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1.
Forensic Sci Res ; 6(3): 240-249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868718

RESUMO

Hair analysis has been mainly used to document drug use history in abusers, drug-facilitated crime cases, doping control analysis and postmortem toxicology in the fields of forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology, and doping control. Hair analysis has also gained more attention in the last 30 years in China. Relevant technology has been promoted as more research has appeared concerning hair analysis, and consensus has been sought among forensic toxicologists regarding aspects such as hair decontamination treatment, detection of abused substances in hair, segmental hair analysis and interpretation of analytical results. However, there are still some limitations in the estimation of drug intake time and frequency by segmental hair analysis due to the different growth cycles evident within a bundle of hairs, the drug incorporation mechanism and sampling errors. Microsampling and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technology based on a single hair may be a good choice to estimate drug intake time more accurately. Analysis of hair root samples may also be used to document acute poisoning in postmortem toxicology, and the analysis of the hair shaft can document long-term use of drugs depending on the length of the hair being evaluated.

2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1661: 462684, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875518

RESUMO

To concentrate trace level of analytes in complex wastewater, sample preparation is necessary prior to instrumental analysis. In this work, an enrichment bag-based liquid-phase microextraction (EB-LPME) system was therefore proposed for the first time to isolate and enrich the illicit drugs (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, codeine and fentanyl) from wastewater. Under the optimum EB-LPME conditions, the recoveries of the model illicit drugs were 40-93% with enrichment factors up to 93. The optimized EB-LPME was compared to hollow fiber-LPME (HF-LPME) in terms of the thickness of the supported liquid membrane (SLM), the effective SLM area, extraction recovery and mass transfer flux. Compared with HF-LPME, EB-LPME possesses larger effective SLM area, and provided higher extraction recovery. In addition, EB-LPME provided larger mass transfer flux than HF-LPME, which was mainly due to the differences in SLM thickness. Therefore, SLM thickness was identified as the main mass transfer flux-determining factor experimentally. The matrix effect of EB-LPME was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and excellent sample clean-up was confirmed. Subsequently, EB-LPME-LC-MS/MS was validated with satisfactory results, and the detection of limit of the proposed method was in the range of 0.3-8.7 ng/L. Finally, with standard addition method, EB-LPME-LC-MS/MS was successfully applied for the determination of the model drugs in a local hospital wastewater from Wuhan, China. This study clearly showed that EB-LPME displayed great potential as an efficient sample preparation method for isolation and enrichment of the drugs/pollutants from complex environmental samples for wastewater-based epidemiology in the near future.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862717

RESUMO

Intestinal barrier dysfunction and intestinal inflammation interact in the progression of Crohn's disease (CD). A recent study indicated that Epac-2 protected the intestinal barrier and had anti-inflammatory effects. The present study examined the function of Epac-2 in CD-like colitis. Interleukin-10 gene knockout (Il-10-/- ) mice exhibit significant spontaneous enteritis and were used as the CD model. These mice were treated with Epac-2 agonists (Me-cAMP) or Epac-2 antagonists (HJC-0350) or were fed normally (control), and colitis and intestinal barrier structure and function were compared. A Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cell co-culture system were used to analyse the effects of Epac-2 on the cross-talk between intestinal epithelial cells and inflammatory cells. Epac-2 activation significantly ameliorated colitis in mice, which was indicated by reductions in the colitis inflammation score, the expression of inflammatory factors and intestinal permeability. Epac-2 activation also decreased Caco-2 cell permeability in an LPS-induced cell co-culture system. Epac-2 activation significantly suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in vivo and in vitro. Epac-2 may be a therapeutic target for CD based on its anti-inflammatory functions and protective effects on the intestinal barrier.

5.
Chemosphere ; 292: 133361, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929273

RESUMO

E-wastes release toxic metals including Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn into nearby soils during dismantling process. However, their adverse effects and the associated mechanisms on human intestinal epithelium are poorly understood. In this study, their toxic effects on human colonic epithelial cells Caco-2 and the underlying mechanisms were assessed basing on three soils from Wenling e-waste dismantling site. Since soil-extractable metals are more available for gastrointestinal absorption, we used phosphate buffer saline solution to extract metals at solid to liquid ratio of 1:2. Among metals, total Cd and Ni exceeded the risk screening values in three soils, being 3.8-8.8 and 42.4-155 mg/kg. Furthermore, high extractable-metals at 5.9, 1.9, and 0.87 mg/kg Cd (20-67%) and 4.6, 6.4, and 12.4 mg/kg Ni (3.6-29%) were observed for Soil-1, -2 and -3, respectively. All three extracts triggered cytotoxicity, with Soil-2 showing the strongest inhibition of cell viability. Higher production of reactive oxygen species and stronger inhibition of antioxidant enzymes SOD1 and CAT were observed in Soil-2 and -3. Upregulation of proinflammatory mediators (IL-1ß, IL-8 and TNF-α) and apoptosis-regulatory genes (GADD45α, Caspase-3, and Caspase-8) were observed. Our data suggest that soil extracts induced cytotoxicity, oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and cell apoptosis in Caco-2 cells, indicating soil ingestion from e-waste dismantling site may adversely impact human health.

6.
Front Neural Circuits ; 15: 803501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955762

RESUMO

A biological reward system is integral to all animal life and humans are no exception. For millennia individuals have investigated this system and its influences on human behavior. In the modern day, with the US facing an ongoing epidemic of substance use without an effective treatment, these investigations are of paramount importance. It is well known that basal ganglia contribute to rewards and are involved in learning, approach behavior, economic choices, and positive emotions. This review aims to elucidate the physiological role of striatonigrostriatal (SNS) spirals, as part of basal ganglia circuits, in this reward system and their pathophysiological role in perpetuating addiction. Additionally, the main functions of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate and their receptors in SNS circuits will be summarized. With this information, the claim that SNS spirals are crucial intermediaries in the shift from goal-directed behavior to habitual behavior will be supported, making this circuit a viable target for potential therapeutic intervention in those with substance use disorders.

7.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(6): 1043-1053, 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961879

RESUMO

Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of hospitalization for infants. Compared with adults, infants are more likely to cause serious respiratory diseases after RSV infection due to the specific immature airway structure and immune system. The balance of immune resistance and immune tolerance of the host is critical to effective virus clearance and disease control. This paper reviews the relationship between RSV infection and respiratory diseases in infancy, the influence factors of the high pathogenicity of RSV infection in early life, as well as the research progress of anti-RSV therapy, and expands the specific molecular events regulating immune resistance and immune tolerance. We expect to present new ideas for the prevention and treatment of RSV-related respiratory diseases in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Respiratórios , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 210: 114546, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972069

RESUMO

A sensitive, accurate, simple, and rapid analytical UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for identification and quantification of koumine, gelsemine, and gelsenicine in human hair. Approximately 10 mg of hair was extracted with methanol by cryogenic grinding. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 1 to 5 pg/mg, and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 2 to 10 pg/mg. The method was linear over a concentration range from the LOQs to 1000 pg/mg, and the linear correlation (R2) of the calibration curves was above 0.998 for all three analytes. The bias varied from -6.5-13.1%, while the intra- and inter-day precision relative standard deviation (RSD) values were 4.3-12.4% and 3.7-13.2%, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 79.3% to 103.5%, and matrix effects ranged from 74.3% to 105.5%. The described method was used for the quantitative determination of koumine, gelsemine, and gelsenicine in a human hair sample from a Gelsemium elegans poisoning case. The highest concentrations of koumine, gelsemine, and gelsenicine were 27.2, 18.1, and 4.2 pg/mg, respectively, and corresponded to the segment associated with the ingestion period. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe hair analysis in a G. elegans poisoning case and to provide quantitative toxicological findings.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 747324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925323

RESUMO

Interleukin-7 (IL-7), a molecule known for its growth-promoting effects on progenitors of B cells, remains one of the most extensively studied cytokines. It plays a vital role in health maintenance and disease prevention, and the congenital deficiency of IL-7 signaling leads to profound immunodeficiency. IL-7 contributes to host defense by regulating the development and homeostasis of immune cells, including T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. Clinical trials of recombinant IL-7 have demonstrated safety and potent immune reconstitution effects. In this article, we discuss IL-7 and its functions in immune cell development, drawing on a substantial body of knowledge regarding the biology of IL-7. We aim to answer some remaining questions about IL-7, providing insights essential for designing new strategies of immune intervention.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(47): 26997-27004, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842874

RESUMO

Among the IV-VI compounds, GeSe has wide applications in nanoelectronics due to its unique photoelectric properties and adjustable band gap. Even though modulation of its physical characteristics, including the band gap, by an external field will be useful for designing novel devices, experimental work is still rare. Here, we report a detailed anisotropic Raman response of GeSe flakes under uniaxial tension strain. Based on theoretical analysis, the anisotropy of the phonon response is attributed to a change in anisotropic bond length and bond angle under in-plane uniaxial strain. An enhancement in anisotropy and band gap is found due to strain along the ZZ or AC directions. This study shows that strain-engineering is an effective method for controlling the GeSe lattice, and paves the way for modulating the anisotropic electric and optical properties of GeSe.

11.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837498

RESUMO

Neurogenetic diseases are neurological conditions with a genetic cause (s). There are thousands of neurogenetic diseases, and most of them are incurable. The development of bioinformatics and elucidation of the mechanism of pathogenesis have allowed the development of gene therapy approaches, which show great potential in treating neurogenetic diseases. Viral vectors delivery, antisense oligonucleotides, gene editing, RNA interference, and burgeoning viroid delivery technique are promising gene therapy strategies, and commendable therapeutic effects in the treatment of neurogenetic diseases have been achieved (Fig. 1). This review highlights a sampling of advances in gene therapies for neurogenetic disorders. Fig. 1 Examples of gene therapy strategies used in the treatment of neurogenetic diseases. The schematic diagram shows different gene therapy approaches used for treating a sampling of neurogenetic disorders, such as ASO therapy, gene editing, gene augmentation, and RNA interference.

12.
Front Genet ; 12: 732389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745211

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a progressive neurological disorder manifesting as bilateral brain calcifications in CT scan with symptoms as parkinsonism, dystonia, ataxia, psychiatric symptoms, etc. Recently, pathogenic variants in MYORG have been linked to autosomal recessive PFBC. This study aims to elucidate the mutational and clinical spectrum of MYORG mutations in a large cohort of Chinese PFBC patients with possible autosomal recessive or absent family history. Mutational analyses of MYORG were performed by Sanger sequencing in a cohort of 245 PFBC patients including 21 subjects from 10 families compatible with a possibly autosomal-recessive trait and 224 apparently sporadic cases. In-depth phenotyping and neuroimaging features were investigated in all patients with novel MYORG variants. Two nonsense variants (c.442C > T, p. Q148*; c.972C > A, p. Y324*) and two missense variants (c.1969G>C, p. G657R; c.2033C > G, p. P678R) of MYORG were identified in four sporadic PFBC patients, respectively. These four novel variants were absent in gnomAD, and their amino acid were highly conserved, suggesting these variants have a pathogenic impact. Patients with MYORG variants tend to display a homogeneous clinical spectrum, showing extensive brain calcification and parkinsonism, dysarthria, ataxia, or vertigo. Our findings supported the pathogenic role of MYORG variants in PFBC and identified two pathogenic variants (c.442C > T, c.972C > A), one likely pathogenic variant (c.2033C > G), and one variant of uncertain significance (c.1969G>C), further expanding the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of PFBC-MYORG.

14.
ACS Omega ; 6(45): 30762-30768, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805704

RESUMO

Controlled-release pesticide formulations using natural polymers as carriers are highly desirable owing to their good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and improved pesticide utilization. In this study, the application potential of our previously prepared spinosad/chitosan controlled-release suspension (SCCS) was evaluated through both toxicity and dissipation tests. A comparison with the spinosad suspension concentrate and the commercial spinosad emulsion in water showed that the insecticidal activity of SCCS against Plutella xylostella larvae displayed the best quick-acting performance as well as long-term efficacy of more than 20 days. The 48 h LC50 for a 20-day efficacy was calculated to be 29.36 mg/L. The dissipation behavior of spinosad in the spinosad/chitosan microparticles in soil was found to follow the first-order kinetics, with a relatively shorter half-life (2.1 days) than that observed for the unformulated spinosad (3.1 days). This work showed the positive effect of chitosan on spinosad in improving insecticidal activity and reducing environmental risks in soil, which provided useful information on the application potential of pesticide-carrier systems based on natural polymer materials in crop protection and food safety.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774435

RESUMO

The rare earth materials have attracted intensive attention due to their strong luminescent characteristic. However, the split fine Stark levels are difficult to be determined. Here we report a room-temperature detection for Stark levels of YNbO4: Er3+ using established laser-induced spectroscopy system with dye laser of superhigh resolution of wavelength at 0.005 nm. From excitation spectra, six split Stark levels of 4G11/2 (Er3+) were directly detected. Moreover, nonradiative relaxations of 4G9/2→4G11/2 and 4G11/2→2H11/2/ 4S3/2 have been observed with weighed lifetimes of 0.70 µs and 6.15 µs, and characteristic green emission of Er3+ (@555 nm) yields lifetime of 31.78 µs.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 657047, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759816

RESUMO

Background: Cyclophosphamide is a common tumor chemotherapy drug used to treat various cancers. However, the resulting immunosuppression leads to leukopenia, which is a serious limiting factor in clinical application. Therefore, the introduction of immunomodulators as adjuvant therapy may help to reduce the hematological side effects of cyclophosphamide. Lvjiaobuxue granule has been widely used in the clinical treatment of gynecological diseases such as anemia and irregular menstruation. Recently, it has been found to increase the function of white blood cells, but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We aimed to reveal the mechanisms of Lvjiaobuxue granule against acute leukopenia by an integrated strategy combining metabolomics with network pharmacology. Methods: Subcutaneously inoculated 4T1 breast cancer cells to prepare tumor-bearing mice, intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide to establish a 4T1 tumor-bearing mice leukopenia animal model, using pharmacodynamic indicators, metabolomics, network pharmacology and molecular biology and other technical methods. To comprehensively and systematically elucidate the effect and mechanism of Lvjiaobuxue granule in improving cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. Results: Lvjiaobuxue granule can improve the blood routine parameters and organ index levels of the leukopenia model of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. Metabolomics studies revealed that 15 endogenous metabolites in the spleen of mice were considered as potential biomarkers of Lvjiaobuxue granule for their protective effect. Metabonomics and network pharmacology integrated analysis indicated that Lvjiaobuxue granule exerted the leukocyte elevation activity by inhibiting the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) degradation pathway and increasing the levels of valine, leucine and isoleucine. The results of molecular biology also showed that Lvjiaobuxue granule can significantly regulate the key enzymes in the catabolism of BCAAs, which further illustrates the importance of BCAAs in improving leukopenia. Conclusion: Lvjiaobuxue granule exerts obvious pharmacological effects on the leukopenia model of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice induced by cyclophosphamide, which could be mediated by regulating the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway and the levels of valine, leucine and isoleucine.

17.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 80, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the differences in clinical characteristics, puncture efficacy, antibiotic use, treatment duration, breastfeeding post-illness, and recurrence of patients with breast abscesses caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection during lactation. METHODS: The clinical data of patients with breast abscesses during lactation who were treated from January 2014 to February 2017 at Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Beijing, were reviewed. According to bacterial culture results, they were divided into MRSA (n = 260) and MSSA (n = 962) groups. Hospitalization (whether or not the patients were hospitalized), postpartum period, maternal age, location of abscess cavities, number of abscess cavities, amount of pus, frequency of needle aspiration, failure of needle aspiration, antibiotic use, treatment duration, cessation of breastfeeding and recurrence were compared between the two groups using a t-test and a chi-squared test. RESULTS: We noted that only the cessation of breastfeeding was statistically significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.018). Hospitalization, postpartum period, maternal age, location of abscess cavities, number of abscess cavities, amount of pus, number of needle aspiration, failure of needle aspiration, antibiotic use, treatment duration and recurrence showed no statistically significant differences (P = 0.488, P = 0.328, P = 0.494, P = 0.218, P = 0.088, P = 0.102, P = 0.712, P = 0.336, P = 0.512, P = 0.386 and P = 0.359, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in clinical characteristics between breast abscesses infected by MRSA and those infected by MSSA. Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration could be the first choice for MRSA-infected breast abscess treatment. There is no need to increase antibiotic use because of MRSA infection, unless it is necessary. The reason why more patients with MRSA infected breast abscesses terminated breastfeeding is unclear from this study.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
18.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(6): 1057-1067, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612525

RESUMO

Iron plays a critical role in immune responses. However, its role in T helper cell differentiation and function remains poorly understood. In this study, it is shown that the restraint of iron availability through blocking CD71-mediated iron endocytosis impaired the differentiation and pathogenicity of TH 17 cells. Administrations of anti-CD71 mAb could relieve the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mechanistically, the iron deficiency due to the blocking of CD71 enhanced IL-2 expression, which further restrained the differentiation of TH 17 cells. Meanwhile, CD71 blockade impaired histone modifications of Il17 gene and reduced the recruitment of RORγt to Il17a locus. In sum, the findings reveal that iron plays a pivotal role in regulating TH 17 cell differentiation and function in autoimmune diseases.

19.
Injury ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest trauma was the third most common cause of death in polytrauma patients, accounting for 25% of all deaths from traumatic injury. Chest trauma involves in injury to the bony thorax, intrathoracic organs and thoracic medulla. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of polytrauma patients with pulmonary contusion, flail chest and upper thoracic spinal injury. METHODS: Patients who met inclusion criteria were divided into groups: Pulmonary contusion group (PC); Pulmonary contusion and flail chest group (PC + FC); Pulmonary contusion and upper thoracic spinal cord injury group (PC + UTSCI); Thoracic trauma triad group (TTT): included patients with flail chest, pulmonary contusion and the upper thoracic spinal cord injury coexisted. Outcomes were determined, including 30-day mortality and 6-month mortality. RESULTS: A total 84 patients (2.0%) with TTT out of 4176 polytrauma patients presented to Tongji trauma center. There was no difference in mean ISS among PC + FC group, PC + UTSCI group and TTT group. Patients with TTT had a longer ICU stay (21.4 days vs. 7.5 and 6.2; p<0.01), relatively higher 30-day mortality (40.5% vs. 6.0% and 4.3%; p<0.01), and especially higher 6-month mortality (71.4% vs. 6.5%, 13.0%; p<0.01), compared to patients with PC + FC or with PC + UTSCI. The leading causes of death for patients with TTT were ARDS (44.1%) and pulmonary infection (26.5%) during first 30 days after admission. For those patients who died later than 30 days during the 6 months, the predominant underlying cause of death was MOF (53.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Lethal triad of thoracic trauma (LTTT) were described in this study, which consisting of pulmonary contusion,flail chest and the upper thoracic spine cord injury. Like the classic "lethal triad", there was a synergy between the factors when they coexist, resulting in especially high mortality rates. Polytrauma patients with LTTT were presented relatively high 30-day mortality and 6 months mortality. We should pay much more attention to the patients with LTTT for further minimizing complications and mortality.

20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancers with poor prognosis and targeted drug therapies are limited. To develop novel and efficacious therapies for TNBC, we developed a bispecific antibody F7AK3 that recognizes both trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) and CD3 and evaluated its antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The binding affinities of F7AK3 to the two targets, TROP2 and CD3, were evaluated by surface plasmon resonance. Binding of F7AK3 to TNBC cells and T cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to demonstrate the interactions between T cells with TNBC cells. The cytotoxicity of T cells against TNBC cell lines and primary tumor cells mediated by F7AK3 were determined in vitro. In vivo antitumor activity of F7AK3 was investigated in a xenograft TNBC tumor model, using immunodeficient mice that were reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: We demonstrated that F7AK3 binds specifically to human TROP2 and CD3 antigens, as well as TNBC cell lines and primary tumor cells. Human T cells can only be activated by F7AK3 in the presence of target tumor cells. F7AK3 recruits T cells to TROP2+ tumor cells in vitro and into tumor tissues in vivo. Antitumor growth activity of F7AK3 is observed in a xenograft TNBC tumor model. CONCLUSION: This study showed the antitumor potential of an anti-TROP2xCD3 bispecific antibody F7AK3 to TNBC tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that F7AK3 has the potential to treat TNBC patients, which warrants further preclinical and clinical evaluation of the F7AK3 in advanced or metastatic TNBC patients.

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