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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 146: 508-517, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923490

RESUMO

Impacts of hot water extraction (HWE), pressurized water extraction (PWE), high-speed shearing homogenization extraction, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), ultrasound assisted enzymatic extraction, and ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) on physicochemical characteristics and bioactivities of polysaccharides from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves (LLPs) were investigated. Results showed that the degrees of esterification, contents of phenolics and uronic acids, constituent monosaccharides, apparent viscosities, and molecular weights of LLPs varied by different extraction methods. Bioactivities of LLPs were also significantly affected by different extraction methods. The high molecular weight and high degree of esterification of LLP-W and LLP-P extracted by HWE and PWE, respectively, might contribute to their strong binding capacities. The strong antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase were found in LLP-M and LLP-U extracted by MAE and UAE, respectively, which might be attributed to their contents of uronic acids, contents of total phenolics, and molecular weights. The low molecular weights and viscosities of LLP-U and LLP-UM extracted by UMAE might contribute to their strong prebiotic effects. These findings could provide scientific foundations for selecting appropriate extraction methods to obtain LLPs with desired bioactivities for applications in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 611-619, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887373

RESUMO

In the present study, freeze drying, hot-air drying, vacuum drying, and microwave drying at the microwave powers of 400, 600, and 800 W, respectively, were utilized to dry loquat leaves for evaluating the effects of different drying techniques on the physicochemical structures and bioactivities of polysaccharides extracted from loquat leaves (LLPs). Results demonstrated that the physicochemical structures and bioactivities of LLPs significantly affected by different drying techniques. The degrees of esterification, molar ratios of constituent monosaccharides, contents of uronic acids, apparent viscosities, and molecular weights of LLPs were varied by different drying techniques. Additionally, LLPs, particularly LLP-M4 which extracted from loquat leaves prepared by microwave drying at the power of 400 W, exerted remarkable in vitro binding capacities, strong inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and obvious antioxidant activities. Results indicated that the microwave drying could be an efficient drying technique before extraction of bioactive LLPs, and LLPs had great potential applications in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

3.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382366

RESUMO

In order to explore Cassia seed polysaccharides (CSPs) as natural antioxidants for application in the functional-food industry, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was optimized for the extraction of CSPs by using a response surface methodology. Furthermore, the chemical structures and antioxidant activities of CSPs extracted by MAE and hot water extraction were investigated and compared. The maximum extraction yield of CSPs extracted by MAE (8.02 ± 0.19%) was obtained at the optimized extraction parameters as follows: microwave power (415 W), extraction time (7.0 min), and ratio of water to raw material (51 mL/g). Additionally, the contents of the uronic acids, molecular weight, ratio of constituent monosaccharides, intrinsic viscosities, and degrees of esterification of CSPs were significantly affected by the MAE method. Moreover, CSPs exhibited remarkable 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ABTS, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl DPPH, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities as well as reducing power. The high antioxidant activities observed in CSPs extracted by MAE could be partially attributed to its low molecular weights and high content of unmethylated galacturonic acid. Results indicate that the MAE method could be an efficient technique for the extraction of CSPs with high antioxidant activity, and CSPs could be further explored as functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cassia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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