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1.
J Mol Graph Model ; 110: 108069, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773872

RESUMO

Chiral organophosphorus agents are distributed ubiquitously in the environment, but the neuroactivity of these asymmetric chemicals to humans remains uncertain. This scenario was to explore the stereoselective neurobiological response of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to chiral pyraclofos at the enantiomeric scale, and then decipher the microscopic basis of enantioselective neurotoxicity of pyraclofos enantiomers. The results indicated that (R)-/(S)-pyraclofos can form the bioconjugates with AChE with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1, but the neuronal affinity of (R)-pyraclofos (K = 6.31 × 104 M-1) with AChE was larger than that of (S)-pyraclofos (K = 1.86 × 104 M-1), and significant enantioselectivity was existed in the biochemical reaction. The modes of neurobiological action revealed that pyraclofos enantiomers were situated at the substrate binding domain, and the strength of the overall noncovalent bonds between (S)-pyraclofos and the residues was weaker than that of (R)-pyraclofos, resulting in the high inhibitory effect of (R)-pyraclofos toward the activity of AChE. Dynamic enantioselective biointeractions illustrated that the intervention of inherent conformational flexibility in the AChE-(R)-pyraclofos was greater than that of the AChE-(S)-pyraclofos, which arises from the big spatial displacement and the conformational flip of the binding domain composed of the residues Thr-64~Asn-89, Gly-122~Asp-134, and Thr-436~Tyr-449. Energy decomposition exhibited that the Gibbs free energies of the AChE-(R)-/(S)-pyraclofos were ΔG° = ï¼37.4/-30.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, and the disparity comes from the electrostatic energy during the stereoselective neurochemical reactions. Quantitative conformational analysis further confirmed the atomic-scale computational chemistry conclusions, and the perturbation of (S)-pyraclofos on the AChE's ordered conformation was lower than that of (R)-pyraclofos, which is germane to the interaction energies of the crucial residues, e.g. Tyr-124, Tyr-337, Asp-74, Trp-86, and Tyr-119. Evidently, this attempt will contribute mechanistic information to uncovering the neurobiological effects of chiral organophosphates on the body.

2.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(13): e12167, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796683

RESUMO

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) play a key role in intercellular communication. Cargo molecules carried by sEVs may affect the phenotype and function of recipient cells. Epithelial cancer cell-derived sEVs, particularly those enriched in CD151 or tetraspanin8 (TSPAN8) and associated integrins, promote tumour progression. The mechanism of binding and modulation of sEVs to recipient cells remains elusive. Here, we used genetically engineered breast cancer cells to derive TSPAN8-enriched sEVs and evaluated the impact of TSPAN8 on target cell membrane's diffusion and transport properties. The single-particle tracking technique showed that TSPAN8 significantly promoted sEV binding via confined diffusion. Functional assays indicated that the transgenic TSPAN8-sEV cargo increased cancer cell motility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vivo, transgenic TSPAN8-sEV promoted uptake of sEVs in the liver, lung, and spleen. We concluded that TSPAN8 encourages the sEV-target cell interaction via forced confined diffusion and significantly increases cell motility. Therefore, TSPAN8-sEV may serve as an important direct or indirect therapeutic target.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 726655, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660292

RESUMO

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common genitourinary cancer type with a high mortality rate. Due to a diverse range of biochemical alterations and a high level of tumor heterogeneity, it is crucial to select highly validated prognostic biomarkers to be able to identify subtypes of ccRCC early and apply precision medicine approaches. Methods: Transcriptome data of ccRCC and clinical traits of patients were obtained from the GSE126964 dataset of Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (TCGA-KIRC) database. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening were applied to detect common differentially co-expressed genes. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis, survival analysis, prognostic model establishment, and gene set enrichment analysis were also performed. Immunohistochemical analysis results of the expression levels of prognostic genes were obtained from The Human Protein Atlas. Single-gene RNA sequencing data were obtained from the GSE131685 and GSE171306 datasets. Results: In the present study, a total of 2,492 DEGs identified between ccRCC and healthy controls were filtered, revealing 1,300 upregulated genes and 1,192 downregulated genes. Using WGCNA, the turquoise module was identified to be closely associated with ccRCC. Hub genes were identified using the maximal clique centrality algorithm. After having intersected the hub genes and the DEGs in GSE126964 and TCGA-KIRC dataset, and after performing univariate, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and multivariate Cox regression analyses, ALDOB, EFHD1, and ESRRG were identified as significant prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with ccRCC. Single-gene RNA sequencing analysis revealed the expression profile of ALDOB, EFHD1, and ESRRG in different cell types of ccRCC. Conclusions: The present results demonstrated that ALDOB, EFHD1, and ESRRG may act as potential targets for medical therapy and could serve as diagnostic biomarkers for ccRCC.

4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2791-2799, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664452

RESUMO

The variations in plant growth of 32 Quercus acutissima provenances in three sites (Yongfeng, Jiangxi; Kaihua, Zhejiang and Chuzhou, Anhui) were studied. The AMMI model was used to analyze the stability of growth traits and to select the best provenances. The results showed that tree height, diameter at breast (ground) height, and aboveground biomass (AGB) per individual of the provenances were significantly different in the three sites. The AGB per individual was significantly affected by site, provenance, and the interaction of provenance × site. Site had the greatest impact on the variation of tree growth, followed by provenance and provenance × site. The growth performance of these superior provenances in different sites varied greatly in the seedling stage (1-3 years old) and young forest stage (4-11 years old). Based on the AGB per individual in the 11st year, the best provenances were selected in each site. Seven superior provenances of Yongfeng, Jiangxi were selected, with the average AGB per individual increased by 15.6%-57.8% compared with the ave-rage value. Seven superior provenances of Kaihua, Zhejiang were selected, with the average AGB per individual increased by 19.2%-45.2%. Eight superior provenances of Chuzhou, Anhui were selected,with the average AGB per individual increased by 24.9%-63.3%. According to the growth performance and stability, four superior provenances were selected to develop short-rotation charcoal forest cultivation across three sites, with an average AGB per individual of 36.55 kg and an average stability parameter of 0.97.


Assuntos
Quercus , China , Florestas , Geografia , Fenótipo , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
iScience ; 24(11): 103177, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712915

RESUMO

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase involved in cellular innate immunity, metabolism, and senescence. FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) inhibits mTOR kinase activity via direct association. The FKBP12-mTOR association can be strengthened by the immunosuppressant rapamycin, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We show here that the FKBP12-mTOR association is tightly regulated by an acetylation-deacetylation cycle. FKBP12 is acetylated on the lysine cluster (K45/K48/K53) by CREB-binding protein (CBP) in mammalian cells in response to nutrient treatment. Acetyl-FKBP12 associates with CBP acetylated Rheb. Rapamycin recruits SIRT2 with a high affinity for FKBP12 association and deacetylation. SIRT2-deacetylated FKBP12 then switches its association from Rheb to mTOR. Nutrient-activated mTOR phosphorylates IRF3S386 for the antiviral response. In contrast, rapamycin strengthening FKBP12-mTOR association blocks mTOR antiviral activity by recruiting SIRT2 to deacetylate FKBP12. Hence, on/off mTOR activity in response to environmental nutrients relies on FKBP12 acetylation and deacetylation status in mammalian cells.

6.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 402, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative patients are at risk of developing stress ulcers (SU), which can cause clinically important bleeding. Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is widely applied to the patients in Intensive care unit (ICU) as well as the general ward, so it may lead to overmedication. However, there have been no surveys regarding SUP knowledge or prescribing habits. OBJECTIVE: Our study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and prescribing behavior of the surgeons toward perioperative patients regarding SUP and determined factors associated with low knowledge and high level of prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires, randomly sampling 1266 surgeons on their current SUP practices. RESULTS: Proton pump inhibitors for SUP were used the most (94%); 43% used lansoprazole. Guideline awareness was inconsistent; the most familiar guideline was the National Medical Journal of China, and 46% were unaware of any guidelines. The predictors of low knowledge score regarding SUP in multivariable analysis were the hospital grade (p = 0.000), the type of hospital (p = 0.044), attendance at continuing education programs (p = 0.037), the awareness of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for SUP (p = 0.000). Twenty-one percent of physicians were high prescribers. High prescribing behavior was associated with hospital grade(p = 0.000), education level(p = 0.010) and attendance at continuing education programs (p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: We found that most surgeons used SUP, primarily proton pump inhibitors. However, surgeons knew little about the SUP guidelines, which may lead to insufficient SUP knowledge and overmedication. In addition, hospital grade, the type of hospital and attendance at continuing education programs may also affect the low knowledge of SUP. Hospital grade, education level and attendance at continuing education programs may affect high prescribing behavior.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos , Médicos , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Úlcera
7.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 447, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer, a highly metastatic malignancy, has benefited tremendously from advances in modern human genomics. However, the genomic variations related to the metastasis remains unclear. METHODS: We filtered various significant genes (n = 6722) associated with metastasis within a large-scale functional genomic CRISPR/Cas9 knock-out library including 122,756 single guide RNAs, and identified ITK (IL2 Inducible T Cell Kinase) as a potential cancer suppressor gene for ovarian cancer metastasis. Downstream bioinformatic analysis was performed for ITK using public databases. RESULTS: We found that patients in low-ITK group had poor prognosis and more distant metastasis than those in high-ITK group in TCGA and GEO databases. We also demonstrated that ITK combined with the clinical factors could accurately predict prognosis through multiple Cox regression analysis and ROC analysis. Moreover, alterations correlated with distant metastasis emereged with significantly increased expression in SAMRCD1 in low-ITK group, but CD244 and SOCS1 in high-ITK group. Integrated analysis revealed dysregulated molecular processes including predominantly oncogenic signaling pathways in low-ITK group but immune related pathways in high-ITK group, which suggested ITK might inhibit distant metastasis in ovarian cancer. Furtherly, deconvolution of the cellular composition of all samples validated the close correlation between ITK and immune related function especially for cytotoxic lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data provide insights into the potential role of ITK, with implications for the future development of tansformative ovarian cancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico
8.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10887-10902, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643632

RESUMO

Iron deficiency is a global nutritional problem that adversely affects the functional regulation of the immune system. In the process of treatment through iron supplementation, the problem of excessive iron intake often occurs, which increases the level of inflammation in the body. Excessive iron can also lead to an increase in intestinal iron-requiring pathogenic bacteria and an imbalance of intestinal flora. In this study, we aim to explore the effect of Ejiao peptide-iron (EPI) chelates on the intestinal flora and inflammation of ICR mice having iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). The mice were given low, medium, and high doses of EPI and FeSO4 (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg Fe per kg weight, respectively) daily for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. IDA mice showed increased inflammation levels and decreased sIgA secretion, which were restored after intervention with EPI at different doses. Intestinal mucosal ulcers, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress in the colon tissue were reduced, and intestinal permeability was improved. Furthermore, 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed that EPI increased microbial diversity and richness, changing the community structure, therefore, alleviating microbiota dysbiosis caused by IDA (e.g. the proportion of Firmicutes/Bacteroides). Different from the traditional iron supplement FeSO4, when the pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Helicobacter and Erysipelatoclostridium) increase and the beneficial bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium and Blautia) decrease at high doses, EPI shows higher safety at a high dose, thereby maintaining a healthier intestinal homeostasis.

9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 128, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses can be isolated from bats, civets, pangolins, birds and other wild animals. As an animal-origin pathogen, coronavirus can cross species barrier and cause pandemic in humans. In this study, a deep learning model for early prediction of pandemic risk was proposed based on the sequences of viral genomes. METHODS: A total of 3257 genomes were downloaded from the Coronavirus Genome Resource Library. We present a deep learning model of cross-species coronavirus infection that combines a bidirectional gated recurrent unit network with a one-dimensional convolution. The genome sequence of animal-origin coronavirus was directly input to extract features and predict pandemic risk. The best performances were explored with the use of pre-trained DNA vector and attention mechanism. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the area under precision-recall curve (AUPR) were used to evaluate the predictive models. RESULTS: The six specific models achieved good performances for the corresponding virus groups (1 for AUROC and 1 for AUPR). The general model with pre-training vector and attention mechanism provided excellent predictions for all virus groups (1 for AUROC and 1 for AUPR) while those without pre-training vector or attention mechanism had obviously reduction of performance (about 5-25%). Re-training experiments showed that the general model has good capabilities of transfer learning (average for six groups: 0.968 for AUROC and 0.942 for AUPR) and should give reasonable prediction for potential pathogen of next pandemic. The artificial negative data with the replacement of the coding region of the spike protein were also predicted correctly (100% accuracy). With the application of the Python programming language, an easy-to-use tool was created to implements our predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Robust deep learning model with pre-training vector and attention mechanism mastered the features from the whole genomes of animal-origin coronaviruses and could predict the risk of cross-species infection for early warning of next pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Animais , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco/métodos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150814, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626635

RESUMO

Due to strong endocrine disrupting effects, steroids in the environment have attracted substantial attention, with studies mostly focusing on the parent steroids. Here, we conducted the first investigation on the contamination profiles, possible sources, mass inventories, and ecological risks of 27 steroids and their metabolites in 15 typical fishing ports in Southeast China. Twelve steroids were detectable in the sediment samples with the total mean concentrations of 4.6-35 ng/g. High proportions of steroid metabolites were measured in the sediments and five metabolites were newly observed. Untreated municipal sewage and aquaculture wastes constitute the possible steroid sources in the studied fishing ports. The total inventories of steroids in fishing ports ranged from 2.1-16 mg/m2, with their metabolites being important contributors. The ecological risk analysis indicated high risks across all sampling sites mainly due to the contributions of parent steroids. Furthermore, our results found that progesterone is an acceptable chemical indicator for various steroids in sediments. This study provides the first evidence of steroid metabolites in the marine environment, calling for more studies in environmental behavior and ecotoxicology of steroid metabolites.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(72): 9060-9063, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498644

RESUMO

A facile photo-irradiation method is developed to tune active sites over ß-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Photo-irradiated ß-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets possess disordered surface atoms and preferred growth of highly active crystal facets, which exhibit enhanced performance for the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508003

RESUMO

We recently synthesized one-dimensional (1D) van der Waals heterostructures in which different atomic layers (e.g., boron nitride or molybdenum disulfide) seamlessly wrap around a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and form a coaxial, crystalized heteronanotube. The growth process of 1D heterostructure is unconventional-different crystals need to nucleate on a highly curved surface and extend nanotubes shell by shell-so understanding the formation mechanism is of fundamental research interest. In this work, we perform a follow-up and comprehensive study on the structural details and formation mechanism of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-synthesized 1D heterostructures. Edge structures, nucleation sites, and crystal epitaxial relationships are clearly revealed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is achieved by the direct synthesis of heteronanotubes on a CVD-compatible Si/SiO2 TEM grid, which enabled a transfer-free and nondestructive access to many intrinsic structural details. In particular, we have distinguished different-shaped boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) edges, which are confirmed by electron diffraction at the same location to be strictly associated with its own chiral angle and polarity. We also demonstrate the importance of surface cleanness and isolation for the formation of perfect 1D heterostructures. Furthermore, we elucidate the handedness correlation between the SWCNT template and BNNT crystals. This work not only provides an in-depth understanding of this 1D heterostructure material group but also, in a more general perspective, serves as an interesting investigation on crystal growth on highly curved (radius of a couple of nanometers) atomic substrates.

13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(4): 377-392, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470089

RESUMO

This paper is to illustrate the infestation and related ecological characteristics of chigger mites on the Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi). A total of 17,221 chigger mites were collected from 2,761 R. tanezumi rats, and then identified as 131 species and 19 genera in 2 families. Leptotrombidium deliense, the most powerful vector of scrub typhus in China, was the first major dominant species on R. tanezumi. All the dominant mite species were of an aggregated distribution among different individuals of R. tanezumi. The species composition and infestations of chiggers on R. tanezumi varied along different geographical regions, habitats and altitudes. The species-abundance distribution of the chigger mite community was successfully fitted and the theoretical curve equation was S (R)=37e-(0.28R)2. The total chigger species on R. tanezumi were estimated to be 199 species or 234 species, and this further suggested that R. tanezumi has a great potential to harbor abundant species of chigger mites. The results of the species-plot relationship indicated that the chigger mite community on R. tanezumi in Yunnan was an uneven community with very high heterogeneity. Wide geographical regions with large host samples are recommended in the investigations of chigger mites.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros , Tifo por Ácaros , Trombiculidae , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ratos
14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 718995, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513696

RESUMO

As microtubule-based structures, primary cilia are typically present on the cells during the G0 or G1-S/G2 phase of the cell cycle and are closely related to the development of the central nervous system. The presence or absence of this special organelle may regulate the central nervous system tumorigenesis (e.g., glioblastoma) and several degenerative diseases. Additionally, the development of primary cilia can be regulated by several pathways. Conversely, primary cilia are able to regulate a few signaling transduction pathways. Therefore, development of the central nervous system tumors in conjunction with abnormal cilia can be regulated by up- or downregulation of the pathways related to cilia and ciliogenesis. Here, we review some pathways related to ciliogenesis and tumorigenesis, aiming to provide a potential target for developing new therapies at genetic and molecular levels.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2731-2734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545804

RESUMO

During December 2012-July 2016, we tested small indoor and outdoor mammals in Qingdao, China, for Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. We found that outdoor Apodemus agrarius mice, Cricetulus barabensis hamsters, and Niviventer confucianus rats, as well as indoor Mus musculus mice, tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Trombiculidae , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Murinae , Orientia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Ratos , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/veterinária
16.
J Gene Med ; : e3390, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease manifested by a thickened ventricular wall. Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), the gene encoding muscle LIM protein, is important for initiating hypertrophic gene expression. The mutation of CSRP3 causes dilated cardiomyopathy or HCM. METHODS: In the present study, we enrolled a Chinese family with HCM across three generations. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in the proband to detect the candidate genes of the family. Sanger sequencing was performed for mutational analysis and confirmation of cosegregation. RESULTS: Through histopathological and imaging examinations, an obvious left ventricular hypertrophy was found in the proband. After WES data filtering, bioinformatic prediction and co-segregation analysis, a nonsense mutation (NM_003476.5:c.364C>T; NP_003467.1:p.Arg122*) of CSRP3 was identified in this family. This variant was predicted to be disease-causing and resulted in a truncated protein. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first HCM family case of CSRP3 (p.Arg122*) variation in Asia. The finding here not only contributes to the genetic diagnosis and counseling of the family, but also provides a new case with detailed phenotypes that may be caused by the CSRP3 variant.

17.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-11, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data are available concerning the prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis (AR) in school children in Hubei Province which is located in the central part of China. This study investigated the epidemiological features of AR among school children in Hubei Province. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey on AR in school children was carried out in 5 cities in Hubei Province by cluster sampling from June to September 2018. Questionnaires were filled out by children and their parents jointly. The diagnostic criteria of AR were according to the SFAR. Questions from the questionnaire were used to examine the pattern of AR. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors for childhood allergies. RESULTS: The total prevalence rate of AR was 16.16%, with 24.31% (Wuhan), 4.34% (Xiangyang), 4.31% (Tianmen), 10.92% (Jingmen), and 11.42% (Huangshi), respectively. The prevalence of AR was positively correlated with gross domestic product per capita (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that male, city of Wuhan, family history of allergy, food allergy, drug allergy, air purifier, exposure to dust, living in towns or urban area before 2 years old, maternal age for 26-35 years old, and frequent application of antibiotics increased the risk of AR, while daily outdoor time for 1-2 h, daily sleeping time >8 h, siblings, and breastfeeding for >6 months reduced the risk significantly. CONCLUSION: We found the apparent geographic variation of children allergies in Hubei Province. Both genetic and environment factors had impacts on the prevalence of AR in school children. Public policies should specifically target at the local risk factors for different areas.

18.
Small ; 17(38): e2102585, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355517

RESUMO

1D van der Waals heterostructures based on carbon nanotube templates are raising a lot of excitement due to the possibility of creating new optical and electronic properties, by either confining molecules inside their hollow core or by adding layers on the outside of the nanotube. In contrast to their 2D analogs, where the number of layers, atomic type and relative orientation of the constituting layers are the main parameters defining physical properties, 1D heterostructures provide an additional degree of freedom, i.e., their specific diameter and chiral structure, for engineering their characteristics. The current state-of-the-art in synthesizing 1D heterostructures are discussed here, in particular focusing on their resulting optical properties, and details the vast parameter space that can be used to design heterostructures with custom-built properties that can be integrated into a large variety of applications. First, the effects of van der Waals coupling on the properties of the simplest and best-studied 1D heterostructure, namely a double-walled carbon nanotube, are described, and then heterostructures built from the inside and the outside are considered, which all use a nanotube as a template, and, finally, an outlook is provided for the future of this research field.

19.
Front Genet ; 12: 705973, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456975

RESUMO

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a group of autosomal-dominant hereditary conditions with a global incidence of 1/42,000. WS can be categorized into at least four types: WS1-4, and these are characterized by heterochromia iridis, white forelock, prominent nasal root, dystopia canthorum, hypertrichosis of the medial part of the eyebrows, and deaf-mutism. WS3 is extremely rare, with a unique phenotype (upper limb abnormality). Heterozygous mutations of PAX3 are commonly associated with WS1, whereas partial or total deletions of PAX3 are often observed in WS3 cases. Deletions, together with insertions, translocations, inversions, mobile elements, tandem duplications, and complexes, constitute structural variants (SVs), which can be fully and accurately detected by third-generation sequencing (TGS), a new generation of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. In this study, after failing to identify the causative gene by Sanger sequencing, SNP-array, and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we finally detected a heterozygous gross deletion of PAX3 (10.26kb, chr2: 223153899-223164405) in a WS family by TGS. Our description would enrich the genetic map of WS and help us to further understand this disease. Our findings also demonstrated the value of TGS in clinical genetics researches.

20.
Biomed Mater ; 16(5)2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340221

RESUMO

CaCO3particles, due to their unique properties such as biodegradation, pH-sensitivity, and porous surface, have been widely used as carrier materials for delivering drugs, genes, vaccines, and other bioactive molecules. In these applications, CaCO3particles are often administered intravenously. In this sense, the interaction between CaCO3particles and blood components plays a key role in their delivery efficacy and biosafety, though the hemocompatibility of CaCO3particles has not been evaluated until now. Deficiency in the biosafety information has delayed the clinical use of CaCO3particles in delivery systems. In this work, we investigated the biosafety of CaCO3particles, focusing on theirin vitroandin vivoeffects on key blood components (red blood cells, platelets, etc) and coagulation functions. We foundin vitrothat high concentrations of CaCO3particles can cause the aggregation and hemolysis of red blood cells, with platelet activation and coagulation prolongation.In vivo, we found that intravenously injected CaCO3particles at 50 mg kg-1significantly disturbed the red blood cells, and platelet-related blood routine indexes, but did not induce visible abnormalities in the tissue structures of the key organs. Overall, these effects may be due to the enormous adsorption capability of the porous surface of CaCO3particles. 0.1 mg ml-1of the CaCO3particles exhibit excellent compatibility for their practical applications. These results would be expected to greatly promote thein vivoapplications and clinical use of CaCO3particles in biomedicine.

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