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1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 900381, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36035928

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been on the rise around the globe in the past few decades despite the existing guidelines for prevention and treatment. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main metabolites of certain colonic anaerobic bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract and have been found to be the key metabolites in the host of CVDs. Accumulating evidence suggest that the end-products of SCFAs (including acetate, propionate, and butyrate) interact with CVDs through maintaining intestinal integrity, anti-inflammation, modulating glucolipid metabolism, blood pressure, and activating gut-brain axis. Recent advances suggest a promising way to prevent and treat CVDs by controlling SCFAs. Hence, this review tends to summarize the functional roles carried out by SCFAs that are reported in CVDs studies. This review also highlights several novel therapeutic interventions for SCFAs to prevent and treat CVDs.

2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 92, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35883177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the prospective associations of changes in lifestyle behaviors before/during the COVID-19 pandemic, namely physical activity and screen time, with mental health. Furthermore, the impacts of physical activity and screen time on mental health during the pandemic were examined cross-sectionally. METHODS: A two-wave longitudinal study was conducted among 2423 children and adolescents in Shanghai, China. Lifestyle behavior variables (physical activity and screen time) and psychological variables (depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress) were measured using a self-reported questionnaire in January and March 2020. A series of multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between changes in lifestyle behaviors in two waves and psychological problems. The combined associations of physical activity and screen time with psychological problems were also explored using the second wave data. RESULTS: Compared to students with persistently short screen time before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, those with prolonged screen time (OR = 1·36 for depression, OR = 1·48 for anxiety) and those with persistently long screen time (OR = 1·70 for depression, OR = 2·13 for anxiety) reported a higher risk of psychological symptoms. The association between changes in physical activity and psychological symptoms was not statistically significant after adjustment for demographic factors, socioeconomic status, and screen time. During the COVID-19 pandemic, engaging in longer screen time (OR = 1·44 for depression, OR = 1·55 for anxiety) was associated with worsened psychological conditions, while engaging in increased physical activity (OR = 0·58 for depression, OR = 0·66 for anxiety) was associated with better psychological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that promoting physical activity and limiting leisure screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic are important to prevent and mitigate psychological problems in children and adolescents. Therefore, effective interventions targeting lifestyle behaviors are needed to protect children and adolescents' physical and mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias
3.
Food Funct ; 13(14): 7473-7486, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781477

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic diseases are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Dietary fiber intake can improve the risk factors associated with CMD. Psyllium, especially its husk, is one of the most widely used dietary fiber supplements, which is often used to enrich cereals and other food products. Numerous pharmacological studies have investigated the active ingredients and therapeutic effects of psyllium and its extracts, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, antidiabetic, hypotensive, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, antidiarrheal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we will summarize the available studies on the therapeutic potential and possible mechanisms of psyllium in treating CMDs, such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and its complications, hypertension, hyperuricemia and obesity, and its applications in food systems.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Psyllium , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Psyllium/uso terapêutico
4.
Pharmacol Res ; 182: 106352, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835369

RESUMO

Anthracyclines (ANTs) continue to play an irreplaceable role in oncology treatment. However, the clinical application of ANTs has been limited. In the first place, ANTs can cause dose-dependent cardiotoxicity such as arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart failure. In the second place, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) leads to their chemotherapeutic failure. Oncology cardiologists are urgently searching for agents that can both protect the heart and reverse MDR without compromising the antitumor effects of ANTs. Based on in vivo and in vitro data, we found that natural compounds, including saponins, may be active agents for other both natural and chemical compounds in the inhibition of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) and the reversal of MDR. In this review, we summarize the work of previous researchers, describe the mechanisms of AIC and MDR, and focus on revealing the pharmacological effects and potential molecular targets of saponins and their derivatives in the inhibition of AIC and the reversal of MDR, aiming to encourage future research and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico
5.
Epidemiol Health ; : e2022054, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798025

RESUMO

Objectives: Proper concentration of blood lipids is essential to the survival of seniors. Past studies on old people showed inconsistent relationships between blood lipids and all-cause mortality. Methods: In this retrospective longitudinal study, 1067 Chinese elderly participants were enrolled from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey at baseline in 2008 and followed up until death or December 31, 2018. The outcome was all-cause mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to estimate Hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval values and the participants were stratified into three groups (60-80, 80-100, or ≥100 years) for further analysis. The survival probability according to lipid profiles quartiles were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank tests were performed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 84.84 years old and 56.98% of them were female. 578 individuals died and 277 were lost to follow up in ten years. Mean TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were higher among those who died than those survived. Participants with the second quartile of HDL-C, the highest quartile of LDL-C and TG had a 28% higher risk, 23% and 49% lower risk of for all-cause mortality, respectively. After further adjustment, the association remained except for HDL-C, and an extra association between all-cause mortality and the third quartile of TC and LDL-C and the second quartile of TG appeared (HR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06; HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.94; HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99). Conclusion: Old people could pay attention to keep levels of LDL-C at 1.91-2.47 mmol/L for healthy aging while maintaining TG not less than 1.66 mmol/L may benefit for survival.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 905424, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721118

RESUMO

Aims: Pathological left ventricular (LV) remodeling induced by multiple causes often triggers fatal cardiac dysfunction, heart failure (HF), and even cardiac death. This study is aimed to investigate whether qiliqiangxin (QL) could improve LV remodeling and protect against HF via modulating gut microbiota and inhibiting nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. Methods: Rats were respectively treated with QL (100 mg/kg/day) or valsartan (1.6 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage after transverse aortic constriction or sham surgery for 13 weeks. Cardiac functions and myocardial fibrosis were assessed. In addition, gut microbial composition was assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Furthermore, rats' hearts were harvested for histopathological and molecular analyses including immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphated nick end labeling, and Western blot. Key findings: QL treatment preserved cardiac functions including LV ejection fractions and fractional shortening and markedly improved the LV remodeling. Moreover, HF was related to the gut microbial community reorganization like a reduction in Lactobacillus, while QL reversed it. Additionally, the protein expression levels like IL-1ß, TNF-α, NF-κB, and NLRP3 were decreased in the QL treatment group compared to the model one. Conclusion: QL ameliorates ventricular remodeling to some extent in rats with HF by modulating the gut microbiota and NLRP3 inflammasome, which indicates the potential therapeutic effects of QL on those who suffer from HF.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113125, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609367

RESUMO

Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is an important mechanism leading to post ischemic stroke damage. After acute stroke, the sudden reduction in cerebral blood flow is most initially followed by ion transport protein dysfunction and disruption of ion homeostasis, which in turn leads to impaired glutamate release, reuptake, and excessive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation, promoting neuronal death. Despite extensive evidence from preclinical studies suggesting that excessive NMDAR stimulation during ischemic stroke is a central step in post-stroke damage, NMDAR blockers have failed to translate into clinical stroke treatment. Current treatment options for stroke are very limited, and there is therefore a great need to develop new targets for neuroprotective therapeutic agents in ischemic stroke to extend the therapeutic time window. In this review, we highlight recent findings on glutamate release, reuptake mechanisms, NMDAR and its downstream cellular signaling pathways in post-ischemic stroke damage, and review the pathological changes in each link to help develop viable new therapeutic targets. We then also summarize potential neuroprotective drugs and therapeutic approaches for these new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico , AVC Isquêmico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 879204, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559240

RESUMO

Pulmonary diseases are main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current studies show that though specific pulmonary diseases and correlative lung-metabolic deviance own unique pathophysiology and clinical manifestations, they always tend to exhibit common characteristics including reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and disruptions of proteostasis bringing about accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER is generated by the unfolded protein response. When the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) fails to preserve ER homeostasis, a maladaptive or terminal UPR is engaged, leading to the disruption of ER integrity and to apoptosis, which is called ER stress. The ER stress mainly includes the accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in lumen and the disorder of Ca2+ balance. ROS mediates several critical aspects of the ER stress response. We summarize the latest advances in of the UPR and ER stress in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease and discuss potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring ER proteostasis in pulmonary disease.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 301: 337-344, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School closures and home confinement due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may lead to disrupted sleep patterns. Consequently, it could increase the risk of children and adolescents' mental health disorders. METHODS: In this prospective study, we randomly selected ten schools in Shanghai and conducted cluster sampling of students from each school. The first wave of the survey was conducted between January 3 and 21, 2020. Approximately two months after the COVID-19 outbreak declared, a second wave of the survey was conducted. In total, 2427 individuals were surveyed in both waves using the same sampling method. Participants' mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress), sleep patterns and other demographic information were measured in both waves. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the associations between sleep patterns and mental health status. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a total of 873 participants (19.9%), 1100 participants (25.1%), and 670 participants (15.3%) reported depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. Significant changes of both sleep duration and sleep-wake cycle patterns were observed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, shorter sleep duration and late to rise patterns (including early to bed late to rise and late to bed late to rise) were found to be associated with higher odds of having mental illnesses during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: These results suggest there is a pressing need to monitor children's and adolescents' health behavior and mental health and develop timely evidence-based strategies and interventions to mitigate adverse behavioral and psychological impacts caused by these unprecedented challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112655, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066299

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are now the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide,resulting in a large global economic burden. Recently, complementary and alternative medicine, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have received great attention. Puerarin (Pue) is an isoflavone isolated from the roots of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (also named "Ge gen" in China), and is a versatile TCM herb used for the treatment of fever, diarrhea, diabetes mellitus CVDs and cerebrovascular diseases. Numerous lines ofin vitro studies, as well as in vivo animal experiments have established that Pue offers beneficial roles against the progression of atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure hypertension and arrhythmia by inhibiting pathological processes, such as the mitigation of endothelium injury, protection against inflammation, the disturbance of lipid metabolism, protection against ischemic reperfusion injury, anti-myocardial remodeling and other effects. Here, we provide a systematic overview of the pharmacological actions and molecular targets of Pue in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment, to provide insights into the therapeutic potential of Pue in treating cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Espumosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacocinética , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Pueraria
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(6): 1537-1542, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify nutrient supplementation usage and primary source of information among pregnant women in China. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study used information on nutrient supplementation and primary source of information collected via face-to-face interviews. Data on the usage of folic acid, Ca/vitamin D, Fe, vitamins, DHA and other dietary supplements were collected. Primary source of information was categorised as family/relatives, friends/co-workers, the Internet, books/magazines, television/radio, doctors, other people and oneself. SETTING: Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Chengdu, China. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eighty-one Chinese pregnant women aged ≥20 years with singleton pregnancies. RESULTS: In all three trimesters of pregnancy, usage was highest and most stable for folic acid (81·7 %), followed by vitamins (vitamin A, B-group vitamins, vitamin C and multivitamins; 75·0 %), whereas Ca/vitamin D (51·4 %) and Fe (18·1 %) usage was low, potentially indicating a deficiency risk. All supplementation usage percentages increased with pregnancy duration (P < 0·05). Notably, approximately 10 % of the pregnant women in our study did not use any nutrient supplementation, and this was especially common in early pregnancy. More than 50 % of the women reported getting information on nutrient supplementation from family members, and about 30 % reported getting this information from doctors. CONCLUSIONS: Among pregnant women in China, awareness about nutrient supplementation increases as the pregnancy progresses, but some types of nutrient supplementation (such as Ca/vitamin D and Fe) remain at low levels. It is necessary to pay more attention to the health education of pregnant women in China, and the influence of family members should be emphasised.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Complexo Vitamínico B , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Gravidez , Vitamina A , Vitamina D
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112423, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800783

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a programmed iron-dependent cell death characterized by accumulation of lipid peroxides (LOOH) and redox disequilibrium. Ferroptosis shows unique characteristics in biology, chemistry, and gene levels, compared to other cell death forms. The metabolic disorder of intracellular LOOH catalyzed by iron causes the inactivity of GPX4, disrupts the redox balance, and triggers cell death. Metabolism of amino acid, iron, and lipid, including associated pathways, is considered as a specific hallmark of ferroptosis. Epidemiological studies and animal experiments have shown that ferroptosis plays an important character in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), heart failure (HF), cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This review systematically summarized the latest research progress on the mechanisms of ferroptosis. Then we report the contribution of ferroptosis in cardiovascular diseases. Finally, we discuss and analyze the therapeutic approaches targeting for ferroptosis associated with cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Peróxidos Lipídicos/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 888, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although approximately 50% of Chinese with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have vitamin D deficiency, studies regarding vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance (IR) have mainly focused on non-Asians. Endurance exercise training (ET) enhances insulin-mediated glucose metabolism, which plays a critical role in T2DM prevention and control. However, the combined effects of vitamin D supplementation and ET on IR in T2DM patients are unclear. The objectives of this study is to investigate the synergistic effect of vitamin D supplementation combined with exercise training intervention on IR in T2DM patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose a 3-month randomized controlled trial among 60 T2DM patients aged 40-65, newly diagnosed with T2DM ≤ 1 year, and with stable HbA1c level (≤ 8.0%) in the past 3 months. The participants will be randomly allocated to the vitamin D group, vitamin D combined with exercise training group, exercise training group, and control group (CG) using a computer-generated random number sequence. At baseline, participants will undergo a medical review, anthropometric measurements, dual X-ray absorptiometry, a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ankle-brachial index measurements, and physical fitness measurements and will complete related lifestyle questionnaires. Fasting blood lipid and glucose levels were also measured. In a 3-month intervention period, vitamin D intervention group will receive a dose of 1000 IU daily; exercise group will perform a 1-h endurance exercise 3 times per week (maximal heart rate, 60-80%), and the control group will receive apparently identical tablets. Additionally, all participants will be advised to maintain their normal diet and physical activities during the intervention. All measurements will be repeated at 3-month follow-up after the intervention with the primary outcome measure expressed as a change from baseline in insulin sensitivity and secretion. Secondary outcome measures will compare the changes in anthropometry, ankle-brachial index, and physical fitness factors (e.g., peak oxygen uptake, hand grip strength). Data will be managed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to conduct a randomized trial to clearly determine the independent and combined effects of vitamin D supplementation and endurance exercise trial on IR in Chinese T2DM patients as measured by OGTT. The findings from the proposed study will not only provide new evidences that vitamin D supplementation plays an important role in IR management but also develop a simple and efficient method to improve IR-associated metabolic diseases for T2DM patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1800015383 , Registered on 28 March 2018.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico , Força da Mão , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Food Funct ; 12(24): 12194-12220, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752593

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes are the leading causes of death worldwide, which underlines the urgent necessity to develop new pharmacotherapies. Cinnamon has been an eminent component of spice and traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Numerous lines of findings have elucidated that cinnamon has beneficial effects against CVDs in various ways, including endothelium protection, regulation of immune response, lowering blood lipids, antioxidative properties, anti-inflammatory properties, suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and mobilization, repression of platelet activity and thrombosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Furthermore, emerging evidence has established that cinnamon improves diabetes, a crucial risk factor for CVDs, by enhancing insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion; regulating the enzyme activity involved in glucose; regulating glucose metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue and muscle; ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation to protect islet cells; and improving diabetes complications. In this review, we summarized the mechanisms by which cinnamon regulates CVDs and diabetes in order to provide a theoretical basis for the further clinical application of cinnamon.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Fitoterapia
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 659470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168579

RESUMO

Background: Prevalence estimates of major depressive disorder (MDD) among adults in China have varied widely between studies. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the overall prevalence of MDD in the Chinese population was estimated from published epidemiological studies and potential moderators that account for variability in estimates were assessed. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), and WanFang databases to identify relevant studies. Data analyses were conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0. Results: Forty studies comprising 1,024,087 subjects were included. The pooled point, 12-month, and lifetime prevalence rates of MDD in China were 1.1% (95% CI: 0.9-1.4%), 1.6% (95% CI: 1.0-2.5%), and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.5-2.2%), respectively. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed gender, marital status, survey year, being published in English language, use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic systems and age as significant moderators of MDD prevalence. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of MDD in the Chinese population appears to be lower than that of most countries, but the rates have been increasing over time and are elevated in particular demographic subgroups. Due to the negative consequences of MDD, effective preventive measures, early identification, and timely treatments are still important and should be offered to those in need.

16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6614009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055195

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia is a disease with high morbidity and mortality, for which reperfusion is currently the standard intervention. However, the reperfusion may lead to further myocardial damage, known as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Oxidative stress is one of the most important pathological mechanisms in reperfusion injury, which causes apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation, and some other damage in cardiomyocytes through multiple pathways, thus causing irreversible cardiomyocyte damage and cardiac dysfunction. This article reviews the pathological mechanisms of oxidative stress involved in reperfusion injury and the interventions for different pathways and targets, so as to form systematic treatments for oxidative stress-induced myocardial reperfusion injury and make up for the lack of monotherapy.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Humanos , Reperfusão
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 148, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654058

RESUMO

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern. In China, all schools were shut down and students were home quarantined to prevent disease spread; these steps could have potential negative effects on mental health of adolescents. This study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic, and explore factors associated with depression and anxiety. Two survey administrations were conducted among Chinese adolescents between February 20 and February 27 and between April 11 and April 19, 2020, respectively. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale were used to assess depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms, respectively. A total of 9554 and 3886 adolescents participated in the first and second surveys. During the initial survey, the prevalence of depression was 36.6% (95% CI: 35.6-37.6%) while the prevalence of anxiety was 19% (95% CI: 18.2-19.8%). Rates of depression and anxiety increased to 57.0% (95% CI: 55.4-58.6%) and 36.7% (95% CI: 35.2-38.2%), respectively, in the second survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that group membership in the second survey, female gender, senior secondary school enrollment, and concerns about entering a higher grade were positively associated with both depression and anxiety. Conversely, a sleep duration of ≥6 h/day, an exercise duration ≥30 min/day, having the same as typical or higher study efficiency during the COVID-19 outbreak, and living in provinces with 1000-9999 confirmed COVID-19 cases were negatively associated with depression and anxiety. In conclusion, compared to figures reported during the COVID-19 outbreak, the prevalence of depression and anxiety in Chinese adolescents significantly increased after the initial outbreak. Regular screening and appropriate interventions are urgently needed to reduce the risk for emotional disturbances among adolescents during and after the initial COVID-19 outbreaks.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 353-360, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School closures due to the COVID-19 outbreak have affected 87% of the world's students physically, socially, and psychologically, yet rigorous investigation into their mental health during this period is still lacking. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 4-342 primary and secondary school students from Shanghai, China was conducted during March 13-23, 2020. Besides demographic information, psychological distress (including depression, anxiety, and stress), life satisfaction, perceived impact of home quarantine, and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: The three most prevalent symptoms were: anxiety (24.9%), depression (19.7%), and stress (15.2%). Participants were generally satisfied with life and 21.4% became more satisfied with life during school closures. Senior grades were positively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and negatively associated with life satisfaction, whereas the perceived benefit from home quarantine and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were negatively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and positively correlated with life satisfaction. Among participants who perceived no benefit from home quarantine, those who had discussions with their parents about COVID-19 experienced less depression, anxiety, and stress. LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the inability to infer the casual relationship, no parental report for mental health of children aged 6 to 9, and the inadequate measurement of parent-child discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems and resilience co-existed in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak. Given the important role of parent-child discussions, open communication between parents and children about the pandemic should be encouraged to help children and adolescents cope with mental health problems in public health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to observe the impact of ginkgolic acid (GA) on the proliferation and metastasis ability of ovarian cancer (OCa) cells and to further explore whether GA affects the malignant progress of OCa via regulating the lncRNA MALAT1/JAK2 axis. METHODS: OCa cells SKOV3 and CAOV3 were administered with 1 ng/ml GA, 5 ng/ml GA, 10 ng/ml GA, 20 ng/ml GA, and DSMO as control, respectively. The cell proliferation and migration ability of the abovementioned cells in each group were measured by CCK-8 test and Transwell experiments. The expression levels of lncRNA MALAT1 and JAK2 protein were examined by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Subsequently, in OCa cells treated with GA, lncRNA MALAT1 overexpression vector was transfected to continue to detect the proliferation activity and migration ability of each treatment group. Finally, the regulation of GA on activity of lncRNA MALAT1/JAK2 axis in OCa cells was further explored in nude mice. RESULTS: Our data showed that the proliferation inhibition rate of cells at each ginkgolic acid concentration was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), suggesting that GA has an inhibitory influence on the proliferation of OCa cells, in a dose-dependent way. GA was able to inhibit the proliferation rate and migration ability of OCa cells. Administration of ginkgolic acid downregulated the levels of lncRNA MALAT1 and JAK2 protein. Overexpression of lncRNA MALAT1 partially reversed the inhibited OCa proliferative capacity caused by GA treatment. Consistent with the results observed in vitro, we also found that the OCa tumor weight and volume of nude mice injected with lncRNA MALAT1 overexpression vector were enhanced and JAK2 protein level increased remarkably in comparison to the ginkgolic acid group. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, GA may exert its inhibitory effect on the proliferative and migratory capacities of OCa cells through suppressing the activity of lncRNA MALAT1/JAK2 axis.

20.
J Psychosom Res ; 139: 110270, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID 19 in December 2019 spread quickly and overwhelmed the local healthcare system of the epicenter. A total of 346 medical assistance teams with 42,600 reserve medics were mobilized from around the country for emergency assistance. This study aims to examine the incidence of mental health symptoms and predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) symptoms among the reserve medics working in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province. METHODS: An anonymous survey was conducted from April 4-6, 2020 among the medics upon their returning home. A total of 225 surveys were returned with a response rate of 83%. The survey consisted of questionnaires about the medics' demographic information, social relations, mental health status (e.g. IES-R and DASS-21) and other work-related information. Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test and hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine the predictors of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: During the stay in Wuhan, the medics experienced high levels of depression (46.7%), anxiety (35.6%) and stress symptoms (16.0%). Upon returning home, the overall prevalence of clinically concerned PTSD symptoms was as high as 31.6%. Further analyses revealed that PTSD symptoms and its subscales were significantly associated with age, collegial relationship and mental health status during their service. CONCLUSION: The reserve medics reported a high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress as well as clinically concerned PTSD symptoms. Comprehensive screening and intervention programs should be in place to help reserve medics cope with mental health challenges and build resilience during the COVID 19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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