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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(12): 2081-2088, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake respond differently to glucose ingestion in children and adults and the relationship between brain responses and weight status. METHODS: Data included 87 children (ages 7-11 years) and 94 adults (ages 18-35 years) from two cohorts. Healthy weight, overweight, and obesity were defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Brain responses to glucose were determined by measuring cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in brain regions involved in the regulation of eating behavior. RESULTS: Children showed significantly larger increases in brain responses to glucose than adults in the dorsal striatum (p < 0.01), insula (p < 0.01), hippocampus (p < 0.01), and dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01). Responses to glucose in the dorsal striatum (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.20; p = 0.03), hippocampus (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22; p = 0.04), insula (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.11-2.42; p = 0.01), and orbitofrontal cortex (OR = 1.63 95% CI: 1.12-2.39; p = 0.01) were positively associated with overweight or obesity, independent of age group. CONCLUSIONS: Children have greater brain responses to glucose ingestion than adults in regions involved in eating behavior, and these responses are associated with weight status.

2.
Environ Int ; 158: 106898, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627014

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Previous studies have reported associations between in utero exposure to regional air pollution and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In utero exposure to components of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) has been linked to adverse neurodevelopment in animal models, but few studies have investigated NRAP association with ASD risk. OBJECTIVE: To identify ASD risk associated with in utero exposure to NRAP in a large, representative birth cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective pregnancy cohort study included 314,391 mother-child pairs of singletons born between 2001 and 2014 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals. Maternal and child data were extracted from KPSC electronic medical records. Children were followed until: clinical diagnosis of ASD, non-KPSC membership, death, or December 31, 2019, whichever came first. Exposure to the complex NRAP mixture during pregnancy was assessed using line-source dispersion models to estimate fresh vehicle emissions from freeway and non-freeway sources at maternal addresses during pregnancy. Vehicular traffic load exposure was characterized using advanced telematic models combining traditional traffic counts and travel-demand models with cell phone and vehicle GPS data. Cox proportional-hazard models estimated hazard ratios (HR) of ASD associated with near-roadway traffic load and dispersion-modeled NRAP during pregnancy, adjusted for covariates. Non-freeway NRAP was analyzed using quintile distribution due to nonlinear associations with ASD. EXPOSURES: Average NRAP and traffic load exposure during pregnancy at maternal residential addresses. MAIN OUTCOMES: Clinical diagnosis of ASD. RESULTS: A total of 6,291 children (5,114 boys, 1,177 girls) were diagnosed with ASD. The risk of ASD was associated with pregnancy-average exposure to total NRAP [HR(95% CI): 1.03(1.00,1.05) per 5 ppb increase in dispersion-modeled NOx] and to non-freeway NRAP [HR(95% CI) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile: 1.19(1.11, 1.27)]. Total NRAP had a stronger association in boys than in girls, but the association with non-freeway NRAP did not differ by sex. The association of freeway NRAP with ASD risk was not statistically significant. Non-freeway traffic load exposure demonstrated associations with ASD consistent with those of NRAP and ASD. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to near-roadway air pollution, particularly from non-freeway sources, may increase ASD risk in children.

3.
Environ Int ; 157: 106862, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased risk of COVID-19 incidence and mortality by ecological analyses. Few studies have investigated the specific effect of traffic-related air pollution on COVID-19 severity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) exposure with COVID-19 severity and mortality using individual-level exposure and outcome data. METHODS: The retrospective cohort includes 75,010 individuals (mean age 42.5 years, 54% female, 66% Hispanic) diagnosed with COVID-19 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California between 3/1/2020-8/31/2020. NRAP exposures from both freeways and non-freeways during 1-year prior to the COVID-19 diagnosis date were estimated based on residential address history using the CALINE4 line source dispersion model. Primary outcomes include COVID-19 severity defined as COVID-19-related hospitalizations, intensive respiratory support (IRS), intensive care unit (ICU) admissions within 30 days, and mortality within 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Covariates including socio-characteristics and comorbidities were adjusted for in the analysis. RESULT: One standard deviation (SD) increase in 1-year-averaged non-freeway NRAP (0.5 ppb NOx) was associated with increased odds of COVID-19-related IRS and ICU admission [OR (95% CI): 1.07 (1.01, 1.13) and 1.11 (1.04, 1.19) respectively] and increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.18). The associations of non-freeway NRAP with COVID-19 outcomes were largely independent of the effect of regional fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide exposures. These associations were generally consistent across age, sex, and race/ethnicity subgroups. The associations of freeway and total NRAP with COVID-19 severity and mortality were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this multiethnic cohort suggested that NRAP, particularly non-freeway exposure in Southern California, may be associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality among COVID-19 infected patients. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of emerging COVID-19 variants and chemical components from freeway and non-freeway NRAP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teste para COVID-19 , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(10): 3621-3628.e2, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current studies of asthma history on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes are limited and lack consideration of disease status. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a population-based study to assess asthma disease status and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to COVID-19 severity. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (n = 61,338) in a large, diverse integrated health care system were identified. Asthma/COPD history, medication use, and covariates were extracted from electronic medical records. Asthma patients were categorized into those with and without clinical visits for asthma 12 or fewer months prior to COVID-19 diagnosis and labeled as active and inactive asthma, respectively. Primary outcomes included COVID-19-related hospitalizations, intensive respiratory support (IRS), and intensive care unit admissions within 30 days, and mortality within 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Logistic and Cox regression were used to relate COVID-19 outcomes to asthma/COPD history. RESULTS: The cohort was 53.9% female and 66% Hispanic and had a mean age of 43.9 years. Patients with active asthma had increased odds of hospitalization, IRS, and intensive care unit admission (odds ratio 1.47-1.66; P < .05) compared with patients without asthma or COPD. No increased risks were observed for patients with inactive asthma. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with increased risks of hospitalization, IRS, and mortality (odds ratio and hazard ratio 1.27-1.67; P < .05). Among active asthma patients, those using asthma medications had greater than 25% lower odds for COVID-19 outcomes than those without medication. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with asthma who required clinical care 12 or fewer months prior to COVID-19 or individuals with COPD history are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. Proper medication treatment for asthma may lower this risk.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the association between neonatal sepsis and autism risk among children and whether the risk varied with the timing of exposure, child's sex, and race/ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records (EHR) extracted from Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Care System. Mother-child dyads were constructed by linking records of children born to member mothers and continuing to receive care through the system during the follow-up period with those of their biological mothers (n = 469,789). Clinical health records were used to define neonatal sepsis. Diagnosis of autism was made by medical specialists. Potential confounders included maternal sociodemographic factors, obstetrical history, child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and maternal and child medical history. Incident rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were used to estimate the associations. RESULTS: Compared with children without the diagnosis of autism, children with the condition were more likely to be from Asian/Pacific Islander descent and male sex. Exposed children showed higher rates of autism as compared with unexposed children (3.43 vs. 1.73 per 1,000 person-years, aHR: 1.67-95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-2.00). Both preterm (aHR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.09-1.98) and term (aHR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.29-2.06) births were associated with increased risk for autism. Although the magnitude of the HRs and incidence ratios for neonatal sepsis to increase autism risk varied between race ethnicities, neonatal sepsis was associated with significantly increased likelihood of autism diagnosis for all race-ethic groups except for Asian/Pacific Islanders. Although neonatal sepsis was associated with significantly increased autism risk for both boys and girls, incident rates and HR point estimates suggested that the effect may be stronger in girls. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased risk of autism diagnosis in preterm- and term-born children. The association was significant for both girls and boys and all race ethnicities except for Asian-Pacific Islanders. KEY POINTS: · Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased risk of autism diagnosis.. · The association was significant in preterm- and term-born children.. · The association was significant for all race/ethnicities except for Asian-Pacific Islanders..

7.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 1938-1947, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of glycemic worsening among youth and adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 91 youth (10-19 years) were randomized 1:1 to 12 months of metformin (MET) or 3 months of glargine, followed by 9 months of metformin (G-MET), and 267 adults were randomized to MET, G-MET, liraglutide plus MET (LIRA+MET), or placebo for 12 months. All participants underwent a baseline hyperglycemic clamp and a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline, month 6, month 12, and off treatment at month 15 and month 21. Cox models identified baseline predictors of glycemic worsening (HbA1c increase ≥0.5% from baseline). RESULTS: Glycemic worsening occurred in 17.8% of youth versus 7.5% of adults at month 12 (P = 0.008) and in 36% of youth versus 20% of adults at month 21 (P = 0.002). In youth, glycemic worsening did not differ by treatment. In adults, month 12 glycemic worsening was less on LIRA+MET versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.96, P = 0.044). In both age-groups, lower baseline clamp-derived ß-cell responses predicted month 12 and month 21 glycemic worsening (P < 0.01). Lower baseline OGTT-derived ß-cell responses predicted month 21 worsening (P < 0.05). In youth, higher baseline HbA1c and 2-h glucose predicted month 12 and month 21 glycemic worsening, and higher fasting glucose predicted month 21 worsening (P < 0.05). In adults, lower clamp- and OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity predicted month 12 and month 21 worsening (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic worsening was more common among youth than adults with IGT or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, predicted by lower baseline ß-cell responses in both groups, hyperglycemia in youth, and insulin resistance in adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Glicemia , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Secreção de Insulina , Adulto Jovem
8.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 1948-1960, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of medications and laparoscopic gastric band surgery (LB) on α-cell function in dysglycemic youth and adults in the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study protocols. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Glucagon was measured in three randomized, parallel, clinical studies: 1) 91 youth studied at baseline, after 12 months on metformin alone (MET) or glargine followed by metformin (G/M), and 3 months after treatment withdrawal; 2) 267 adults studied at the same time points and treated with MET, G/M, or liraglutide plus metformin (L+M) or given placebo (PLAC); and 3) 88 adults studied at baseline and after 12 and 24 months of LB or MET. Fasting glucagon, glucagon suppression by glucose, and acute glucagon response (AGR) to arginine were assessed during hyperglycemic clamps. Glucagon suppression was also measured during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). RESULTS: No change in fasting glucagon, steady-state glucagon, or AGR was seen at 12 months following treatment with MET or G/M (in youth and adults) or PLAC (in adults). In contrast, L+M reduced these measures at 12 months (all P ≤ 0.005), which was maintained 3 months after treatment withdrawal (all P < 0.01). LB in adults also reduced fasting glucagon, steady-state glucagon, and AGR at 12 and 24 months (P < 0.05 for all, except AGR at 12 months [P = 0.098]). Similarly, glucagon suppression during OGTTs was greater with L+M and LB. Linear models demonstrated that treatment effects on glucagon with L+M and LB were largely associated with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Glucagon concentrations were reduced by L+M and LB in adults with dysglycemia, an effect principally attributable to weight loss in both interventions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(22): 2190-2204, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165540

RESUMO

Central obesity is a leading health concern with a great burden carried by ethnic minority populations, especially Hispanics/Latinos. Genetic factors contribute to the obesity burden overall and to inter-population differences. We aimed to identify the loci associated with central adiposity measured as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HIP) adjusted for body mass index (adjBMI) by using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL); determine if differences in associations differ by background group within HCHS/SOL and determine whether previously reported associations generalize to HCHS/SOL. Our analyses included 7472 women and 5200 men of mainland (Mexican, Central and South American) and Caribbean (Puerto Rican, Cuban and Dominican) background residing in the USA. We performed genome-wide association analyses stratified and combined across sexes using linear mixed-model regression. We identified 16 variants for waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI), 22 for waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (WCadjBMI) and 28 for hip circumference adjusted for body mass index (HIPadjBMI), which reached suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10-6). Many loci exhibited differences in strength of associations by ethnic background and sex. We brought a total of 66 variants forward for validation in cohorts (N = 34 161) with participants of Hispanic/Latino, African and European descent. We confirmed four novel loci (P < 0.05 and consistent direction of effect, and P < 5 × 10-8 after meta-analysis), including two for WHRadjBMI (rs13301996, rs79478137); one for WCadjBMI (rs3168072) and one for HIPadjBMI (rs28692724). Also, we generalized previously reported associations to HCHS/SOL, (8 for WHRadjBMI, 10 for WCadjBMI and 12 for HIPadjBMI). Our study highlights the importance of large-scale genomic studies in ancestrally diverse Hispanic/Latino populations for identifying and characterizing central obesity susceptibility that may be ancestry-specific.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 1961-1969, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ß-cell hyperresponsiveness and insulin resistance in youth versus adults in the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study are related to increased glucagon release. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 66 youth and 350 adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (drug naive), we performed hyperglycemic clamps and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). From clamps we quantified insulin sensitivity (M/I), plasma fasting glucagon and C-peptide, steady-state glucagon and C-peptide at glucose of 11.1 mmol/L, and arginine-stimulated glucagon (acute glucagon response [AGR]) and C-peptide (ACPRmax) responses at glucose >25 mmol/L. RESULTS: Mean ± SD fasting glucagon (7.63 ± 3.47 vs. 8.55 ± 4.47 pmol/L; P = 0.063) and steady-state glucagon (2.24 ± 1.46 vs. 2.49 ± 1.96 pmol/L, P = 0.234) were not different in youth and adults, respectively, while AGR was lower in youth (14.1 ± 5.2 vs. 16.8 ± 8.8 pmol/L, P = 0.001). Significant age-group differences in insulin sensitivity, fasting C-peptide, steady-state C-peptide, and ACPRmax were not related to glucagon. Fasting glucose and glucagon were positively correlated in adults (r = 0.133, P = 0.012) and negatively correlated in youth (r = -0.143, P = 0.251). In both age-groups, higher fasting glucagon was associated with higher fasting C-peptide (youth r = 0.209, P = 0.091; adults r = 0.335, P < 0.001) and lower insulin sensitivity (youth r = -0.228, P = 0.066; adults r = -0.324, P < 0.001). With comparable fasting glucagon, youth had greater C-peptide and lower insulin sensitivity. OGTT suppression of glucagon was greater in youth. CONCLUSIONS: Youth with IGT or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (drug naive) have hyperresponsive ß-cells and lower insulin sensitivity, but their glucagon concentrations are not increased compared with those in adults. Thus, α-cell dysfunction does not appear to explain the difference in ß-cell function and insulin sensitivity in youth versus adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina
11.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1155-1163, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in liver fat and changes in insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function 2 years after gastric banding surgery. METHODS: Data included 23 adults with the surgery who had prediabetes or type 2 diabetes for less than 1 year and BMI 30 to 40 kg/m2 at baseline. Body adiposity measures including liver fat content (LFC), insulin sensitivity (M/I), and ß-cell responses (acute, steady-state, and arginine-stimulated maximum C-peptide) were assessed at baseline and 2 years after surgery. Regression models were used to assess associations adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Two years after surgery, all measures of body adiposity, LFC, fasting and 2-hour glucose, and hemoglobin A1c significantly decreased; M/I significantly increased; and ß-cell responses adjusted for M/I did not change significantly. Among adiposity measures, reduction in LFC had the strongest association with M/I increase (r = -0.61, P = 0.003). Among ß-cell measures, change in LFC was associated with change in acute C-peptide response to arginine at maximal glycemic potentiation adjusted for M/I (r = 0.66, P = 0.007). Significant reductions in glycemic measures and increase in M/I were observed in individuals with LFC loss >2.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in LFC after gastric banding surgery appears to be an important factor associated with long-term improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycemic profiles in adults with obesity and prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastroplastia , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia , Humanos , Insulina , Fígado
12.
Diabetes Care ; 44(5): 1185-1193, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or maternal obesity in utero have an increased propensity to develop obesity. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. We aimed to examine relationships between exposure to GDM or maternal obesity and daily energy intake (EI), brain responses to food cues within reward regions, and adiposity in children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 159 children ages 7-11 years. Repeated 24-h recalls were conducted to assess mean daily EI. A subset of children (n = 102) completed a food cue task in the MRI scanner. A priori regions of interest included the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), insula, amygdala, ventral striatum, and dorsal striatum. Adiposity measurements, BMI z-scores, percent body fat, waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed. RESULTS: Exposure to GDM was associated with greater daily EI, and children exposed to GDM diagnosed before 26 weeks gestation had greater OFC food cue reactivity. Children exposed to GDM also had larger WHR. Results remained significant after adjusting for child's age and sex, maternal education and race/ethnicity, maternal prepregnancy BMI, and child's physical activity levels. Furthermore, children who consumed more daily calories had greater WHR, and the relationship between GDM exposure and WHR was attenuated after adjustment for daily EI. Prepregnancy BMI was not significantly related to daily EI or food cue reactivity in reward regions. However, prepregnancy BMI was significantly related to all adiposity measurements; results remained significant for BMI z-scores, WtHR, and WHR after controlling for child's age and sex, maternal education and race/ethnicity, maternal GDM exposure, and child's physical activity levels. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to GDM in utero, in particular before 26 weeks gestation, is associated with increased EI, enhanced OFC food cue reactivity, and increased WHR. Future study with longitudinal follow-up is merited to assess potential pathways of daily EI and food cue reactivity in reward regions on the associations between GDM exposure and childhood adiposity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade , Gravidez
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(6): 1310-1320, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: With rising obesity rates among pregnant women, more children are exposed in utero to maternal obesity. In prior epidemiological studies, exposure to maternal obesity was associated with lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and worse cognitive abilities in offspring. Further studies have shown that offspring exposed to maternal obesity, exhibit differences in the white matter microstructure properties, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). In contrast, physical activity was shown to improve cognition and white matter microstructure during childhood. We examined if child physical activity levels modify the relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal obesity with IQ and white matter microstructure in offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred children (59% girls) age 7-11 years underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and IQ testing. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was abstracted from electronic medical records. White matter was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging with the measures, global FA, MD. The 3-day physical activity recall was used to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Linear regression was used to test for interactions between prenatal exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and child PA levels on child IQ and global FA/MD. RESULTS: The relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and child IQ and global FA varied by child VPA levels. Children exposed to mothers with overweight/obesity who engaged in more VPA had higher IQ scores and global FA compared to exposed children who engaged in less VPA. Associations were independent of child age, sex, BMI Z-score and socioeconomic status. Children born to normal-weight mothers did not differ in either IQ or global FA by time in VPA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support findings in rodent models and suggest that VPA during childhood modifies the relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal obesity and child IQ and white matter microstructure.

14.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738669

RESUMO

Children of overweight and obese parents have an increased risk of obesity. Little is known the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship, specifically the brain systems implicated in self-regulation of food intake. The primary goal here is to examine relationships between maternal body mass index (BMI) and brain responses to food cues in children. Seventy-six children (8.62 ± 1.02 years; 28 M,48F) were included in this study. Height and weight were assessed for children and their biological parents. Maternal height and weight before pregnancy were extracted from the Electronic Medical Records (EMR). BMI (kg/m2) or BMIz (age- and sex-specific BMI) were calculated. Children underwent a magnetic resonance imaging session where they viewed food and non-food images before and after glucose ingestion. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) food cue reactivity was the measurement of interest for region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. Whole-brain exploratory analysis was performed as well. Non-parametric methods were used for data analysis. ROI and whole brain analyses showed that maternal current BMI was inversely associated with child's ACC and dlPFC food cue reactivity after glucose ingestion, adjusting for age and sex. No significant relationships were found between paternal BMI and child's food cue reactivity. Child BMIz was negatively associated with the ACC food cue reactivity after glucose ingestion. Our results supported the role of maternal adiposity on child's responses to appetitive food cues in brain self-regulation circuitry, which may influence eating behavior and obesity risk in children.

15.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(9): e12786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is concern regarding how the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the psychological and physical health of children, but to date, studies on mental health during the pandemic in children are limited. Furthermore, unprecedented lifestyle stressors associated with the pandemic may aggravate the childhood obesity epidemic, but the role of BMI on child activity levels and psychological outcomes during COVID-19 is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated how emotional responses (positive/negative affect), physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours related to anxiety among U.S. children with healthy weight and overweight/obesity during the pandemic. METHODS: Sixty-four typically developing children (63% girls, 53% healthy weight) aged 9 to 15 years completed two virtual visits during the height of 'stay-at-home' measures from April 22 to July 29, 2020. Children completed 24-hours PA recalls, state portion of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and the 10-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children. RESULTS: Independent of child BMI status, child anxiety scores were over five standard deviations greater than normative values from paediatric populations prior to the pandemic. Higher positive affect and PA were each associated with reduced anxiety levels in children with overweight/obesity, whereas higher positive affect was associated with reduced anxiety in children with healthy weight. Greater leisure screen time was associated with higher negative affect irrespective of child BMI status. CONCLUSIONS: These associations highlight the potential mental health benefits of maintaining positive affect, engaging in PA and limiting leisure screen time for children during the pandemic and suggest that these associations may be particularly relevant for children with overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Afeto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo de Tela , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(8): 2583-2592, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764653

RESUMO

Prior epidemiological studies have found that in utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, brain alterations associated with GDM are not known. The hippocampus is pivotal for cognition and emotional regulation. Therefore, we assessed relationships between in utero exposure to GDM and hippocampal morphology and subfield structure during childhood. One hundred seventeen children aged 7-11 years (57% girls, 57% exposed to GDM), born at Kaiser Permanente Southern California, participated in the BrainChild Study. Maternal GDM status was determined from electronic medical records. Children underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Freesurfer 6.0 was used to measure hippocampal and individual hippocampal subfield gray matter volume (mm3 ). Morphological analyses on the hippocampal surface were carried out using shape analysis. GDM-exposed children exhibited reduced radial thickness in a small, spatially-restricted portion of the left inferior body of the hippocampus that corresponds to the CA1 subfield. There was a significant interaction between GDM-exposure and sex on the right hippocampal CA1 subfield. GDM-exposed boys had reduced right CA1 volume compared to unexposed boys, but this association was no longer significant after controlling for age. No significant group differences were observed in girls. Our results suggest that GDM-exposure impacts shape of the left hippocampal CA1 subfield in both boys and girls and may reduce volume of right hippocampal CA1 only in boys. These in-depth findings illuminate the unique properties of the hippocampus impacted by prenatal GDM-exposure and could have important implications for hippocampal-related functions.

18.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(8): e12776, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinal BMI trajectory from birth to age 10 years in a clinical cohort after exposure to maternal pre-existing type 1 (T1D), type 2 (T2D), gestational diabetes managed with or without anti-diabetes medication, and no diabetes during pregnancy. METHODS: Data included 218 227 singleton children born in 2008-2015 from a population-based integrated healthcare system; 537 exposed to maternal T1D, 7836 to T2D, 6982 to medicated GDM and 12 576 to unmedicated GDM. Differences in BMI over time among groups were assessed by non-linear mixed-effects models adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Children's BMI was significantly lower 6-months after birth for all diabetes exposed groups compared to no diabetes. Beginning at approximately age 2.5 years, BMI was significantly higher for T1D, T2D and medicated GDM groups compared to the no diabetes group. At age 3, the growth pattern started separating with highest BMI in T1D and T2D groups, followed by medicated GDM, unmedicated GDM, and the no diabetes groups. By age 7, BMI was significantly higher for the unmedicated GDM group compared to the no diabetes group. Adjusted BMI was generally comparable between T1D and T2D groups for all ages. Starting at age 5, T1D, T2D and medicated GDM groups had BMI greater than one SD over the BMI in the no diabetes group. CONCLUSION: In a clinical cohort with standard diabetes management approaches, a hierarchical BMI growth pattern exists in offspring exposed to different types of diabetes during pregnancy after adjusting for important covariates, starting as early as age 3 years.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(4): e938-e946, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) reduces a newborn's risk of group B streptococcal infection (GBS) but may lead to an increased childhood body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of infants (n = 223 431) born 2007-2015 in an integrated healthcare system. For vaginal delivery, we compared children exposed to GBS-IAP and to any other type or duration of intrapartum antibiotics to no antibiotic exposure. For cesarean delivery, we compared children exposed to GBS-IAP to those exposed to all other intrapartum antibiotics, including surgical prophylaxis. BMI over 5 years was compared using nonlinear multivariate models with B-spline functions, stratified by delivery mode and adjusted for demographics, maternal factors, breastfeeding, and childhood antibiotic exposure. RESULTS: In vaginal deliveries, GBS-IAP was associated with higher BMI from 0.5 to 5.0 years of age compared to no antibiotics (P < .0001 for all time points, ΔBMI at age 5 years 0.12 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .07-.16 kg/m2). Other antibiotics were associated with higher BMI from 0.3 to 5.0 years of age. In cesarean deliveries, GBS-IAP was associated with increased BMI from 0.7 years to 5.0 years of age (P < .05 for 0.7-0.8 years, P < .0001 for all other time points) compared to other antibiotics (ΔBMI at age 5 years 0.24 kg/m2, 95% CI: .14-.34 kg/m2). Breastfeeding did not modify these associations. CONCLUSIONS: GBS-IAP was associated with a small but sustained increase in BMI starting at very early age. This association highlights the need to better understand the effects of perinatal antibiotic exposure on childhood health.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus agalactiae
20.
Clin Obes ; 11(1): e12422, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with adverse child mental health outcomes and reduced physical activity. Moreover, prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with increased risk for adverse psychological outcomes in children. OBJECTIVES: Assess prenatal exposure to GDM on anxiety levels and physical activity in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Sixty-five children age 9 to 15 reported their physical activity and anxiety levels using the 24-hours physical activity recall and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children via phone or video meetings. Prenatal exposure to GDM was obtained from maternal electronic medical records. RESULTS: The 38 GDM-exposed children reported significantly higher anxiety levels and were less likely to engage in any vigorous physical activity (VPA) (5% vs 30%) compared to the 27 GDM-unexposed children. Lower levels of physical activity were significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety. Less engagement in VPA explained 75% of the association between GDM exposure and anxiety levels. CONCLUSIONS: Engaging in physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic may be beneficial for reducing anxiety, particularly amongst GDM-exposed children.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário
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