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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131747, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358893

RESUMO

Pyrimidine and purine bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) are important precursors of organic chloramines (OC) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlor(am)ination. In this study, OC and DBP formation derived from pyrimidine and purine bases during chlor(am)ination, post-chlor(am)ination after pretreated by UV alone and UV/chlorination were systematically investigated with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs, 265 and 275 nm) and low pressure mercury lamp (LPUV, 254 nm). The results revealed that higher OC formation was observed during chlorination than that during chloramination of pyrimidine and purine bases. The degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Both solution pH and UV wavelength played vital influence on the degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases. In terms of fluence-based rate constants (kobs), the degradation rates of pyrimidine and purine bases decreased in the order of 275 nm > 265 nm > 254 nm in alkaline conditions. The synergistic effects of kobs, chlorine,kobs, •OH and kobs, RCS contributed to the differences of pyrimidine and purine bases degradation at different pH values and UV wavelengths. A vital suppression of OC formation was observed during post-chlorination after pretreated by 275 nm UV-LED/chlorination. In addition, compared with LPUV (254 nm), less DBP formation was observed at UV-LED (275 nm), especially during the UV/chlorine process. The phenomena obtained in this study indicated that 275 nm UV-LED combined with chlorine could be a preferred method to promote pyrimidine and purine bases degradation and control OC and DBP formation in practical water treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Purinas , Pirimidinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146340, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744578

RESUMO

A novel light source UV-C laser was applied in persulfate (PS) activation to effectively remove iodinated X-ray contrast medias (ICMs) including iohexol (IOX), iopamidol (IPM) and diatrizoate (DTZ) in this study. Significant ICMs degradation was observed in UV-C laser/PS systems with pseudo first-order rate constants of 0.022-0.067 s-1. Sulfate radicals (SO4•-) were the main active species in the three ICMs degradation, and the steady-state concentrations ([SO4•-]ss) were 3.629 × 10-11 M (IOX), 1.702 × 10-11 M (IPM) and 1.148 × 10-11 M (DTZ), respectively. Under the high intensity of UV-C laser, the optimal reaction efficiency was achieved at pH = 7.0 with PS concentration of 1.0 mM, and the degradation efficiency for IOX reached 93.8% within only 40 s. Both bicarbonate and chloride ions could inhibit the three ICMs degradation and the inhibition rate increased with the increase of ions concentration. The kinetic models were established and the steady-state concentrations of radicals were calculated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with experiments were used to derive the reaction pathways for three ICMs. Cyclic voltammetry measurements detected a lower redox potential peak in IOX degradation, revealing the existence of electron shuttles under the UV-C laser irradiation to promote the redox reaction. This study is the first report of UV-C laser activation of persulfate. It is a new advanced oxidation process mediated by very effective photolysis and active species formation.

3.
Water Res ; 193: 116851, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540343

RESUMO

This study investigated the mechanisms of mixed IO3-/I- system under UV irradiation in drinking water and compared the iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) formation of a mixed IO3-/I- system to that of single I- and IO3- systems during subsequent chloramination. The effects of initial I-/IO3- molar ratio, pH, and UV intensity on a mixed IO3-/I- system were studied. The introduction of I- enhanced the conversion rate of IO3- to reactive iodine species (RIS). Besides, IO3- degradation rate increased with the increase of initial I- concentration and UV intensity and the decrease of pH value. In a mixed IO3-/I- system, IO3- could undergo direct photolysis and photoreduction by hydrated electron (eaq-). Moreover, the enhancement of I-THM formation in a mixed IO3-/I- system during subsequent chloramination was observed. The I-THM yields in a mixed IO3-/I- system were higher than the sum of I-THMs produced in a single IO3- and I- systems at all the evaluated initial I- concentrations and pH values. The difference between I-THM formation in a mixed IO3-/I- system and the sum of I-THMs in a single IO3- and I- systems increased with the increase of initial I- concentration. As the initial pH decreased from 9 to 5, the difference of I-THM yields enhanced, while the total I-THM yield of a mixed IO3-/I- system and single I- and IO3- systems decreased slightly. Besides, IO3--I--containing water with DOC concentration of 2.5-4.5 mg-C/L, which mainly contained humic-acid substances, had a higher risk in I-THMs formation than individual I--containing and IO3--containing water.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iodatos , Iodetos , Fotólise , Trialometanos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Toxicon ; 190: 50-57, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338447

RESUMO

Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake located in eastern China. In recent years, it has experienced extensive cyanobacterial (Microcystis spp.) blooms that produce toxic microcystins (MCs), which may have acute and chronic hepatotoxic effects in animals and humans. Although the impact of MCs on both terrestrial and aquatic plants is well documented, the effects and underlying mechanisms of the harmful toxin MC-LR on Euryale ferox Salisb seedlings have rarely been reported. Thus, herein, the antioxidant response mechanisms and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites during the exposure of E. ferox Salisb seedlings to varying MC-LR concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 1, and 5 µg/L) were thoroughly investigated after exposure periods (7, 14, 21 d). Our study revealed that the seedling growth was inhibited with increasing MC-LR exposure concentration that significantly induced at 1 µg/L and reached a maximum level at 5 µg/L, whereas the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) in the seedling cells increased gradually with increasing MC-LR concentration and longer exposure time. The maximum malondialdehyde (MDA) content was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control group under an MC-LR concentration of 5.0 µg/L after 7 days of exposure treatment. The study of the seedling detoxification mechanism revealed that the content of total glutathione (tGSH) and reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as the activities of GSH sparse transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), increased to varying degrees and reached a maximum level at 1 µg/L. Therefore, the exposure to MC-LR can promote the accumulation of secondary metabolites and increase the activities of secondary metabolic enzymes in the seedlings. Further investigation of these antioxidative mechanisms will provide additional information for the identification and development of bio-indicators to evaluate the environmental impact of MCs on aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microcistinas/toxicidade , Nymphaeaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Catalase/metabolismo , Cianobactérias , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase , Plântula , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 373: 558-564, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952000

RESUMO

In this study, the biosynthesis of microcystins (MCs) was investigated after long-term nitrogen-starved conditions in cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The results demonstrated that the algal cells were able to survive in a non-growing state with nitrogen starvation for more than one month. The physiological properties of the algal cells were studied to elucidate the mechanisms of viability under nitrogen-deprivation conditions. After the state of nitrogen chlorosis, new toxins could be resynthesized and tracked using 15N-stable isotope-labelled nitrogen. Nitrogen starvation of nutritionally replete cells resulted in a significant increase of microcystin-LY (MC-LY), thereby suggesting that MC-LY may undergo catabolism to provide nitrogen or that MC-LY may be produced to play an important role in the cell in response to nitrogen deprivation. The rank order of different types of nitrogen in algal cells assimilation was N-ammonium > N-urea > N-nitrate > N-alanine. The relationship between the production of toxin variants and various environmental conditions is an interesting issue for future research and may help improve the understanding of the ecological role of cyanobacterial toxins.


Assuntos
Microcistinas/biossíntese , Microcystis/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Marcação por Isótopo , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo
6.
Water Res ; 127: 223-229, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055827

RESUMO

Freshwater resources are under stress around the world due to rapid urbanization and excessive water consumption. Cyanobacterial blooms have occurred frequently in surface waters, which produced toxic secondary metabolites causing a potential harm to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, the relationship between different types of nitrogen source and the algal growth of Anabaena flos-aquae, which was isolated from Dianchi Lake in southern China, was investigated. Experiments were accomplished by using four types of isotope tracers including 15N-ammonium chloride, 15N-sodium nitrate, 15N-urea, 15N-l-alanine in culture medium to characterize the biosynthesis of 15N-anatoxin-a (ATX-A), which is a major algal toxin from A. flos-aquae, through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that all these four types of nitrogen can be incorporated into algal cells. The ATX-A production with urea as the nitrogen source was much higher than that with the other three types of nitrogen. The 15N labeling experiments further demonstrated that the uptake of organic nitrogen nutrients was significantly greater than that of inorganic nitrogen. These results provide new evidence and deeper insight to explore the biosynthesis of ATX-A in the specific strain of A. flos-aquae.


Assuntos
/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tropanos/metabolismo , Alanina/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Meios de Cultura/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Nitratos/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ureia/química
7.
Talanta ; 173: 101-106, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602183

RESUMO

A selective and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of five common microcystins (MC-LR, -RR, -YR, -LW, -LF) in various vegetables was established using Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) followed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. To optimize the pretreatment procedure for extracting the microcystins from three vegetable matrices (tomato, cucumber and spinacia, which represented different colors), Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the main factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including sample/dispersant mass ratio, as well as the proportion mixture dispersant and the volumes of solvent. Based on the optimum conditions, the intra-day and inter-day variability for each microcystins in all vegetable samples were less than 8.6%, with the recoveries ranging from 71.9% to 96.5%. The limits of detection and quantitation of the method were 13.0µg/kg (dw) and 43.0µg/kg (dw), respectively. The established method was successfully applied to the analysis of MCs in vegetable samples which were collected by Lake Taihu. The procedure promising to be relative small sample size and short pretreatment time for the assay that can be used for monitoring MCs concentrations in vegetables.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Microcistinas/análise , Microcistinas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Modelos Lineares , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos
8.
Chemosphere ; 147: 264-71, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26766364

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of allelochemical ferulic acid (FA) on a series of physiological and biochemical processes of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa, in order to find sensitive diagnostic variables for allelopathic effects. Algal cell density was significantly suppressed by FA (0.31-5.17 mM) only after 48 h exposure. Inhibitions of photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m) and F(v)'/F(m)') occurred more rapidly than cell growth, and the stimulation of non-photochemical quenching was observed as a feed-back mechanisms induced by photosystem II blockage, determining by PAM fluorometry. Inhibitions on esterase activity, membrane potential and integrity, as well as disturbance on cell size, were all detected by flow cytometry with specific fluorescent markers, although exhibiting varied sensitivities. Membrane potential and esterase activity were identified as the most sensitive parameters (with relatively lower EC50 values), and responded more rapidly (significantly inhibited only after 8 h exposure) than photosynthetic parameters and cell growth, thus may be the primary responses of cyanobacteria to FA exposure. The use of PAM fluorometry and flow cytometry for rapid assessment of those sensitive variables may contribute to future mechanistic studies of allolepathic effects on phytoplankton.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterases/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Fluorometria , Microcystis/citologia , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microcystis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoplâncton/citologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 30(1): 184-90, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19353879

RESUMO

Water solubility enhancements by two types of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from a local wastewater treatment plant and by a commercial humic acid (HA) have been studied for tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) using batch equilibrium technique, and the characteristics of DOM were studied with the aid of infrared and ultraviolet absorbance, elemental analysis, dialysis membranes and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appeared to be controlled by the structure and molecular size of DOM, the ionic strength of solution and the dissociation ratio of TBBPA. Langmuir Equation could fit the isotherms of the total influent DOM and effluent DOM, and their binding coefficients (Kdoc) are 1.19 x 10(5) L x kg(-1) and 1.27 x 10(5) L x kg(-1), respectively. The interaction of TBBPA with DOM (relative molecular weight > 1000) can be explained by partition according to the linear isotherms, while the nonideal binding behavior of the total DOM was caused by DOM (relative molecular weight < 1000) which contributed about 75 % to 80% of the total water solubility enhancement effect and had higher binding coefficients to TBBPA, about 55%, than those of DOM (relative molecular weight > 1000). The capability of solubility enhancements by the influent DOM and effluent DOM was greater than that of HA in which the high molecular weight DOM controlled the effect of solubility enhancement. In addition, it was also found that the capability of solubility enhancements was affected by the ionic strength of solutions. The capability of solubility enhancements was increased when the ionic strength was low, while it was decreased at higher ionic strength due to the aggregation and flocculation of DOM.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos/química , Bifenil Polibromatos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Substâncias Húmicas , Solubilidade
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 18(4): 771-6, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17078559

RESUMO

The aqueous photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in the presence of Fe(III)-oxalate complexes (Fe(III)-Ox), which are common compositions of natural water, was investigated in this study. BPA underwent rapid indirect photolysis in Fe(III)-Ox solution under simulated solar irradiation, proceeding pseudo-first-order kinetics. The photolysis rate increased with decreasing pH or initial BPA level and increasing Fe(III)/oxalate concentration ratio. Hydroxyl radicals (*OH), which were generated from the photochemical processes of Fe(III)-Ox complexes and contributed to the photooxidation of BPA, were determined by molecular probe and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods with the steady-state concentration of 2.56 x 10(-14) mol/L. Superoxide anion radical (O2*-) was considered as the precursor of *OH and qualitatively determined by adding nitro blue tetrazolium as well as ESR experiments. Based on the structural analysis of the intermediate photoproducts of BPA in Fe(III)-Ox complexes solution, the possible degradation pathways of BPA were proposed, involving *OH addition, alkyl scission and alky oxidation. The results indicate that the photochemical reactivity of Fe(III) may affect the environmental fate of BPA in natural water significantly.


Assuntos
Oxalatos/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/efeitos da radiação , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Radical Hidroxila/química , Cinética , Luz Solar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
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