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1.
Curr Med Sci ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively and accurately analyze the out-performance of low-dose chest CT (LDCT) vs. standard-dose CT (SDCT). METHODS: The image quality, size measurements and radiation exposure for LDCT and SDCT protocols were evaluated. A total of 117 patients with extra-thoracic malignancies were prospectively enrolled for non-enhanced CT scanning using LDCT and SDCT protocols. Three experienced radiologists evaluated subjective image quality independently using a 5-point score system. Nodule detection efficiency was compared between LDCT and SDCT based on nodule characteristics (size and volume). Radiation metrics and organ doses were analyzed using Radimetrics. RESULTS: The images acquired with the LDCT protocol yielded comparable quality to those acquired with the SDCT protocol. The sensitivity of LDCT for the detection of pulmonary nodules (n=650) was lower than that of SDCT (n=660). There was no significant difference in the diameter and volume of pulmonary nodules between LDCT and SDCT (for BMI <22 kg/m2, 4.37 vs. 4.46 mm, and 43.66 vs. 46.36 mm3; for BMI ≥22 kg/m2, 4.3 vs. 4.41 mm, and 41.66 vs. 44.86 mm3) (P>0.05). The individualized volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), the size specific dose estimate and effective dose were significantly reduced in the LDCT group compared with the SDCT group (all P<0.0001). This was especially true for dose-sensitive organs such as the lung (for BMI <22 kg/m2, 2.62 vs. 12.54 mSV, and for BMI ≥22 kg/m2, 1.62 vs. 9.79 mSV) and the breast (for BMI <22 kg/m2, 2.52 vs. 10.93 mSV, and for BMI ≥22 kg/m2, 1.53 vs. 9.01 mSV) (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that with the increases in image noise, LDCT and SDCT exhibited a comparable image quality and sensitivity. The LDCT protocol for chest scans may reduce radiation exposure by about 80% compared to the SDCT protocol.

2.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 706785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483827

RESUMO

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can non-invasively measure the electromagnetic activity of the brain. A new type of MEG, on-scalp MEG, has attracted the attention of researchers recently. Compared to the conventional SQUID-MEG, on-scalp MEG constructed with optically pumped magnetometers is wearable and has a high signal-to-noise ratio. While the co-registration between MEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) significantly influences the source localization accuracy, co-registration error requires assessment, and quantification. Recent studies have evaluated the co-registration error of on-scalp MEG mainly based on the surface fit error or the repeatability error of different measurements, which do not reflect the true co-registration error. In this study, a three-dimensional-printed reference phantom was constructed to provide the ground truth of MEG sensor locations and orientations relative to MRI. The co-registration performances of commonly used three devices-electromagnetic digitization system, structured-light scanner, and laser scanner-were compared and quantified by the indices of final co-registration errors in the reference phantom and human experiments. Furthermore, the influence of the co-registration error on the performance of source localization was analyzed via simulations. The laser scanner had the best co-registration accuracy (rotation error of 0.23° and translation error of 0.76 mm based on the phantom experiment), whereas the structured-light scanner had the best cost performance. The results of this study provide recommendations and precautions for researchers regarding selecting and using an appropriate device for the co-registration of on-scalp MEG and MRI.

3.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 637-649, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472225

RESUMO

The insect brain is the central part of the neurosecretory system, which controls morphology, physiology, and behavior during the insect's lifecycle. Lepidoptera are holometabolous insects, and their brains develop during the larval period and metamorphosis into the adult form. As the only fully domesticated insect, the Lepidoptera silkworm Bombyx mori experienced changes in larval brain morphology and certain behaviors during the domestication process. Hormonal regulation in insects is a key factor in multiple processes. However, how juvenile hormone (JH) signals regulate brain development in Lepidoptera species, especially in the larval stage, remains elusive. We recently identified the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant 1 ( Met1) as a putative domestication gene. How artificial selection on Met1 impacts brain and behavioral domestication is another important issue addressing Darwin's theory on domestication. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Bombyx Met1 caused developmental retardation in the brain, unlike precocious pupation of the cuticle. At the whole transcriptome level, the ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling and downstream pathways were overactivated in the mutant cuticle but not in the brain. Pathways related to cell proliferation and specialization processes, such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and tyrosine metabolism pathways, were suppressed in the brain. Molecular evolutionary analysis and in vitro assay identified an amino acid replacement located in a novel motif under positive selection in B. mori, which decreased transcriptional binding activity. The B. mori MET1 protein showed a changed structure and dynamic features, as well as a weakened co-expression gene network, compared with B. mandarina. Based on comparative transcriptomic analyses, we proposed a pathway downstream of JH signaling (i.e., tyrosine metabolism pathway) that likely contributed to silkworm larval brain development and domestication and highlighted the importance of the biogenic amine system in larval evolution during silkworm domestication.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica
4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(35): 7690-7694, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524340

RESUMO

A bifunctional cinchona squaramide catalyzed enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction between 2-naphthols and benzothiazolimines has been developed, and a series of chiral 2'-aminobenzothiazolomethyl naphthols with potential antiproliferative and anthelmintic activities have been successfully and effectively prepared in good to excellent yields (up to 98%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) even in a scale-up preparation under mild conditions.

5.
Apoptosis ; 26(9-10): 548-560, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409556

RESUMO

Schwann cells (SCs) have important roles in supporting and repairing peripheral neurons, and thus have great potential for nerve injury treatment. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be reliably induced to differentiate into SCs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. We explored the roles of MEG3/let-7a-5p/RBPJ axis in the differentiation into SCs from ADSCs. Primary ADSCs were induced to differentiate into SCs by appropriate reagents. ELISA, immunostaining, Western blotting, and qRT-PCR were employed to examine levels of SC-markers such as S100, GFAP, SOX10, p75NTR, GAP43, MPZ, ß-NGF, BDNF, and NCAM and let-7 family, MEG3, RBPJ, and Notch signaling related proteins. Dual luciferase assay and RNA immunoprecipitation were performed to validate interactions of let-7a-5p/RBPJ mRNA and MEG3/let-7a-5p. Cultured ADSCs could be induced to differentiate into functional SCs. Let-7a-5p and let-7d-5p were elevated during the differentiation while MEG3 and RBPJ/Notch-signaling were suppressed. Let-7a-5p mimics promoted ADSC differentiation into SCs and up-regulated the levels of SC-related markers including S100, GFAP, SOX10, p75NTR, GAP43, MPZ, ß-NGF, and NCAM, while RBPJ or MEG3 overexpression retarded the differentiation and reduced those levels. Let-7a-5p directly targeted RBPJ and MEG3 disinhibited Notch-RBPJ signaling via sponging let-7a-5p. RBPJ overexpression reversed the acceleration of let-7a-5p mimics on SC differentiation while let-7a-5p mimics blocked MEG3-mediated suppression on SC differentiation. Let-7a-5p sponged by MEG3 promotes differentiation of ADSCs into SCs via suppressing Notch signaling by targeting RBPJ. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying the differentiation of ADSCs to SCs and provide avenues to accelerate the process.

6.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105276, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426146

RESUMO

Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a series of triterpenoids (1-46) including 12 new ones (1-12) from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus. The structures of all the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as well as by comparison with literature data. Triterpenoids 1-3, 6, 7, 16, 24, 25, 27, 38, 43, 44 and 46 showed strong α-glucosidase inhibition, with IC50 values from 11.5 to 81.8 µM. Their structure-activity relationships were discussed. Inonotusol F (24) showed the strongest inhibitory activity and it presented noncompetitive inhibition against α-glucosidase. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics stimulation further demonstrated that GLU302 and PHE298 were key amino acids for the inhibition of inonotusol F (24) towards α-glucosidase. This study indicates the vital role of triterpenoids in explaining hypoglycemic effect of Inonotus obliquus and provides important evidence for further development and utilization of this mushroom.

7.
AMB Express ; 11(1): 119, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417676

RESUMO

In this study, we used genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to examine the genetic diversity of 22 strains of Lingzhi and the quality differences in 15 fruit bodies of Lingzhi from different Chinese regions. The phylogenetic trees of 22 strains were constructed based on ITS (Internal transcribed spacer) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism). Moisture, ash, water-soluble extracts, alcohol-soluble extracts, polysaccharides, and triterpenoids from 15 fruit bodies of Lingzhi were detected and analyzed based on Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the US Pharmacopoeia references. Moreover, the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides was studied using PMP-HPLC, and the effect of polysaccharides on the proliferation rate of splenocytes was investigated in vitro. The identification results of these strains by the phylogenetic trees which were constructed based on ITS sequences and SNPs showed that most of the strains applied in the main producing areas of Lingzhi in China were accurate except for a few inaccurate strains. The moisture, ash, water and alcohol soluble extractive, polysaccharide and triterpenoid content of all samples were meet the requirements of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, while the polysaccharide and triterpenoid content of less than half of the samples meet the requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. The polysaccharide extracted from these samples have different effects on the proliferation rate of spleen cells. To sum up, this is the first study that reported on the differences in Lingzhi strains from the main producing areas in China. The quality of some fruit bodies did not meet the pharmacopeia requirements, and wrong strains were used in some production areas; thus, strains should be given special attention before legal processing.

8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 592545, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393871

RESUMO

With the transformation and development of the social economy of the country, innovation, and entrepreneurship have been a wide concern in all sectors of the society. In contrast, the entrepreneurial success rate of college students in China is low, and the willingness of students to start a business is generally not high. As a leading element, entrepreneurship policy plays an important role in creating an enabling social environment for entrepreneurship and promoting innovation and entrepreneurship. The influence of entrepreneurship policy on the entrepreneurial will of college students is not only reflected in the improvement of entrepreneurship environment but also in the reform and development of innovation and entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities. This study conducted a survey of fresh graduates from 1,231 colleges and universities in 31 provinces across the country to examine the path and influence the mechanism of entrepreneurship policy on entrepreneurial willingness, and the subsequent regression analysis results show that the entrepreneurship policy and entrepreneurship willingness are positively related, and entrepreneurship education, as a "bridge," presents a partial intermediary role in the relationship. In addition, the study also found that the entrepreneurship capital of college students has a moderating effect on the path of entrepreneurship education-entrepreneurship willingness, that is, the higher the entrepreneurship capital of students is, the higher the entrepreneurship willingness will be generated after they receive entrepreneurship education.

9.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 4687-4694, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447263

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the clinical manifestations and results of adult hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) patients in our emergency department. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with HLH from 1 April 2018 to 31 December 2020. The clinical data of these patients (basic information, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory results, HLH diagnostic criteria, H Score, main treatments, outcomes) were collected. Results: Thirty-three patients (23 males and 10 females; 40.55±18.78 years) with 34 clinical episodes (one male had two clinical episodes and died during the second episode) were enrolled. Twenty-five patients were placed in a "survivor" group, and nine patients were categorized into a "deceased" group. Fever, splenomegaly, hemoglobin <90 g/L and platelet count <100×109/L most commonly met the diagnostic standard for HLH. The H Score results in the survival group and deceased group was 212.4±37.18 and 252.1±40.95, respectively. Viral infection was the most common reason for HLH, followed by immune-system disease and cancer. Laboratory tests showed that deceased-group patients had multiple-organ dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the lactate dehydrogenase (lactate dehydrogenase) level (P = 0.039; odds ratio, 0.999) was significantly related to death. Conclusion: In the emergency department, HLH should be considered for critically ill patients with fever, splenomegaly, low hemoglobin and low platelet count. The H Score might be useful to diagnose HLH quickly. In our study, 26.47% of HLH patients died in the emergency department, and patients with a significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase level had a markedly increased risk of death.

10.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 235-239, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374233

RESUMO

Objective: To compare epicardial electrograms between the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PVs) dynamically at development of persistent atrial fibrillation(AF) in goats PVs. Methods: Ten female goats were instrumented with electrodes at the LA and left side PV. Sustained AF (>24 h) was induced in the goat by rapid intermittent left atrial pacing for(9.5±2.3)days at a pacing interval of 20 ms for 1 s with a maximum output of 6.0 V, followed by a 2-s period without pacing. Characteristics of PVs and LA epicardial electrograms were analyzed in the development of AF. Results: With prolonged stimulation, the duration of AF was prolonged, complex fractionated atrial electrograms(CFAEs) in LA and was increased gradually, PVs had more CFAEs than LA all the time. When induced AF lasted for more than 24 h, CFAEs in PVs became sustained approximately (2.7%±3.6% vs 92.6%±6.4%, at onset of AF vs AF lasted for more than 24 h, P<0.05), and the ratio of CFAEs in PVs was more than that in LA (92.6%±6.4% vs 72.8%±5.3%, P<0.05). Conclusion: The epicardial CFAEs are in specific area, which increase along with electrical remodeling. The epicardial CFAEs may play an important role in the maintenance of AF in this model.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Veias Pulmonares , Animais , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Cabras , Átrios do Coração
11.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(8): 1857-1874, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224904

RESUMO

Duocarmycins are a class of DNA minor-groove-binding alkylating molecules. For the past decade, various duocarmycin analogues have been used as payloads in the development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Currently, more than 15 duocarmycin-based ADCs have been studied preclinically, and some of them such as SYD985 have been granted Fast-Track Designation status. Nevertheless, progress in duocarmycin-based ADCs also faces challenges, with setbacks including the termination of BMS-936561/MDX-1203. In this review, we discuss issues associated with the efficacy, pharmacokinetic profile, and toxicological activity of these biotherapeutics. Furthermore, we summarize the latest advances in duocarmycin-based ADCs that have different target specificities and linker chemistries. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies has indicated that duocarmycin-based ADCs are promising biotherapeutics for oncological application in the future.

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 268, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262017

RESUMO

Major gaps in understanding the molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and intestinal mucosal repair have hampered therapeutic development for gastrointestinal disorders. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) has been reported to be involved in CRC progression and intestinal mucosal repair; however, how TFF3 drives tumors to become more aggressive or metastatic and how TFF3 promotes intestinal mucosal repair are still poorly understood. Here, we found that the upregulated TFF3 in CRC predicted a worse overall survival rate. TFF3 deficiency impaired mucosal restitution and adenocarcinogenesis. CD147, a membrane protein, was identified as a binding partner for TFF3. Via binding to CD147, TFF3 enhanced CD147-CD44s interaction, resulting in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2) expression, which were indispensable for TFF3-induced migration, proliferation, and invasion. PTGS2-derived PGE2 bound to prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype (PTGER4) and contributed to TFF3-stimulated CRC progression. Solution NMR studies of the TFF3-CD147 interaction revealed the key residues critical for TFF3 binding and the induction of PTGS2 expression. The ability of TFF3 to enhance mucosal restitution was weakened by a PTGS2 inhibitor. Blockade of TFF3-CD147 signaling using competitive inhibitory antibodies or a PTGS2 inhibitor reduced CRC lung metastasis in mice. Our findings bring strong evidence that CD147 is a novel receptor for TFF3 and PTGS2 signaling is critical for TFF3-induced mucosal restitution and CRC progression, which widens and deepens the understanding of the molecular function of trefoil factors.

13.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009645, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077484

RESUMO

The presumed DNA helicase encoded by ORF44 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a crucial role in unwinding viral double-stranded DNA and initiating DNA replication during lytic reactivation. However, the regulatory mechanism of KSHV ORF44 has not been fully elucidated. In a previous study, we identified that N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), a host scaffold protein, facilitates viral genome replication by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the latent viral protein latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) during viral latency. In the present study, we further demonstrated that NDRG1 can interact with KSHV ORF44 during viral lytic replication. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of NDRG1 were significantly increased by KSHV ORF50-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA). Remarkably, knockdown of NDRG1 greatly decreased the protein level of ORF44 and impaired viral lytic replication. Interestingly, NDRG1 enhanced the stability of ORF44 and inhibited its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation by reducing the polyubiquitination of the lysine residues at positions 79 and 368 in ORF44. In summary, NDRG1 is a novel binding partner of ORF44 and facilitates viral lytic replication by maintaining the stability of ORF44. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying KSHV lytic replication.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 8/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos
14.
Nanoscale ; 13(26): 11525-11533, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180928

RESUMO

II-VI semiconductor heterojunctions show huge potential for application in nanodevice fabrication due to their type-II alignments owing to the better spatial separation of electrons and holes. However, the hetero-epitaxial growth of high-quality heterostructures is still a challenge, especially for materials with large lattice mismatch. In this work, well-aligned single-crystalline ZnO/ZnS core/shell nanorod arrays were obtained by introducing an Al2O3 buffer layer. It is interesting that the nature of the ZnS layer varies with the thickness of the Al2O3 layer. When Al2O3 is less than 2 nm, the interaction between the substrate and epilayer is strong enough to penetrate through the buffer layer, enabling the growth of ZnS on Al2O3-coated ZnO nanorod arrays. On the basis of detailed characterization, a rational growth mechanism of the core/shell heterostructure is proposed, in which the Al2O3 interlayer can eliminate voids due to the Kirkendall effect around the interface and accommodate a misfit dislocation between the inner ZnO and outer ZnS, resulting in more sufficient strain relaxation in the epitaxy. In addition, cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrate that the optical properties of the ZnO/ZnS heterostructure could be effectively improved by taking advantage of the thin Al2O3. The I-V curves characterized by PeakForce tunneling atomic force microscopy reveal that the heterostructure shows a typical rectifying behavior and good photoresponse to ultraviolet light. These findings may provide a reasonable and effective strategy for the growth of highly lattice-mismatched heterostructure arrays buffered by the Al2O3 layer, broadening the options for fabricating heterojunctions and promoting their applications in optoelectronic devices.

15.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(5): 3967-3986, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149993

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Previous studies have suggested that mu-opioid receptor (MOR), a member of the opioid receptor family, is involved in the pathogenesis of HCC. However, the mechanism by which MOR regulates the biological behavior of HCC is still poorly understood. To address this problem, in this study, we investigated the role of MOR in the proliferation of HCC cell lines and the underlying mechanism. First, RT-PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemistry revealed higher expression of MOR in HCC cells and tissue than in non-tumor cells or adjacent tissue, and elevated expression of MOR was associated with jeopardized survival of HCC patients, as demonstrated by bioinformatic databases. Knockdown of MOR by specific siRNA attenuated the proliferation and migration of HCC cells and this effect could be reversed by rescue experiments, confirming the essential role of MOR in the proliferation of HCC. Moreover, results of colony formation assay, CCK8 test, flow cytometry and western blot suggested that a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specifically against MOR could inhibit proliferation of HepG2 and Huh7 cells via the MOR-CD147-p53-MAPK pathway, and the interaction between MOR and CD147 was verified by immunofluorescence colocalization and co-IP analysis. The mAb against MOR also enhanced the cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HCC cells by downregulating p-ERK, Bcl-2 and upregulating Bax. Taken together, these results suggest that MOR could regulate the proliferation of HCC cells in a CD147-p53-MAPK dependent manner. MOR possesses the potential to be a therapeutic target to treat HCC.

17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(12): 5782-5798, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982381

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction syndrome, and liver is a susceptible target organ in sepsis, because the activation of inflammatory pathways contributes to septic liver injury. Oxidative stress has been documented to participate in septic liver injury, because it not only directly induces oxidative genotoxicity, but also exacerbates inflammatory pathways to potentiate damage of liver. Therefore, to ameliorate oxidative stress is promising for protecting liver in sepsis. Wogonin is the compound extracted from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Geogi and was found to exert therapeutic effects in multiple inflammatory diseases via alleviation of oxidative stress. However, whether wogonin is able to mitigate septic liver injury remains unknown. Herein, we firstly proved that wogonin treatment could improve survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, together with restoration of reduced body temperature and respiratory rate, and suppression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in circulation. Then, we found that wogonin effectively alleviated liver injury via potentiation of the anti-oxidative capacity. To be specific, wogonin activated Nrf2 thereby promoting expressions of anti-oxidative enzymes including NQO-1, GST, HO-1, SOD1 and SOD2 in hepatocytes. Moreover, wogonin-induced Nrf2 activation could suppress NF-κB-regulated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ultimately, we provided in vivo evidence that wogonin activated Nrf2 signalling, potentiated anti-oxidative enzymes and inhibited NF-κB-regulated pro-inflammatory signalling. Taken together, this study demonstrates that wogonin can be the potential therapeutic agent for alleviating liver injury in sepsis by simultaneously ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammatory response through the activation of Nrf2.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Sepse/complicações , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 194, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001849

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that CD147 serves as a novel receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Blocking CD147 via anti-CD147 antibody could suppress the in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication. Meplazumab is a humanized anti-CD147 IgG2 monoclonal antibody, which may effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of meplazumab in healthy subjects, and an open-labeled, concurrent controlled add-on exploratory phase 2 study to determine the efficacy in COVID-19 patients. In phase 1 study, 59 subjects were enrolled and assigned to eight cohorts, and no serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) or TEAE grade ≥3 was observed. The serum and peripheral blood Cmax and area under the curve showed non-linear pharmacokinetic characteristics. No obvious relation between the incidence or titer of positive anti-drug antibody and dosage was observed in each cohort. The biodistribution study indicated that meplazumab reached lung tissue and maintained >14 days stable with the lung tissue/cardiac blood-pool ratio ranging from 0.41 to 0.32. In the exploratory phase 2 study, 17 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and 11 hospitalized patients were involved as concurrent control. The meplazumab treatment significantly improved the discharged (P = 0.005) and case severity (P = 0.021), and reduced the time to virus negative (P = 0.045) in comparison to the control group. These results show a sound safety and tolerance of meplazumab in healthy volunteers and suggest that meplazumab could accelerate the recovery of patients from COVID-19 pneumonia with a favorable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , COVID-19/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 665646, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055799

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system oversees cellular protein degradation in order to regulate various critical processes, such as cell cycle control and DNA repair. Ubiquitination can serve as a marker for mutation, chemical damage, transcriptional or translational errors, and heat-induced denaturation. However, aberrant ubiquitination and degradation of tumor suppressor proteins may result in the growth and metastasis of cancer. Hence, targeting the ubiquitination cascade reaction has become a potential strategy for treating malignant diseases. Meanwhile, computer-aided methods have become widely accepted as fast and efficient techniques for early stage drug discovery. This review summarizes ubiquitination regulators that have been discovered via virtual screening and their applications for cancer treatment.

20.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 52(4): 296-306, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) can change brain structure and function. These alterations are related to respiratory event-induced abnormal sleep, however, how brain activity changes during these events is less well understood. METHODS: To study information content and interaction among various cortical regions, we analyzed the variations of permutation entropy (PeEn) and symbolic transfer entropy (STE) of electroencephalography (EEG) activity during respiratory events. In this study, 57 patients with moderate SAHS were enrolled, including 2804 respiratory events. The events terminated with cortical arousal were independently researched. RESULTS: PeEn and STE were lower during apnea/hypopnea, and most of the brain interaction was higher after apnea/hypopnea termination than that before apnea in N2 stage. As indicated by STE, the respiratory events also affected the stability of information transmission mode. In N1, N2, and rapid eye movement (REM) stages, the information flow direction was posterior-to-anterior, but the anterior-to-posterior increased relatively during apnea/hypopnea. The above EEG activity trends maintained in events with cortical arousal. CONCLUSIONS: These results may be related to the intermittent hypoxia during apnea and the cortical response. Furthermore, increased frontal information outflow, which was related to the compensatory activation of frontal neurons, may associate with cognitive function.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Fases do Sono , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sono
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