombination and then fluoresce, with potential applications as biomarkers and biosensors. Here, we report that a novel red/green CBCR GAF domain, SPI1085g2, from Spirulina subsalsa covalently binds both phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin (PEB). The PCB-binding GAF domain exhibited canonical red/green photoconversion with weak fluorescence emission. However, the PEB-binding GAF domain, SPI1085g2-PEB, exhibited an intense orange fluorescence (λabs. max = 520 nm, λfluor. max= 555 nm), with a fluorescence quantum yield close to 1.0. The fluorescence of SPI1085g2-PEB was selectively and instantaneously quenched by copper ions in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited reversibility upon treatment with the metal chelator EDTA. This study identified a novel PEB-binding cyanobacteriochrome-based fluorescent protein with the highest quantum yield reported to date and indicated its potential as a biosensor for the rapid detection of copper ions.

16.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138042

RESUMO

Gynura divaricata (L.) DC (Compositae) (GD) could be found in various parts of Asia. It has been used as a traditional medicine to treat diabetes, high blood pressure, and other diseases, but its effects have not yet been scientifically confirmed. Therefore, we aimed at determining whether GD could affect renal function regulation, blood pressure, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is a disease caused by the interaction between the kidney and the cardiovascular system, where the acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ might induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. This study investigated whether GD could improve cardio-renal mutual in CRS type 4 model animals, two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renal hypertensive rats. The experiments were performed on the following six experimental groups: control rats (CONT); 2K1C rats (negative control); OMT (Olmetec, 10 mg/kg/day)-treated 2K1C rats (positive control); and 2K1C rats treated with GD extracts in three different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) for three weeks by oral intake. Each group consisted of 10 rats. We measured the systolic blood pressure weekly using the tail-cuff method. Urine was also individually collected from the metabolic cage to investigate the effect of GD on the kidney function, monitoring urine volume, electrolyte, osmotic pressure, and creatinine levels from the collected urine. We observed that kidney weight and urine volume, which would both display typically increased values in non-treated 2K1C animals, significantly decreased following the GD treatment (###p < 0.001 vs. 2K1C). Osmolality and electrolytes were measured in the urine to determine how renal excretory function, which is reduced in 2K1C rats, could be affected. We found that the GD treatment improved renal excretory function. Moreover, using periodic acid-Schiff staining, we confirmed that the GD treatment significantly reduced fibrosis, which is typically increased in 2K1C rats. Thus, we confirmed that the GD treatment improved kidney function in 2K1C rats. Meanwhile, we conducted blood pressure and vascular relaxation studies to determine if the GD treatment could improve cardiovascular function in 2K1C rats. The heart weight percentages of the left atrium and ventricle were significantly lower in GD-treated 2K1C rats than in non-treated 2K1C rats. These results showed that GD treatment reduced cardiac hypertrophy in 2K1C rats. Furthermore, the acetylcholine-, sodium nitroprusside-, and atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated reduction of vasodilation in 2K1C rat aortic rings was also ameliorated by GD treatment (GD 200 mg/kg/day; p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05 vs. 2K1C for vasodilation percentage in case of each compound). The mRNA expression in the 2K1C rat heart tissue showed that the GD treatment reduced brain-type natriuretic peptide and troponin T levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 vs. 2K1C). In conclusion, this study showed that GD improved the cardiovascular and renal dysfunction observed in an innovative hypertension model, highlighting the potential of GD as a therapeutic agent for hypertension. These findings indicate that GD shows beneficial effects against high blood pressure by modulating the RAAS in the cardio-renal syndrome. Thus, it should be considered an effective traditional medicine in hypertension treatment.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144259

RESUMO

Luminescent hydrogels with sensing capabilities have attracted much interest in recent years, especially those responsive to stimuli, making such materials potential for various applications. Pectin is a high-molecular-weight carbohydrate polymer that has the ability to form hydrogel upon heating or mixing with divalent cations. However, intrinsic pectin gels are weak and lack of functionalities. In this study, lanthanide ions and silk fibroin derived carbon dots were incorporated into Pectin/PVA hydrogel (PPH) to form luminescent tough hydrogels. The luminescence of the hydrogel can be tuned by adjusting the ratio of blue emission carbon dots to Eu3+ ions (red emission) and Tb3+ ions (green emission). Such incorporation of emitters only slightly changed the mechanical properties of the tough hydrogel. Notably, the luminescent Pectin/PVA hydrogel (LPPH) showed chromic response to external stimuli, like pH and metal ions. By measuring the ratio of luminescent intensity at 473 nm and 617 nm (I473/I617), the pH response can be quantified in high sensitivity. In addition, the specific detection of Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions using the fabricated hydrogel were demonstrated, the mechanism was also proposed. The different chromic responses to Fe2+ and Fe3+ endow the luminescent tough Pectin/PVA hydrogel potential for multiple sensing applications.

18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1875(1): 188484, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246025

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal malignancies and is known for its high resistance and low response to treatment. Cancer treatments can reshape the microbiota and in turn, the microbiota influences the therapeutic efficacy by regulating immune response and metabolism. This crosstalk is bidirectional, heterogeneous, and dynamic. In this review, we elaborated on the interactions between the microbiota and therapeutic resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Regulating the microbiota in pancreatic tumor microenvironment may not only generate direct anti-cancer but also synergistic effects with other treatments, providing new directions in cancer therapy.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236361

RESUMO

Splenectomy is routinely performed during distal or total pancreatectomy (DP or TP) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but information about its oncological value is limited. TER cells, nonimmune cells discovered in the spleens of tumour-bearing mice, are elicited by tumours and promote tumour progression, while their role in the clinical outcomes of patients with PDAC remains unclear. In our study, postoperative specimens from 622 patients who underwent DP or TP with splenectomy were analysed by flow cytometry or immunofluorescence, and the relationship between splenic TER cell count and clinical parameters was calculated. We also purified human TER cells for functional experiments and mechanistic studies. We found that TER cell numbers were increased only in the spleens of patients with PDAC but not in PDAC tissue and adjacent pancreatic tissue. High splenic TER cell counts independently predicted poor prognosis (P < .001) and indicated large tumour size, lymph node metastasis, advanced 8th AJCC/mAJCC stage and high CA19-9 classification (all P < .050) in patients with PDAC. Mechanistic analysis showed that TER cells express artemin, which facilitates the proliferation and invasion of PDAC cells by activating GFRα3-ERK signalling. Our study reveals that TER cell count is an indicator of poor prognosis of PDAC, while splenectomy during pancreatic surgery might provide oncological benefits in addition to ensuring the radical resection of PDAC.

20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are associated with favorable survival and play a critical role in most solid tumors. However, investigations of TLS are lacking in patients with grade 1 or grade 2 (G1/G2) non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PanNETs). This study aimed to investigate the presence, cellular composition, association with tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and prognostic value of TLS in G1/G2 NF-PanNETs. METHODS: Tumor tissues from a 182-patient Fudan cohort and a 125-patient external validation set were assessed by H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and/or multispectral fluorescent immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: TLS were identified in more than one-third of patients with G1/G2 NF-PanNETs and were located peritumorally, either just outside the tumor tissue or in the stromal area. TLS were mainly composed of B-cell follicles with germinal centers and T-cell zones with dendritic cells. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the presence of TLS correlated with both longer recurrence-free survival (RFS, p<0.001) and overall survival (OS, p=0.001), but the number of TLS had no prognostic significance. Multivariate Cox-regression analyses demonstrated that the presence of TLS, WHO classification, and 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC8th) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage were independent prognostic factors for RFS (p=0.004, p=0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) and OS (p=0.009, p=0.008, and p=0.019, respectively). These results were confirmed using an external validation set. Finally, a nomogram incorporating the presence of TLS was constructed to predict the probability of 5-year RFS of resected G1/G2 NF-PanNETs, which improved on the current WHO classification and AJCC8th TNM stage. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of TLS is an independent and favorable predictor of resected G1/G2 NF-PanNETs, which may play a role in cancer immunobiology.

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