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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112367, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678637

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD), is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal formula first written in the Tang dynasty. In Chinese medicine practice, HLJDD is commonly prescribed to treat various inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect of HLJDD extract (HLJDE) and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of action in the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were sensitized with DNCB for three days. After sensitization, mice were challenged with DNCB every three days and orally administrated with HLJDE (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) daily from day 14 to day 29 for consecutive 16 days. At the end of experiment, the clinical AD scores of the mice were calculated to evaluate the therapeutic effect of HLJDE, and serum, ears and dorsal skin of the mice were collected for unravelling molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: HLJDE significantly reduced the clinical symptoms in the AD-like mice by inhibiting eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, suppressing the production of Th2-associated cytokine (IL-4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α). In addition, HLJDE significantly suppressed the NF-κB and MAPKs pathways. Moreover, HLJDE was able to accentuate filaggrin expression in the skin lesion when compared to the sensitized mouse without treatment. CONCLUSION: HLJDE significantly improved the AD-like symptoms on the DNCB-sensitized mice through mitigating the production of inflammatory mediators via suppressing MAPKs and NF-κB pathways. Additionally, the elevated expression of filaggrin in the skin lesion by HLJDE contributes to the recovery of dysfunctional skin barrier on the DNCB-sensitized mice.

2.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(1): 278-289, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325023

RESUMO

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to pathological changes occurring in cerebral blood vessels caused by deposition of beta amyloid (Aß) protein. However, the mechanisms involved in the origin of Aß for the formation of CAA and its link to parenchymal amyloid depositions remained to be unraveled. Here, we found CAA and parenchymal plaques distributed separately instead of mingling with each other in the spinal cord of TgCRND8 mice. Parenchymal plaques predominantly located in the dorsal horn whereas CAA distributed in the ventral horn. We further found that the ratio of Aß40/Aß42 was significantly higher in the ventral than that in the dorsal by ELISA assay, suggesting that origin of Aß forming parenchymal plaques may be different from that of CAA in the spinal cord. This hypothesis was further demonstrated by the surgical methods which indicated eliminating parenchymal plaques did not alter CAA in the affected spinal cord. We also examined the ratio of Aß40/Aß42 in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in order to identify the origin of the CAA formation, and found the Aß40/Aß42 ratio was similar to that of CAA formation in the ventral horn. We further demonstrated that CSF tracer distributed along ventral horn vessels, in exactly the same pattern as Aß deposition in CAA in ventral part of spinal cord. These findings verified the concept that CSF influx may act as a constant source for delivering Aß, and contribute to the growth of paraarterial deposits in CAA. Taken together, the results of the present study highlight the important role of the Aß40/Aß42 ratio in determining vascular versus parenchymal amyloid deposition. Unlike parenchymal plaques, Aß of CAA comes from CSF; thus, manipulation of CSF Aß could represent a novel strategy to treat CAA.

3.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(6): 2015-2026, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638181

RESUMO

Bruceine D is one of the active components of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., which is widely used to treat cancer in China. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of bruceine D against non­small­cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and delineate its underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that treatment with bruceine D markedly inhibited the proliferation of wild­type NSCLC cells and epidermal growth factor receptor­mutant cells in a dose­ and time­dependent manner, and significantly decreased the colony­forming ability and migration of A549 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that treatment with bruceine D effectively induced apoptosis of A549 cells. In addition, the proapoptotic effect of bruceine D was found to be associated with G0­G1 cell cycle arrest, accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde, depletion of glutathione levels and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, pretreatment with N­acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, significantly attenuated the bruceine D­induced inhibition in A549 cells. Western blotting demonstrated that treatment with bruceine D significantly suppressed the expression of the anti­apoptotic proteins Bcl­2, Bcl­xL and X­linked inhibitor of apoptosis, enhanced the expression levels of apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak, and inhibited the expression of pro­caspase­3 and pro­caspase­8. Based on these results, it may be suggested that inhibition of A549 NSCLC cell proliferation by bruceine D is associated with the modulation of ROS­mitochondrial­mediated death signaling. This novel insight may provide further evidence to verify the anticancer efficacy of B. javanica, and support a role for bruceine D in the anti­NSCLC treatment.

4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 82: 264-278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476414

RESUMO

Isorhynchophylline (IRN) has been demonstrated to have distinct anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity in several animal models of AD. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the preventive effect of IRN on the cognitive deficits and amyloid pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Male TgCRND8 mice were administered with IRN (20 or 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 4 months, followed by assessing the spatial learning and memory functions with the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) test. Brain tissues were determined immunohistochemically or biochemically for changes in amyloid pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation. Our results revealed that IRN (40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated cognitive deficits in TgCRND8 mice. In addition, IRN (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the levels of Aß40, Aß42 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1ß, and modulated the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and phosphorylation by altering the protein expressions of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1), phosphorylated APP (Thr668), presenilin-1 (PS-1) and anterior pharynx-defective-1 (APH-1), as well as insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), a major Aß-degrading enzyme. IRN was also found to inhibit the phosphorylation of tau at the sites of Thr205 and Ser396. Immunofluorescence showed that IRN reduced the Aß deposition, and suppressed the activation of microglia (Iba-1) and astrocytes (GFAP) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of TgCRND8 mice. Furthermore, IRN was able to attenuate the ratios of p-c-Jun/c-Jun and p-JNK/JNK in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. IRN also showed marked inhibitory effect on JNK signaling pathway in the Aß-treated rat primary hippocampus neurons. We conclude that IRN improves cognitive impairment in TgCRND8 transgenic mice via reducing Aß generation and deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation through inhibiting the activation of JNK signaling pathway, and has good potential for further development into pharmacological treatment for AD.

5.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 143: 454-470, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472247

RESUMO

Brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) occurs when the spinal nerve roots are pulled away from the surface of the spinal cord and disconnects neuronal cell body from its distal downstream axon, which induces massive motoneuron death, motor axon degeneration and de-innervation of targeted muscles, thereby resulting in permanent paralysis of motor functions in the upper limb. Avulsion injury triggers oxidative stress and intense local neuroinflammation at the lesioned site, leading to the death of most motoneurons. Berberine (BBR), a natural isoquinoline alkaloid derived from medicinal herbs of Berberis and Coptis species, has been reported to possess neuro-protective, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in various animal models of central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BBR on motoneuron survival and axonal regeneration following spinal root avulsion plus re-implantation in rats. Our results indicated BBR significantly accelerated motor function recovery in the forelimb as revealed by the increased Terzis grooming test score, facilitated motor axon regeneration as evidenced by the elevated number of Fluoro-Gold-labeled and P75-positive regenerative motoneurons. The survival of motoneurons was notably promoted by BBR administration presented with boosted ChAT-immunopositive and neutral red-stained neurons. BBR treatment efficiently alleviated muscle atrophy, attenuated functional motor endplates loss in biceps and prevented the reduction of motor axons in the musculocutaneous nerve. Additionally, BBR treatment markedly mitigated the avulsion-induced neuroinflammation via inhibiting microglial and astroglial reactivity, up-regulated the expression of antioxidative indicator Cu/Zn SOD, and down-regulated the levels of nNOS, 3-NT, lipid peroxidation and NF-κB, as well as promoted SIRT1, PI3K and Akt activation. Collectively, BBR might be a promising therapy to assist re-implantation surgery for the treatment of BPA.

6.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks (Rubinaceae), a common herbal medicine known as Gou-teng in Chinese, is commonly used in Chinese medicine practice for the treatment of convulsions, hypertension, epilepsy, eclampsia and other cerebral diseases. The major active components of U. rhynchophylla are alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids. The protective effects of U. rhynchophylla and its major components on central nervous system (CNS) have become a focus of research in recent decades. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize the pharmacological activities of U. rhynchophylla and its major components on the CNS. METHOD: This review summarized the experimental findings from our laboratories, together with other literature data obtained through a comprehensive search on databases including the Pubmed and the Web of Science. RESULTS: U. rhynchophylla and its major components such as rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline have been shown to have neuroprotective effects on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, cerebral ischaemia through a number of mechanisms including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory actions and regulation on neurotransmitters. CONCLUSION: U. rhynchophylla and its major components possess multiple beneficial pharmacological actions on CNS. Futher studies on U. rhynchophylla and its major components are warranted to fully illustrate the underlying molecular mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, and toxicological profiles of these naturally occurring compounds and their potential for clinical application.

7.
FASEB J ; 33(9): 10393-10408, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233346

RESUMO

Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, elicited distinct antidepressant-like activity in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice and to illustrate its possible mechanisms of action. The mice were subjected to CUMS for 6 wk and administered with IRN (20 or 40 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage for 3 wk. The PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor and glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) inhibitors were used to determine the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of IRN in the mice. The results showed that CUMS caused depression-like behaviors in the mice, such as behavioral despair by the forced swim test (FST) and anhedonia by the sucrose preference test. In addition, CUMS could significantly reduce the levels of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor but markedly increase the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the mice. Western blotting analysis showed that CUMS markedly suppressed the levels of phosphorylated GSK-3ß (Ser9) and phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) but significantly enhanced the translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytosol to nuclei in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the mice. CUMS could also significantly increase the NF-κB binding activity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the mice, whereas IRN treatment could significantly reverse the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by CUMS in the mice. Moreover, the antidepressant-like effect of IRN was completely abolished by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor. Combination treatment with IRN and GSK-3ß inhibitors in the mice exerted a synergistic anti-immobility action in the FST. The results of mechanistic investigations indicated that the antidepressant-like action of IRN was mediated, at least in part, by enhancing neurotrophins and attenuating neuroinflammation via modulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß pathway.-Xian, Y.-F., Ip, S.-P., Li, H.-Q., Qu, C., Su, Z.-R., Chen, J.-N., Lin, Z.-X. Isorhynchophylline exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice via modulating neuroinflammation and neurotrophins: involvement of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß signaling pathway.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1181, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386242

RESUMO

Curcumin (CUR), a promising naturally occurring dietary compound, is commonly recognized as the potential anti-inflammatory agent. While the application of CUR was hampered by its low stability and poor systemic bioavailability, it has been suggested that the biological activities of CUR are intimately related to its metabolites. In the current investigation, we aimed to comparatively explore the anti-inflammatory effects of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), octahydrocurcumin (OHC), and CUR, and to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms on experimental mice models of acute inflammation, i.e., xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that THC and OHC exerted significant and dose-dependent inhibitions on the formation of ear edema induced by xylene and paw edema provoked by carrageenan and inhibited the Evans blue dye leakage in peritoneal cavity elicited by acetic acid. Moreover, THC and OHC treatments were more effective than CUR in selectively inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and suppressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways via transforming growth factor ß activated kinase-1 (TAK1) inactivation in the carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model.

9.
Phytomedicine ; 50: 196-204, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sinapis Semen is derived from the dried mature seeds of Sinapis alba L. or Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss. Traditionally, the seeds from S. alba are called "White Sinapis Semen" while those from B. juncea are called "Yellow Sinapis Semen". PURPOSE: The present study aimed to compare the chemical composition and the anti-inflammatory effects of 50% aqueous ethanol extracts of the White Sinapis Semen (EWSS) and Yellow Sinapis Semen (EYSS) using both acute (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA)- and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced mouse ear edema) and chronic (multiple applications of croton oil (CO)) inflammatory models. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effects of EWSS and EYSS were determined by measuring the ear thickness and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanism was explored by measuring the protein and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 in the ear of the TPA-treated mice. RESULTS: The results showed that both EWSS and EYSS significantly decreased the ear thickness in both the TPA- and AA-induced acute models, as well as in the CO-induced chronic model. In addition, EWSS and EYSS could markedly inhibit the MPO activity in the ears of TPA-, AA- or CO-treated mice. Moreover, EWSS and EYSS also remarkably inhibited the protein and mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the ears of TPA-treated mice. Comparatively, EWSS exerted more potent anti-inflammatory effect than that of EYSS. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that both EWSS and EYSS are effective anti-inflammatory agents against acute and chronic inflammatory processes, and EWSS possess more potent anti-inflammatory effect than EYSS. The anti-inflammatory effect of the two herbs may be mediated, at least in part, by suppressing the mRNA expression of a panel of inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mostardeira/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sinapis/química , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico , China , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
J Med Food ; 21(9): 887-898, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109956

RESUMO

Angelica sinensis (AS, Danggui in Chinese) is an important herbal component of various traditional formulae for the management of asthenia and its tonic effects. Although AS has been shown to ameliorate cognitive damage and nerve toxicity in D-galactose (D-gal)-elicited senescent mice brain, its effects on liver and kidney injury have not yet been explored. In this work, mice were subjected to hypodermic injection with D-gal (200 mg/kg) and orally gavaged with AS (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 8 successive weeks. Results revealed that AS significantly improved liver and kidney function as assessed by organ index and functional parameters. In addition, AS pretreatment effectively ameliorated the histological deterioration. AS attenuated the MDA level and markedly enhanced the activities and gene expressions of antioxidative enzymes, namely Cu, Zn-SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, AS markedly inhibited the D-gal-mediated increment of expressions of inflammatory cytokines iNOS, COX-2, IκBα, p-IκBα, and p65 and promoted the IκBα expression level in both hepatic and renal tissues. In sum, AS pretreatment could effectively guard the liver and kidney of mice from D-gal-induced injury, and the underlying mechanism was deemed to be intimately related to attenuating oxidative response and inflammatory stress.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos
11.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149578

RESUMO

The genus Sanguisorba, which contains about 30 species around the world and seven species in China, is the source of the medicinal plant Sanguisorba officinalis, which is commonly used as a hemostatic agent as well as to treat burns and scalds. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of four Sanguisorba species (S. officinalis, S. filiformis, S. stipulata, and S. tenuifolia var. alba). These four Sanguisorba cp genomes exhibit typical quadripartite and circular structures, and are 154,282 to 155,479 bp in length, consisting of large single-copy regions (LSC; 84,405⁻85,557 bp), small single-copy regions (SSC; 18,550⁻18,768 bp), and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs; 25,576⁻25,615 bp). The average GC content was ~37.24%. The four Sanguisorba cp genomes harbored 112 different genes arranged in the same order; these identical sections include 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes, if duplicated genes in IR regions are counted only once. A total of 39⁻53 long repeats and 79⁻91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in the four Sanguisorba cp genomes, which provides opportunities for future studies of the population genetics of Sanguisorba medicinal plants. A phylogenetic analysis using the maximum parsimony (MP) method strongly supports a close relationship between S. officinalis and S. tenuifolia var. alba, followed by S. stipulata, and finally S. filiformis. The availability of these cp genomes provides valuable genetic information for future studies of Sanguisorba identification and provides insights into the evolution of the genus Sanguisorba.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Sanguisorba/classificação , Sanguisorba/genética , Composição de Bases , Códon , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Éxons , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Íntrons , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
12.
Chin Med ; 13: 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946349

RESUMO

Background: To evaluate the effect of Isorhynchophylline (IRN) on the learning and memory impairments induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in mice. Methods: Fifty male Balb-c mice (4-month-old) were randomly divided into five groups: control, AlCl3 plus vehicle, AlCl3 plus IRN (20 mg/kg), AlCl3 plus IRN (40 mg/kg) and AlCl3 plus donepezil (5 mg/kg). Learning and memory impairments were induced in mice by subcutaneously injecting with AlCl3 (50 mg/kg) once a day for 8 consecutive weeks. At the same time, mice were intragastrically given vehicle or IRN (20 and 40 mg/kg) or donepezil (5 mg/kg) 30 min before each AlCl3 injection. The spatial learning and memory function was assessed using radial arm maze. After sacrificed, the parameters of oxidative stress and cholinergic system in the brain tissues were examined with ELISA kits. Moreover, the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway was analyzed with western blotting. Results: The results showed that treatment with IRN could significantly ameliorate the cognitive deficits induced by AlCl3 in mice. In addition, treatment with IRN was found to reduce the level of malondialdehyde, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutases and catalase, increase the level of glutathione, and markedly inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain tissues of the AlCl3-treated mice. Moreover, IRN significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα in the brain tissues of AlCl3-treated mice. However, IRN did not show significant effect on the activity of butyrylcholinesterase. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated for the first time that IRN could alleviate learning and memory impairments induced by AlCl3 in mice. The neuroprotective effect of IRN against AlCl3-induced AD is probably mediated, at least in part, through inhibiting the AChE activity and reducing the oxidative damage of brain tissue via suppress the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results contributed to a better understanding of the in vivo anti-AD mechanism of IRN. It was concluded that IRN could protect the learning and memory function.

13.
Int J Mol Med ; 41(3): 1447-1454, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29328398

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common and life­threatening type of malignant cancer, which is associated with a high mortality rate. Cisplatin (CDDP) is a commonly used chemotherapy drug with significant side effects. Brusatol (BR) is one of the principal chemical compounds isolated from the Chinese herb Bruceae Fructus, which has been reported to markedly inhibit the proliferation of numerous cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to investigate the possible synergistic anticancer effects of CDDP combined with BR on CT­26 cells, and to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of action. The growth inhibitory effects of BR, CDDP, and BR and CDDP cotreatment on CT­26 cells were assessed by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. The results indicated that compared with single­agent treatment, cotreatment of CT­26 cells with CDDP and BR synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and increased cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of CT­26 cells with CDDP and BR resulted in a marked increase in the release of cytosolic cytochrome c, decreased expression of procaspase­3 and procaspase­9, and upregulation of the B­cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl­2)­associated X protein/Bcl­2 ratio compared with treatment with BR or CDDP alone. These results strongly suggested that the combination of CDDP and BR was able to produce a synergistic antitumor effect in CRC cells, thus providing a solid foundation for further development of this combination regimen into an effective therapeutic method for CRC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Quassinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Quassinas/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
14.
Rejuvenation Res ; 20(3): 231-243, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056664

RESUMO

This study was designed to explore how supercritical fluid CO2 extract of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort (CX) protects mouse liver and kidney from d-galactose-induced injury. The antioxidant capacity of CX was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. The d-galactose-induced malondialdehyde increase was attenuated by CX, as well as the increase in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine level. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were markedly renewed, and the gene expressions of these enzymes were upregulated in CX groups. The results of histological analysis suggested that CX could effectively attenuate the d-galactose-induced structure damage. Furthermore, results of Western blotting analysis showed that CX significantly inhibited the upregulation of nuclear factor protein expression caused by d-galactose. In conclusion, CX could attenuate the liver and kidney injury in d-galactose-treated mice, and the mechanism might be associated with attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Rim/lesões , Ligusticum/química , Fígado/lesões , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Galactose , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/patologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 198: 389-398, 2017 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119098

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Brucea javanica is an important traditional medicinal herb used for the treatment of dysentery, malaria, inflammation and cancer in southeast Asia for many years. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Brucea javanica in the treatment of dysentery (also known as ulcerative colitis, UC) has not been fully illuminated. Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) is the major active and most common application form of Brucea javanica oil (BJO), which has a variety of pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of BJOE and possible mechanism of action on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The components of BJOE were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Balb/C mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 30mg/mL) induced colitis were treated with BJOE (0.5, 1 and 2g/kg) and two positive drugs (sulfasalazine, SASP, 200mg/kg; and azathioprine, AZA, 13mg/kg) once daily by gavage for 7 days. Mice in normal control group and DSS group were orally given the same volume of distilled water and soybean lecithin suspension (0.15g/kg) respectively. The effects of BJOE on DSS-induced UC were assessed by determination of body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, histological analysis, as well as levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mRNA expression of MPO, iNOS and COX-2 in colon tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. In addition, NF-κB p65, p-p65 and IκB-α, p-IκBα protein expression levels in colon tissues were investigated using Western blotting. RESULTS: The major components of BJOE were found to be oleic acid (62.68%) and linoleic acid (19.53%) as detected by GC-MS. Our results indicated that BJOE, SASP and AZA showed beneficial effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice, and significantly reduced the body weight loss and DAI, restored the colon length, repaired colonic pathological variations, decreased histological scores, and decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as compared with the DSS group. In addition, the mRNA expression of MPO, iNOS and COX-2 induced by DSS treatment was remarkably inhibited by BJOE, SASP or AZA treatments. Furthermore, when compared with DSS-treated mice, the activation of NF-κB was significantly inhibited by AZA and BJOE treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BJOE possessed appreciable anti-inflammatory effect against murine experimental UC induced by DSS. The protective mechanism of BJOE may involve inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathways and subsequent down-regulation of inflammatory mediators. These findings suggest that BJOE might be an efficacious and promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of UC. Our investigation might also provide experimental evidence for the traditional application of Brucea javanica in the treatment of dysentery and might add new dimension to the clinical indications for BJOE.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Brucea/química , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Azatioprina/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Emulsões , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 936, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311937

RESUMO

Brucein D (BD), a major active quassinoid in Brucea javanica, has exhibited pronounced anticancer activities. However, the biologic mechanisms have not been fully explored. In this study, BD exhibited more potent cytotoxic effect on pancreatic cancer (PanCa) cell lines, while exerted weaker cytotoxic effects on GES-1 cells (non-tumorigenic). BD was shown to elicit apoptosis through inducing both the intrinsic and extrinsic mitochondria-mediated caspase activations. Furthermore, the BD-induced apoptotic effects were dependent on the accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Pretreatment with tempol completely prevented the cellular apoptosis induced by BD, and recovered the inactivation of AKT, which suggested ROS essentially involved in BD-elicited apoptosis and down-regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway. In addition, the results obtained from orthotopic xenograft in nude mice were congruent with those of the in vitro investigations. These results support the notion that BD held good potential to be further developed into an effective pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of PanCa.

17.
Neurochem Res ; 42(2): 678-685, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27900600

RESUMO

Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid, has been identified as the main active ingredient responsible for the biological activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Miq ex Havil. (Rubiaceae). Previous studies in our laboratory have revealed that IRN possesses potent neuroprotective effects in different models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are remained unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN. The antidepressant-like effects of IRN was determined by using animal models of depression including forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The acting mechanism was explored by determining the effect of IRN on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and the activities of monoamine oxidases. Intragastric administration of IRN at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg for 7 days caused a significant reduction of immobility time in both forced swimming and tail suspension tests, while IRN did not stimulate locomotor activity in the open-field test. In addition, IRN treatment antagonized reserpine-induced ptosis and significantly enhanced the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters including norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and the activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of monoamine oxidases.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Alcaloides Indólicos/uso terapêutico , Uncaria , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/efeitos adversos , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/psicologia , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Oxindois , Distribuição Aleatória , Natação/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Neurochem Int ; 97: 8-14, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27131736

RESUMO

Beta-amyloid (Aß) accumulation, one of the most important pathogenic traits of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been reported to induce neurotoxicity in vitro as well as in vivo. Honokiol, isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has neuroprotective effects in different models of AD in vivo and in vitro. However, the exact mechanism for its neuroprotective effect is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective action of honokiol against Aß1-42-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The results revealed that honokiol protected PC12 cells from Aß1-42 induced cytotoxicity with increases in cell viability, GSH production and Bcl-2 expression, but decreases in the release of lactate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c, the amount of DNA fragmentation and MDA level, as well as Bax expression. Mechanistic study showed that honokiol could inhibit the activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3ß, attenuate the nuclear accumulation of ß-catenin and suppress the phosphorylation of ß-catenin (Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 site) in the Aß1-42-treated PC12 cells. These results indicate that the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of honokiol in Aß1-42-treated PC12 cells may be mediated, at least in part, by regulation the GSK-3ß and ß-catenin signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Lignanas/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 760: 88-95, 2015 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25912802

RESUMO

Honokiol, a lignan isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to ameliorate the learning and memory impairments in senesed (SAMP8) mice. However, whether honokiol could improve scopolamine (SCOP)-induced learning and memory deficits in mice is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether honokiol could reverse the SCOP-induced learning and memory impairments in mice and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms of action. Mice were given daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol (10 and 20mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days. The results showed that honokiol significantly improved spatial learning and memory function (as assessed by the Morris water maze test) in the SCOP-treated mice. In addition, treatment with honokiol significantly decreased the protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), while significantly increased the protein and mRNA levels of IL-10, and the level of acetylcholine (Ach) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Moreover, honokiol also significantly suppressed the production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that honokiol could markedly reverse the amount of phosphorylated Akt and extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) changes in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. These results amply demonstrated that honokiol could improve learning and memory impairments induced by SCOP in mice, and the protective action may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of AChE activity, and amelioration of the neuroinflammatory processes in the SCOP-treated mice.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Escopolamina/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 157: 212-21, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25256685

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth is a well-known medicinal herb commonly used in many Asian countries for inflammatory diseases. Pogostone (PO), a natural product isolated from Pogostemon cablin, is known to exert various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of PO, to elucidate its mechanism of action, and to evaluate its potential acute toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of PO was assessed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The protein and mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators were measured with ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Proteins of the NF-κB and MAPK family were determined by Western blot to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of PO was tested using LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice. In addition, the median lethal dose (LD50) of PO in mice was tested in an acute toxicity test. RESULTS: In vitro, PO significantly inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, NO, and PGE2. The action mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of PO was partly dependent on inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK. In vivo, PO was able to significantly reduce the mortality induced by LPS in mice. Furthermore, PO could markedly suppress the production of the proinflammatory mediators in serum, and attenuate liver and lung injury. The action mechanisms of PO during endotoxic shock may be attributed to down-regulation of the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in multiple organs via inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Moreover, the LD50 of PO in mice was about 163mg/kg with intravenous administration, which was about 8-fold higher than the dose used in the animal experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of PO and the underlying molecular mechanisms help justify the use of Pogostemon cablin in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. More importantly, the results also render PO a promising anti-inflammatory agent worthy of further development into a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of septic shock.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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