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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856430

RESUMO

Importance: Propranolol has become the first-line therapy for problematic infantile hemangiomas (IHs) that require systemic therapy. However, different adverse events have been reported during propranolol treatment. The positive efficacy and safety of atenolol raise the question of whether it could be used as a promising therapy for IH. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of propranolol vs atenolol in infants (between age 5 and 20 weeks) with problematic IHs who required systemic therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial conducted in collaboration among 6 separate investigation sites in China from February 1, 2015, to December 31, 2018. A total of 377 patients met the criteria for inclusion and were randomized to the propranolol (190 [50.4%]) and atenolol (187 [49.6%]) groups. Data were analyzed in June 2020. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either propranolol or atenolol for at least 6 months. They completed efficacy assessments at 2 years after the initial treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was any response or nonresponse at 6 months. The key secondary outcome was changes in the hemangioma activity score. Results: Of 377 participants, 287 (76.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 10.2 (4.0) weeks in the propranolol group and 9.8 (4.1) weeks in the atenolol group. After 6 months of treatment, in the propranolol and atenolol groups, the overall response rates were 93.7% and 92.5%, respectively (difference, 1.2%; 95% CI, -4.1% to 6.6%). At 1 and 4 weeks after treatment, and thereafter, the hemangioma activity score in the atenolol group aligned with the propranolol group (odds ratio, 1.034; 95% CI, 0.886-1.206). No differences between the propranolol group and atenolol group were observed in successful initial responses, quality of life scores, complete ulceration healing times, or the rebound rate. Both groups presented a similar percentage of complete/nearly complete responses at 2 years (82.1% vs 79.7%; difference, 2.4%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 10.7%). Adverse events were more common in the propranolol group (70.0% vs 44.4%; difference, 25.6%; 95% CI, 15.7%-34.8%), but the frequency of severe adverse events did not differ meaningfully between the groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, when compared with propranolol, atenolol had similar efficacy and fewer adverse events in the treatment of infants with problematic IHs. The results suggest that oral atenolol can be used as an alternative treatment option for patients with IH who require systemic therapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT02342275.

2.
J Exp Biol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795419

RESUMO

Hauser's engraver beetle Ips hauseri Reitter is a serious pest in spruce forest ecosystems in Central Asia. Its monoterpenoid signal production, transcriptome responses, and potential regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. The quality and quantity of volatile metabolites in hindgut extracts of I. hauseri were found to differ between males and females and among three groups: beetles that are newly emerged, those with a topical application of juvenile hormone III (JHIII), and those that have been feeding for 24 h. Feeding males definitively dominate monoterpenoid signal production in I. hauseri, which uses (4S)-(-)-ipsenol and (S)-(-)-cis-verbenol to implement reproductive segregation from I. typographus and I. shangrila Feeding stimulation can induce higher expression of most genes related to the biosynthesis of (4S)-(-)-ipsenol than JHIII induction, and it shows a male-specific mode in I. hauseri JHIII can stimulate males to produce large amounts of (-)-verbenone and also upregulates a higher expression of several CYP6 genes in males than females. The expression of genes involved in the metabolism of JHIII in females and males were found to be upregulated. A species-specific aggregation pheromone system for I hauseri, consisting of (4S)-(-)-ipsenol and S-(-)-cis-verbenol, can be used to monitor population dynamics or mass trap killing. Our results also enable a better understanding of the bottom-up role of feeding behaviors in mediating population reproduction/aggregation and interspecific interactions.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 140, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using effective scolicidal agents intraoperatively is essential to lessen the recurrence rate of hepatic echinococcosis. However, severe hypernatremia may occur after hypertonic saline (HS) has been applied as the scolicidal agent. The aim of this study is to report on pediatric patients with severe hypernatremia after hepatic echinococcus surgery. METHODS: Patients who presented to West China Hospital between January 2010 and February 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Children under 16 years with echinococcosis treated by resection were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 26 children were enrolled in this study, including 16 boys and 10 girls with a median age of 8 (2-16). 24 (92.3 %) cases were cystic echinococcosis (CE) and two (7.7 %) were alveolar echinococcosis (AE). According to Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications, the complication rate of all 26 patients was 19.2 %, among which three cases belonged to Grade I, one to Grade III b and 1 to Grade IV. Two children encountered severe hypernatremia (sodium: 155.3 mmol/L and 190.0mmol/L). Data showed classic clinical features of severe hypernatremia: profound and persistent bradycardia, hypotension and coma. After treatment, they recovered well without any neurologic sequelae. All patients were followed up regularly for a median time of 38 months (range 4-89 months); the overall disease-free survival was 100.0 %. CONCLUSIONS: HS irrigation of intra-abdominal echinococcosis may cause acute hypernatremia and severe consequences. Diagnostic suspicion and early intervention are vital tools for avoiding morbidity and mortality.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780079

RESUMO

Both elevated intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and maladaptive metacognitive beliefs (MBs) were associated with depression. However, the relationship between MBs and IU in clinical depression is unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the putative impairment of MBs and IU in major depressive disorder (MDD) and explore the relationship between these two factors with depressive symptoms. Metacognition Questionnaire-30 Items (MCQ-30), Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Short Form (IUS-12) and clinical rating scales were administered to 53 patients with MDD and 56 healthy controls (HCs). Stepwise regressions were performed to explore independent contributions of MBs and IU on depression. Mediation analysis was used to examine associations among variables. Patients with MDD reported higher IUS-12 and MCQ-30 scores than HCs. Stepwise regressions revealed a unique contribution of negative MBs concerning the consequences of not controlling thoughts (MCQ-NC) on depression symptoms while controlling the effects of age, gender, anxiety symptoms and IU. MCQ-NC and negative MBs concerning the uncontrollability and danger of negative thinking (MCQ-NEG) completely mediated the effects of IU on depression and anxiety symptoms. Our results provided clear evidence that maladaptive negative MBs are directly associated with depression symptoms, and mediated the effect of IU on depression and anxiety symptoms, suggesting that IU and MBs influence clinical symptoms in a hierarchical manner.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e24324, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761632

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of utilizing ultrasonography to monitor the fracture reduction and elastic intramedullary nail fixation processes in treating children with double forearm fractures. A retrospective analysis of 30 children with double forearm fractures treated at our hospital between January 2016 and July 2018. The children were aged 3 to 10 years. All patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with elastic intramedullary nails using intraoperative ultrasound monitoring and intermittent radiographic imaging. The closed reduction and fixation were successful in all patients. The operation times ranged from 16 to 30 minutes, averaging 21 minutes. No neurovascular injuries occurred during closed reduction and nail insertion. Moreover, closed reduction was successful in the first attempt in 86.7% of patients. All patient outcomes were optimal, lacking serious complications during follow-ups. Intraoperative ultrasound monitoring can clearly show the shape and changes in fracture ends, distal growth plates, and surrounding soft tissues, and fracture reduction and passage of elastic nail processes at fracture ends during closed reduction; therefore, visualizing closed reductions can be achieved. The combination of intraoperative ultrasound and radiographic imaging can ensure operative effects and significantly reduce radiation exposure for both doctors and patients. An adequately powered prospective randomized trial is required to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Antebraço/diagnóstico por imagem , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Fraturas da Ulna/cirurgia , Pinos Ortopédicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Redução Fechada , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Rádio (Anatomia)/lesões , Rádio (Anatomia)/cirurgia , Fraturas do Rádio/complicações , Fraturas do Rádio/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ulna/diagnóstico por imagem , Ulna/lesões , Ulna/cirurgia , Fraturas da Ulna/complicações , Fraturas da Ulna/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia
6.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 7, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaves of the natural plant lotus are used in traditional Chinese medicine and tea production. They are rich in flavonoids. METHODS: In this study, lotus leaf flavonoids (LLF) were applied to human lung cancer A549 cells and human small cell lung cancer cells H446 in vitro to verify the effect of LLF on apoptosis in these cells through the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. RESULTS: LLF had no toxic effect on normal cells at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL, but could significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells and H446 cells. Flow cytometry showed that LLF could induce growth in A549 cells. We also found that LLF could increase ROS and MDA levels, and decrease SOD activity in A549 cells. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that LLF could upregulate the expression of p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax and downregulate the expression of Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and Bcl-2 in A549 cells. Results of HPLC showed that LLF mainly contain five active substances: kaempferitrin, hyperoside, astragalin, phloridzin, and quercetin. The apoptosis-inducing effect of LLF on A549 cells came from these naturally active compounds. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown in this study that LLF is a bioactive substance that can induce apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro, and merits further research and development.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Lotus/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Células A549 , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24420, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578534

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Optimal treatment of patients with various types of liver tumors or certain liver diseases frequently demands major liver resection, which remains a clinical challenge especially in children.Eighty seven consecutive pediatric liver resections including 51 (59%) major resections (resection of 3 or more hepatic segments) and 36 (41%) minor resections (resection of 1 or 2 segments) were analyzed. All patients were treated between January 2010 and March 2018. Perioperative outcomes were compared between major and minor hepatic resections.The male to female ratio was 1.72:1. The median age at operation was 20 months (range, 0.33-150 months). There was no significant difference in demographics including age, weight, ASA class, and underlying pathology. The surgical management included functional assessment of the future liver remnant, critical perioperative management, enhanced understanding of hepatic segmental anatomy, and bleeding control, as well as refined surgical techniques. The median estimated blood loss was 40 ml in the minor liver resection group, and 90 ml in major liver resection group (P < .001). Children undergoing major liver resection had a significantly longer median operative time (80 vs 140 minutes), anesthesia time (140 vs 205 minutes), as well as higher median intraoperative total fluid input (255 vs 450 ml) (P < .001 for all). Fourteen (16.1%) patients had postoperative complications. By Clavien-Dindo classification, there were 8 grade I, 4 grade II, and 2 grade III-a complications. There were no significant differences in complication rates between groups (P = .902). Time to clear liquid diet (P = .381) and general diet (P = .473) was not significantly different. There was no difference in hospital length of stay (7 vs 7 days, P = .450). There were no 90-day readmissions or mortalities.Major liver resection in children is not associated with an increased incidence of postoperative complications or prolonged postoperative hospital stay compared to minor liver resection. Techniques employed in this study offered good perioperative outcomes for children undergoing major liver resections.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia , Fígado/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Hepatectomia/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Oncologist ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network's Rectal Cancer Guideline Panel recommends American Joint Committee of Cancer and College of American Pathologists (AJCC/CAP) tumor regression grading (TRG) system to evaluate pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Yet, the clinical significance of the AJCC/CAP TRG system has not been fully defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospectively recruited, and prospectively maintained cohort study. Patients with LARC from one institution formed the discovery set, and cases from external independent institutions formed a validation set to verify the findings from discovery set. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test, and Cox regression model. RESULTS: The discovery set (940 cases) found, and the validation set (2,156 cases) further confirmed, that inferior AJCC/CAP TRG categories were closely /ccorrelated with unfavorable survival (OS, DFS, LRFS, and DMFS) and higher risk of disease progression (death, accumulative relapse, local recurrence, and distant metastasis) (all p < .05). Significantly, pairwise comparison revealed that any two of four TRG categories had the distinguished survival and risk of disease progression. After propensity score matching, AJCC/CAP TRG0 category (pathological complete response) patients treated with or without adjuvant chemotherapy displayed similar survival of OS, DFS, LRFS, and DMFS (all p > .05). For AJCC/CAP TRG1-3 cases, adjuvant chemotherapy treatment significantly improved 3-year OS (90.2% vs. 84.6%, p < .001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated the AJCC/CAP TRG system was an independent prognostic surrogate. CONCLUSION: AJCC/CAP TRG system, an accurate prognostic surrogate, appears ideal for further strategizing adjuvant chemotherapy for LARC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends the American Joint Committee of Cancer and College of American Pathologists (AJCC/CAP) tumor regression grading (TRG) four-category system to evaluate the pathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer; however, the clinical significance of the AJCC/CAP TRG system has not yet been clearly addressed. This study found, for the first time, that any two of four AJCC/CAP TRG categories had the distinguished long-term survival outcome. Importantly, adjuvant chemotherapy may improve the 3-year overall survival for AJCC/CAP TRG1-3 category patients but not for AJCC/CAP TRG0 category patients. Thus, AJCC/CAP TRG system, an accurate surrogate of long-term survival outcome, is useful in guiding adjuvant chemotherapy management for rectal cancer.

9.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 16, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The watch-and-wait strategy offers a non-invasive therapeutic alternative for rectal cancer patients who have achieved a clinical complete response (cCR) after chemoradiotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the long-term clinical outcomes of this strategy in comparation to surgical resection. METHODS: Stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and achieved a cCR were selected from the databases of three centers. cCR was evaluated by findings from digital rectal examination, colonoscopy, and radiographic images. Patients in whom the watch-and-wait strategy was adopted were matched with patients who underwent radical resection through 1:1 propensity score matching analyses. Survival was calculated and compared in the two groups using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log rank test. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients in whom the watch-and-wait strategy was adopted were matched with 354 patients who underwent radical resection. After matching, there were 94 patients in each group, and no significant differences in term of age, sex, T stage, N stage or tumor location were observed between the two groups. The median follow-up time was 38.2 months. Patients in whom the watch-and-wait strategy was adopted exhibited a higher rate of local recurrences (14.9% vs. 1.1%), but most (85.7%) were salvageable. Three-year non-regrowth local recurrence-free survival was comparable between the two groups (98% vs. 98%, P = 0.506), but the watch-and-wait group presented an obvious advantage in terms of sphincter preservation, especially in patients with a tumor located within 3 cm of the anal verge (89.7% vs. 41.2%, P < 0.001). Three-year distant metastasis-free survival (88% in the watch-and-wait group vs. 89% in the surgical group, P = 0.874), 3-year disease-specific survival (99% vs. 96%, P = 0.643) and overall survival (99% vs. 96%, P = 0.905) were also comparable between the two groups, although a higher rate (35.7%) of distant metastases was observed in patients who exhibited local regrowth in the watch-and-wait group. CONCLUSION: The watch-and-wait strategy was safe, with similar survival outcomes but a superior sphincter preservation rate as compared to surgery in rectal cancer patients achieving a cCR after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and could be offered as a promising conservative alternative to invasive radical surgery.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To construct and validate a predicting genotype signature for pathologic complete response (pCR) in locally advanced rectal cancer (PGS-LARC) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in 15 LARC tissues. Mutation sites were selected according to the whole exome sequencing data and literature. Target sequencing was performed in a training cohort (n = 202) to build the PGS-LARC model using regression analysis, and internal (n = 76) and external validation cohorts (n = 69) were used for validating the results. Predictive performance of the PGS-LARC model was compared with clinical factors and between subgroups. The PGS-LARC model comprised 15 genes. RESULTS: The area under the curve (AUC) of the PGS model in the training, internal, and external validation cohorts was 0.776 (0.697-0.849), 0.760 (0.644-0.867), and 0.812 (0.690-0.915), respectively, and demonstrated higher AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than cT stage, cN stage, carcinoembryonic antigen level, and CA19-9 level for pCR prediction. The predictive performance of the model was superior to clinical factors in all subgroups. For patients with clinical complete response (cCR), the positive prediction value was 94.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The PGS-LARC is a reliable predictive tool for pCR in patients with LARC and might be helpful to enable nonoperative management strategy in those patients who refuse surgery. It has the potential to guide treatment decisions for patients with different probability of tumor regression after neoadjuvant therapy, especially when combining cCR criteria and PGS-LARC.

11.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most prevalent chronic paediatric lung disease and is linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MicroRNA-based regulation of type II alveolar epithelial cell (T2AEC) proliferation and apoptosis is an important factor in the pathogenesis of BPD and warrants further investigation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Two murine models of hyperoxic lung injury (with or without miR-342-5p or Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 3 [Spred3] modulation) were employed: a hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury model (100% O2 on postnatal days 1-7) and the BPD model (100% O2 on postnatal days 1-4, followed by room air for 10 days). Tracheal aspirate pellets from healthy control and moderate/severe BPD neonates were randomly selected for clinical miR-342-5p analysis. KEY RESULTS: Hyperoxia decreased miR-342-5p levels in primary T2AECs, MLE12 cells and neonatal mouse lungs. Transgenic miR-342 overexpression in neonatal mice ameliorated survival rates and improved the BPD phenotype and BPD-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). T2AEC-specific miR-342 transgenic overexpression, as well as miR-342-5p mimic therapy, also ameliorated the BPD phenotype and associated PAH. miR-342-5p targets the 3'UTR of the Raf1 regulator Spred3, inhibiting Spred3 expression. Treatment with recombinant Spred3 exacerbated the BPD phenotype and associated PAH. Notably, miR-342-5p inhibition under room air conditions did not mimic the BPD phenotype. Moderate/severe BPD tracheal aspirate pellets exhibited decreased miR-342-5p levels relative to healthy control pellets. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest that miR-342-5p mimic therapy may show promise in the treatment or prevention of BPD.

12.
J Nutr ; 151(4): 892-901, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few evidence-based strategies to attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Chinese herbs and exhibits glucose lowering properties. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that dietary BBR would improve health outcomes in the mouse offspring of GDM dams. METHODS: Wild-type C57BL/6 female mice were fed either a Lean-inducing low-fat diet (L-LF,10% kcal fat, 35% kcal sucrose) or a GDM-inducing high-fat diet (GDM-HF, 45% kcal fat, 17.5% sucrose) for 6 wk prior to breeding with wild-type C57BL/6 male mice throughout pregnancy and the suckling period. The resulting Lean and GDM-exposed male and female offspring were randomly assigned an LF (10% kcal fat, 35% kcal sucrose), HF (45% kcal fat, 17.5% sucrose), or high-fat berberine (HFB) (45% kcal fat, 17.5% sucrose diet) containing BBR (160 mg/kg/d, HFB) at weaning for 12 wk. The main outcome was to evaluate the effects of BBR on obesity, pancreatic islet function, and cardiac contractility in GDM-exposed HF-fed offspring. Significance between measurements was determined using a 2 (gestational exposure) × 3 (diet) factorial design by a 2- way ANOVA using Tukey post-hoc analysis. RESULTS: In the GDM-HF group, body weights were significantly increased (16%) compared with those in baseline (L-LF) animals (P < 0.05). Compared with the L-LF animals, the GDM-HF group had a reduction in pancreatic insulin glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (74%) and increased cardiac isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT; ∼150%) (P < 0.05). Compared with GDM-HF animals, the GDM-HFB group with the dietary addition of BBR had significantly reduced body weight (16%), increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets (254%), and reduced systolic heart function (46% IVCT) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In a mouse model of GDM, dietary BBR treatment provided protection from obesity and the development of pancreatic islet and cardiac dysfunction.

13.
Soft Matter ; 17(8): 2191-2204, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459746

RESUMO

An intrinsic self-healing polyurethane (PU) elastomer with excellent self-healing efficiency was prepared. The self-healing properties of this elastomer as well as the temperature dependence of self-healing can be tailored by regulating the molar ratio of hard to soft segments. The self-healing efficiency of 92.5% is the highest when the molar ratio of 4,4-methylenedicyclohexyl diisocyanate (HMDI) to polypropylene carbonate polyol (PPC) is 1.3 and the temperature is 25 °C. In situ temperature swing infrared spectra and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance reveal that the soft segment, PPC, endows PU with a dense dynamic hydrogen bond network, and the dissociation and reconstruction of the hydrogen bond network enable the PU to heal. To date, the exchange of hydrogen bonds has not been observed intuitively through experimental means. Therefore, the number, type, strength, lifetime, and the exchange of hydrogen bonds in the self-healing process at different temperatures were investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulated results show that the type of hydrogen bond exchange between functional groups will be affected by temperature. The hydrogen bonds between urethane and urea groups play a leading role in the self-healing properties due to the high strength and a large number of hydrogen bonds at both 25 and 50 °C. The stronger strength, longer lifetime, and greater number of effective hydrogen bonds at 25 °C make the self-healing efficiency of PU higher than at 50 °C.

14.
Oncogene ; 40(7): 1375-1389, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420374

RESUMO

Arginine methylation is an important posttranslational modification catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). However, the role of PRMTs in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression is not well understood. Here we report that non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO) is overexpressed in CRC tissue and is a potential marker for poor prognosis in CRC patients. NONO silencing resulted in decreased proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells, whereas overexpression had the opposite effect. In a xenograft model, tumors derived from NONO-deficient CRC cells were smaller than those derived from wild-type (WT) cells, and PRMT1 inhibition blocked CRC xenograft progression. A mass spectrometry analysis indicated that NONO is a substrate of PRMT1. R251 of NONO was asymmetrically dimethylated by PRMT1 in vitro and in vivo. Compared to NONO WT cells, NONO R251K mutant-expressing CRC cells showed reduced proliferation, migration, and invasion, and PRMT1 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition abrogated the malignant phenotype associated with NONO asymmetric dimethylation in both KRAS WT and mutant CRC cells. Compared to adjacent normal tissue, PRMT1 was highly expressed in the CRC zone in clinical specimens, which was correlated with poor overall survival in patients with locally advanced CRC. These results demonstrate that PRMT1-mediated methylation of NONO at R251 promotes CRC growth and metastasis, and suggest that PRMT1 inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for CRC treatment regardless of KRAS mutation status.

15.
Microsc Res Tech ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470484

RESUMO

The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, is an invasive forest pest that occurs across Eurasia. To further understand the mechanism of insect-host chemical communication and the feeding choices of adult I. typographus, we examined the sensilla on the antennae and mouthparts of I. typographus using scanning electron microscopy. No sexual dimorphism in sensilla type or distribution was observed. Ten subtypes of antennal sensilla were identified: sensilla trichodea Types I-III (TR1 , TR2 , and TR3 ); sensilla chaetica Types I and II (CH1 and CH2 ); sensilla basiconica Types I-III (BA1 , BA2 , and BA3 ); sensilla coeloconica (CO); and Böhm sensilla (BS). BA2 were the most abundant among the antennal sensilla in both sexes. Thirteen mouthpart sensilla subtypes were observed: sensilla trichodea Types I-IV (TR1 , TR2 , TR3 , and TR4 ); sensilla chaetica Types I-III (CH1 , CH2 , and CH3 ); sensilla digitiformia (DI); sensilla basiconica Types I-II (BA1 and BA2 ); and sensilla styloconica Types I-III (ST1 , ST2 , and ST3 ). Among these, TR4 were the most abundant in both sexes. The apex of each maxillary and labial palp carried the same sensilla (BA2 , ST1 , ST2 , and ST3 ), although the apex of the maxillary palp contained more total sensilla. The functional roles of each sensilla type are discussed based on their external structure and distribution. The results provide a theoretical basis for further studies on the olfactory and feeding behaviors and electrophysiology of adult I. typographus.

16.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 48, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (FS-DFSP) is a form of tumor progression of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) with an increased risk of metastasis and recurrence. Few studies have compared the clinicopathological features of FS-DFSP and conventional DFSP (C-DFSP). OBJECTIVES: To better understand the epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of FS-DFSP. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 221 patients diagnosed with DFSP and built a recognition model with a back-propagation (BP) neural network for FS-DFSP. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with FS-DFSP and 195 patients with C-DFSP were included. There were no differences between FS-DFSP and C-DFSP regarding age at presentation, age at diagnosis, sex, size at diagnosis, size at presentation, and tumor growth. The negative ratio of CD34 in FS-DFSP (11.5%) was significantly lower than that in C-DFSP (5.1%) (P = 0.005). The average Ki-67 index of FS-DFSP (18.1%) cases was significantly higher than that of C-DFSP (8.1%) cases (P < 0.001). The classification accuracy of the BP neural network model training samples was 100%. The correct rates of classification and misdiagnosis were 84.1% and 15.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations of FS-DFSP and C-DFSP are similar but have large differences in immunohistochemistry. The classification accuracy and feasibility of the BP neural network model are high in FS-DFSP.

17.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 7, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a recently discovered angiogenetic process found in many malignant tumors, and is different from the traditional angiogenetic process involving vascular endothelium. It involves the formation of microvascular channels composed of tumor cells; therefore, VM is considered a new model for the formation of new blood vessels in aggressive tumors, and can provide blood supply for tumor growth. Many studies have pointed out that in recent years, some clinical treatments against angiogenesis have not been satisfactory possibly due to the activation of VM. Although the mechanisms underlying VM have not been fully elucidated, increasing research on the soil "microenvironment" for tumor growth suggests that the initial hypoxic environment in solid tumors is inseparable from VM. MAIN BODY: In this review, we describe that the stemness and differentiation potential of cancer stem cells are enhanced under hypoxic microenvironments, through hypoxia-induced epithelial-endothelial transition (EET) and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling to form the specific mechanism of vasculogenic mimicry; we also summarized some of the current drugs targeting VM through these processes, suggesting a new reference for the clinical treatment of tumor angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Overall, the use of VM inhibitors in combination with conventional anti-angiogenesis treatments is a promising strategy for improving the effectiveness of targeted angiogenesis treatments; further, considering the importance of hypoxia in tumor invasion and metastasis, drugs targeting the hypoxia signaling pathway seem to achieve good results.

18.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 520-527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390821

RESUMO

Background: Multiple societies including the Fleischner Society do not recommend that CT is routinely used in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections; however, this advice is based on the limited evidence. In this study, we aim to confirm whether it is necessary to do CT scans in SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic infections by summarizing the longitudinal chest CT and clinical features of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Methods: A total of 33 individuals (14 men and 19 women) with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical data of CT positive and negative groups were compared. Longitudinal chest CT scans were reviewed for CT features and analyzed for temporal change. Results: Thirty-two (97%) individuals had positive results for first RT-PCR testing. For clinical data, only monocyte count showed a significant difference between CT positive and negative groups. For first chest CT, only eighteen (54.5%) individuals had abnormal manifestations, common CT features were GGO (88.9%) and consolidation (33.3%), the median number of segments involved was 3.0 (1.0-7.5). No case in CT negative group was abnormal on the follow-up CT. Three patterns of evolution throughout series of CT were observed in CT positive group, including gradual improvement (12, 66.7%), mismatch to improvement (3, 16.7%) and mild progression to improvement (3, 16.7%). On last CT scans, most cases had radiographic improvement but residual abnormalities. Significant differences were exhibited in density, long diameter, number of lung segments involved, and percentage of consolidation between the first and last CT scans. All cases had stable conditions and finally confirmed negative for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests without developing into severe pneumonia. Conclusion: Considering poor performance of CT in screening, stable conditions during followup, and good outcomes in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections, we confirm that it is unnecessary to do CT scans in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Desnecessários
19.
Cancer Lett ; 496: 41-56, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931883

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in malignant tumor initiation and progression; however, many circRNAs are yet unidentified, and the role of circRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we discovered a novel circRNA, termed circARHGAP12, that was processed from the pre-mRNA of the ARHGAP12 gene. CircARHGAP12 was significantly upregulated in NPC tissues and cell lines and promoted NPC cell migration and invasion. Overexpression or knockdown experiments revealed that circARHGAP12 regulates the expression of cytoskeletal remodeling-related proteins EZR, TPM3, and RhoA. CircARHGAP12 was found to bind directly to the 3' UTR of EZR mRNA and promote its stability; moreover, EZR protein interacted with TPM3 and RhoA and formed a complex to promote NPC cell invasion and metastasis. This study identified the novel circRNA circARHGAP12, characterized its biological function and mechanism, and increased our understanding of circRNAs in NPC pathogenesis. In particular, circARHGAP12 was found to promote the malignant biological phenotype of NPC via cytoskeletal remodeling, thus providing a clue for targeted therapy of NPC.

20.
Micron ; 140: 102976, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221524

RESUMO

The Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus, is a severe pest of larches in Northeastern China. The gustatory and olfactory systems of I. subelongatus play important roles in host location, mating, and feeding. In this study, we examined the types, distributions, and abundances of various sensilla associated with the mouthparts and antennae of I. subelongatus using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the mouthparts, five types of sensilla are present: sensilla trichodea (S.t.1-3), sensilla chaetica (S.c.1-3), sensilla basiconica (S.b.1-2), sensilla twig basiconica (S.tb.1-3), and sensilla placodea (S.p). S.t.3 are the most abundant sensilla subtype on the mouthparts in both sexes, while S.b.1 are the least abundant. Most sensilla on the mouthparts are located on the maxillae and labium, and the apex of each maxillary and labial palp carry the same sensilla subtypes (S.b.2 and S.tb.1-3). However, the total number of sensilla on the apex of each maxillary palp is higher than that on the labial palp. On the antennae, five types of sensilla are present: sensilla trichodea (S.t.1-3), sensilla chaetica (S.c.1-2), sensilla basiconica (S.b.1-3), Böhm bristles (B.b), and sensilla coeloconica (S.co). Antennal sensilla are mostly situated on the anterior surface of the antennal club, particularly on the two dense sensory bands. S.b.1 are the most abundant sensilla subtype on the antennae in both sexes, while S.t.1 are the least abundant. No sexual dimorphism in sensilla type or distribution on the mouthparts or antennae is observed between the sexes of I. subelongatus. However, S.t.3 (on mouthparts) and S.c.1 (on antennae) were significantly more abundant in males than in females, while more S.t.1 (on mouthparts) were observed in females than in males. Finally, the putative functions of each kind of sensilla with respect to their fine structures, distributions, and abundances on the mouthparts and antennae are discussed.

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