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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1200-1207, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a population with very low prevalence of smoking and alcohol drinking, we examined the associations between overall obesity and fat distribution in middle age, obesity in early adulthood, and adult weight gain with the risk of liver cancer incidence. METHODS: The associations between body mass index (BMI) at study enrollment and at age 20, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), adult weight gain, and annual average weight gain with the risk of liver cancer were estimated using Cox regression models. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 17.5 years, 241 liver cancer cases were identified from 69,296 participants. The HRs for per 5-kg/m2 increment of BMI, per 10-cm increment of WC and HC, and per 0.1-unit increment of WHtR in middle age were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.07-1.57), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.05-1.43), 1.30 (95% CI, 1.10-1.55), and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.07-1.75), respectively. The HRs for per 5-kg increment of absolute adult weight gain and per 0.5-kg/year increment of annual average weight gain were 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.25) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.08-1.92). CONCLUSIONS: Overall and abdominal obesity in middle age and weight gain through adulthood were positively associated with liver cancer risk among non-smoking and non-alcohol-drinking women. IMPACT: Based on a cohort of non-smoking and non-alcohol-drinking women, the current study confirmed the association between obesity in middle age and increased liver cancer risk and suggested weight gain through adulthood as a risk factor for liver cancer.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(12): 2982-2996, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559177

RESUMO

To date, limited studies have focused on the association between dietary fat and liver cancer risk, especially in China. Our study aims to evaluate the association between dietary fat intake and liver cancer incidence risk in men. Dietary fat intake was obtained through a validated food frequency questionnaire in a Chinese prospective cohort. The Cox regression model was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After exclusion, 59 998 recruitments were finally analyzed with a total follow-up time of 714 339 person-years, 431 incident liver cancer cases were newly identified among them. The adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for the highest vs lowest quartile of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) were 1.33 (1.01-1.75), 1.50 (1.13-1.97), 1.26 (0.96-1.65), and 1.41 (1.07-1.86), and the corresponding P-trend values were .008, .005, .034, and .005, respectively. In the secondary analysis among participants tested for hepatitis B virus, we found that higher intakes of saturated fat and PUFA were also associated with increased liver cancer risks. Besides, high risks of per standard deviation alterations of the total fat, saturated fat and MUFA were detected in liver cancer, and these results were similar to those concluded from the full-cohort analysis. In conclusion, dietary intakes of total fat, saturated fat, PUFA, and probably MUFA might increase liver cancer risks. Our study provides suggestive advice to public administration on dietary suggestions, and related measures taken from managing dietary fat intake might reduce liver cancer incidence.

3.
Environ Int ; 147: 105975, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385923

RESUMO

We previously identified 10 lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA), the largest genomic study of lung cancer among never-smoking women to date. Furthermore, household coal use for cooking and heating has been linked to lung cancer in Asia, especially in Xuanwei, China. We investigated the potential interaction between genetic susceptibility and coal use in FLCCA. We analyzed GWAS-data from Taiwan, Shanghai, and Shenyang (1472 cases; 1497 controls), as well as a separate study conducted in Xuanwei (152 cases; 522 controls) for additional analyses. We summarized genetic susceptibility using a polygenic risk score (PRS), which was the weighted sum of the risk-alleles from the 10 previously identified loci. We estimated associations between a PRS, coal use (ever/never), and lung adenocarcinoma with multivariable logistic regression models, and evaluated potential gene-environment interactions using likelihood ratio tests. There was a strong association between continuous PRS and lung adenocarcinoma among never coal users (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.69 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.53, 1.87), p=1 × 10-26). This effect was attenuated among ever coal users (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.50), p = 0.02, p-interaction = 6 × 10-3). We observed similar attenuation among coal users from Xuanwei. Our study provides evidence that genetic susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma among never-smoking Asian women is weaker among coal users. These results suggest that lung cancer pathogenesis may differ, at least partially, depending on exposure to coal combustion products. Notably, these novel findings are among the few instances of sub-multiplicative gene-environment interactions in the cancer literature.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Ásia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Taiwan
4.
Tob Control ; 30(3): 328-335, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health harms associated with low-intensity smoking in Asians who, on average, smoke fewer cigarettes and start smoking at a later age than their Western counterparts. METHODS: In this pooled analysis of 738 013 Asians from 16 prospective cohorts, we quantified the associations of low-intensity (<5 cigarettes/day) and late initiation (≥35 years) of smoking with mortality outcomes. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression. Cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years, 92 068 deaths were ascertained. Compared with never smokers, current smokers who consumed <5 cigarettes/day or started smoking after age 35 years had a 16%-41% increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease mortality and a >twofold risk of lung cancer mortality. Furthermore, current smokers who started smoking after age 35 and smoked <5 cigarettes/day had significantly elevated risks of all-cause (HRs (95% CIs)=1.14 (1.05 to 1.23)), CVD (1.27 (1.08 to 1.49)) and respiratory disease (1.54 (1.17 to 2.01)) mortality. Even smokers who smoked <5 cigarettes/day but quit smoking before the age of 45 years had a 16% elevated risk of all-cause mortality; however, the risk declined further with increasing duration of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that smokers who smoked a small number of cigarettes or started smoking later in life also experienced significantly elevated all-cause and major cause-specific mortality but benefited from cessation. There is no safe way to smoke-not smoking is always the best choice.

5.
Adv Nutr ; 12(2): 402-412, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002099

RESUMO

Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis to summarize and appraise the quality of the current evidence on the associations of tea drinking in relation to cancer risk. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched up to June 2020. We reanalyzed the individual prospective studies focused on associations between tea drinking and cancer risk in humans. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies and provided the highest- versus lowest-category analyses, dose-response analyses, and test of nonlinearity of each association by modeling restricted cubic spline regression for each type of tea. We graded the evidence based on the summary effect size, its 95% confidence interval, 95% prediction interval, the extent of heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and excess significance bias. We identified 113 individual studies investigating the associations between tea drinking and 26 cancer sites including 153,598 cancer cases. We assessed 12 associations for the intake of black tea with cancer risk and 26 associations each for the intake of green tea and total tea with cancer risk. Except for an association between lymphoid neoplasms with green tea, we did not find consistent associations for the highest versus lowest categories and dose-response analyses for any cancer. When grading current evidence for each association (number of studies ≥2), weak evidence was detected for lymphoid neoplasm (green tea), glioma (total tea, per 1 cup), bladder cancer (total tea, per 1 cup), and gastric and esophageal cancer (tea, per 1 cup). This review of prospective studies provides little evidence to support the hypothesis that tea drinking is associated with cancer risk. More well-designed studies are still needed to identify associations between tea intake and rare cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Chá
6.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 77-89, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638381

RESUMO

Evidence from animal models suggests that dietary fatty acids have both anticancer and tumor-promoting effects. Whether dietary fatty acids are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in humans remains inconclusive. We investigated associations between dietary fatty acids and risk of CRC among 59 986 men who participated in the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study. We identified 876 incident CRC cases in the SMHS during a mean follow-up of 9.8 years. Associations between dietary fatty acid intake and CRC risk were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was not significantly associated with CRC risk. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1 were 0.92 (0.74-1.14; Ptrend = 0.47) for SFA, 0.95 (0.79-1.16; Ptrend = 0.74) for MUFA and 1.18 (0.95-1.46; Ptrend = 0.21) for PUFA. No significant associations were found for total n-6 PUFA or total n-3 PUFA. Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize results from the present study and 28 reports from 26 additional cohorts, which supported the overall null association between dietary fatty acid intake and CRC risk among men. Docosahexanoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were associated with 11% to 12% reduced risk, and linoleic acid a 19% increased risk, of CRC in the meta-analysis of combined sexes. In conclusion, this population-based prospective study and meta-analysis of cohort studies found little evidence that dietary fatty acid intake was associated with risk of CRC in men.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde do Homem/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326609

RESUMO

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.

8.
J Nutr ; 150(9): 2442-2450, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soy is commonly consumed in east Asian countries and is suggested to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconsistent, despite the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties of soy isoflavones and soy protein. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between soy isoflavones and soy protein and CRC risk using 4 prospective cohort studies from China and Japan. METHODS: Data were pooled from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Cohort 1 (JPHC1), and Cohort 2 (JPHC2). Cox proportional hazards models estimated HRs and corresponding 95% CIs for the association of soy protein and isoflavone intake with CRC risk. The study included 205,060 individuals, among whom 2971 were diagnosed with incident CRC over an average follow-up of 12.7 y. RESULTS: No statistically significant associations with CRC risk were observed for soy protein or isoflavone intake. No association was observed among ever smokers consuming higher isoflavones (HRisoflavones: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.00) and soy protein (HRsoy protein: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.10). However, risk reductions were observed among premenopausal women with a body mass index [BMI (kg/m2)] <23.0 at baseline for higher isoflavone (HRisoflavones: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence for an overall reduction in CRC risk by increasing soy food intake (i.e., protein or isoflavones) was observed. However, the association between soy and CRC risk may vary by BMI, smoking, and menopausal status among women. Future investigations are needed to further understand the biologic mechanisms observed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Alimentos de Soja , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 750-758, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713271

RESUMO

Systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg has been defined as stage I hypertension by the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines. Drug treatment is recommended for stage I hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years without cardiovascular disease in the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines but not in the 2018 Chinese guidelines. However, the cost-effectiveness of drug treatment among this subgroup of Chinese patients is unclear. This study developed a microsimulation model to compare costs and effectiveness of drug treatment and nondrug treatment for the subgroup of stage I hypertensive patients over a lifetime horizon from a government affordability perspective. Event rates of mortality and cardiovascular complications were estimated from 3 cohorts in the Chinese population. Costs and health utilities were obtained from the national statistics report and published literature. The model predicted that drug treatment generated quality-adjusted life-years of 13.52 and associated with expected costs of $6825 in comparison with 13.81 and $7328 produced by nondrug treatment over a lifetime horizon among stage I hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years without cardiovascular disease. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $8836/quality-adjusted life-year (the GDP per capita in 2017), drug treatment only had a 1.8% probability of being cost-effective compared with nondrug treatment after 10 000 probabilistic simulations. Sensitivity analysis of treatment costs, benefits expected from treatment, health utilities, and discount rates did not change the results. Our results suggested that drug treatment was not cost-effective compared with nondrug treatment for stage I hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years without cardiovascular disease in China.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/economia , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Modelos Econômicos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Br J Nutr ; 124(3): 330-340, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234090

RESUMO

Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis; thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of liver cancer is urgently needed. The well-established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), heavy alcohol consumption, metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and aflatoxin exposure. However, a large proportion of cancer cases worldwide cannot be explained by current known risk factors. Dietary factors have been suspected as important, but dietary aetiology of liver cancer remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarised and evaluated the observational studies of diet including single nutrients, food and food groups, as well as dietary patterns with the risk of developing liver cancer. Although there are large knowledge gaps between diet and liver cancer risk, current epidemiological evidence supports an important role of diet in liver cancer development. For example, exposure to aflatoxin, heavy alcohol drinking and possibly dairy product (not including yogurt) intake increase, while intake of coffee, fish and tea, light-to-moderate alcohol drinking and several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. Alternative Healthy Eating Index) may decrease liver cancer risk. Future studies with large sample size and accurate diet measurement are warranted and need to consider issues such as the possible aetiological heterogeneity between liver cancer subtypes, the influence of chronic HBV or HCV infection, the high-risk populations (e.g. cirrhosis) and a potential interplay with host gut microbiota or genetic variations.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1217, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139696

RESUMO

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Dig Dis ; 21(4): 230-236, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the trends and estimate the long-term effects of age, period and birth cohort on the incidence and mortality rates of liver cancer (LC) in an urban district of Shanghai, China. METHODS: Crude and age-standardized rates of the incidence and mortality of LC were calculated from 1973 to 2013 annually by sex, and the direction and magnitude of the trends were estimated by the average annual percentage change (AAPC) using the Joinpoint Regression Model. An age-period-cohort (APC) model was also used to evaluate the non-linear effects of calendar time and birth cohort on LC incidence and mortality. RESULTS: In 1973-1977 and 2008-2013 the age-standardized rates of LC incidence and mortality (per 100 000) were 24.27 and 22.60 in men, and 7.50 and 7.26 in women, respectively. Declining trends of LC incidence and mortality rates were observed for both sexes (AAPC; P < 0.05 for both). The APC models indicated that the rates of LC incidence and mortality were significantly influenced both by calendar time and birth cohort effects. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and mortality rates of LC have decreased in both sexes in the Changning District of Shanghai over the past four decades. Although obvious descending trends of LC incidence and mortality were detected, attention should also be paid to the LC burden for a long time in the future because of huge population size in China and the continuity of population aging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo
13.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 101, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on the association between coffee intake and cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. To summarize and appraise the quality of the current evidence, we conducted an umbrella review of existing findings from meta-analyses of observational studies. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane database to obtain systematic reviews and meta-analyses of associations between coffee intake and cancer incidence. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size using the fixed- and random-effects model, the 95% confidence interval, and the 95% prediction interval. We also assessed heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and excess significance bias. RESULTS: Twenty-eight individual meta-analyses including 36 summary associations for 26 cancer sites were retrieved for this umbrella review. A total of 17 meta-analyses were significant at P ≤ 0.05 in the random-effects model. For the highest versus lowest categories, 4 of 26 associations had a more stringent P value (P ≤ 10- 6). Associations for five cancers were significant in dose-response analyses. Most studies (69%) showed low heterogeneity (I2 ≤ 50%). Three and six associations had evidence of excessive significance bias and publication bias, respectively. Coffee intake was inversely related to the risk of liver cancer and endometrial cancer and was characterized by dose-response relationships. There were no substantial changes when we restricted analyses to meta-analysis of cohort studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is highly suggestive evidence for an inverse association between coffee intake and risk of liver and endometrial cancer. Further research is needed to provide more robust evidence for cancer at other sites.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Viés , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Tamanho da Amostra
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 644-656, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline-related nutrients are dietary precursors of a gut microbial metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide, which has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases and related death. However, epidemiologic evidence on dietary choline and mortality remains limited, particularly among nonwhite populations. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the associations of choline-related nutrients with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality among black and white Americans and Chinese adults. METHODS: Included were 49,858 blacks, 23,766 whites, and 134,001 Chinese, aged 40-79 y, who participated in 3 prospective cohorts and lived ≥1 y after enrollment. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for cardiometabolic [e.g., ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and diabetes] and all-cause deaths. To account for multiple testing, P values < 0.003 were considered significant. RESULTS: Mean choline intake among blacks, whites, and Chinese was 404.1 mg/d, 362.0 mg/d, and 296.8 mg/d, respectively. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 28,673 deaths were identified, including 11,141 cardiometabolic deaths. After comprehensive adjustments, including for overall diet quality and disease history, total choline intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality among blacks and Chinese (HR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.40 and HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.38, respectively; both P-trend < 0.001); among whites, the association was weaker (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.33; P-trend = 0.02). Total choline intake was also associated with diabetes and all-cause mortality in blacks (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.19 and HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.29, respectively), with diabetes mortality in Chinese (HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.68, 2.97), and with IHD mortality in whites (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.69) (all P-trend < 0.001). The choline-mortality association was modified by alcohol consumption and appeared stronger among individuals with existing cardiometabolic disease. Betaine intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality in Chinese only (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.25; P-trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High choline intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality in racially diverse populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Colina/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 270-280, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the association between diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is essential to curbing the epidemic of this cancer. This study prospectively evaluated adherence to the Chinese Food Pagoda (CHFP), and two American Dietary Guidelines: the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) in association with CRC risk among Chinese adults living in urban Shanghai, China. METHODS: Participants included 60 161 men and 72 445 women aged 40-74, from two ongoing population-based prospective cohort studies. Associations between dietary guideline compliance scores and CRC risk were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression analyses, with age as time metric, and potential confounders were adjusted. RESULTS: We identified 1670 CRC incidence cases (691 males and 979 females) during an average 8.1 years of follow-up for men and 13.4 years for women. CHFP score was inversely associated with risk of CRC, with hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) of 0.88 (0.77, 1.00), 0.86 (0.75, 0.98) and 0.84 (0.73, 0.96) for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles versus 1st quartile, respectively (Ptrend= 0.01). The inverse association appeared stronger for rectal cancer, individuals at younger age (< 50 years), with a lower BMI (<25 kg/m2) or without any metabolic conditions at baseline, although no multiplicative interactions were noted. No consistent association pattern was observed for the modified DASH score and the modified AHEI-2010. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese was associated with reduced risk of CRC among Chinese adults. To maximize health impacts, dietary recommendations need to be tailored for specific populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Política Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Epidemiol ; 30(11): 516-521, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate the effects of personal characteristics on the validation of self-reported type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in urban Shanghai. METHODS: During 2015 through 2016, 4,322 participants were recruited in this validation study. We considered the criteria of diabetes verification to use the laboratory assays of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), or self-reported use of diabetic medication. RESULTS: When taking diabetic medication or FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L was as identified diabetes, the measurements of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and Kappa value of self-reported diabetes were 72.0%, 99.2%, 95.1%, 93.9%, and 0.78, respectively. If an additional HbA1c test was used for 708 subjects (aged <65 years), slightly lower values of sensitivity, NPV, and Kappa were observed. More potential diabetes cases were found compared to only using FPG. Subjects who were female, older, or had a family history of diabetes had sensitivity over 75% and excellent Kappa over 0.8, while the sensitivity and Kappa of opposite groups had poorer values. Specificity, PPV, and NPV were similar among groups with different demographic or disease characteristics. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 19.3% in the study (14.1% diagnosed diabetes, 5.2% undiagnosed diabetes). About 26.2% of subjects were pre-diabetic. Additional HbA1c test indicated an increased prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support self-reported diabetes is sufficiently valid to be used in large-scale, population-based epidemiologic studies. Participants with different characteristics may have different indicators in terms of validation, such as age, gender, and family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 477-486, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians. RESULTS: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at P = 3.9 × 10-8 in Asians (OR per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 (P = 7.7 × 10-3). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at P < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at P < 5 × 10-8 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, P = 5.8 × 10-8; rs62558833, P = 7.5 × 10-8) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously. IMPACT: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Japão/epidemiologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(3): 467-473, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have linked several metabolites to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among Western populations, but prospective studies among Asian populations on the metabolite-CHD association remain limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the association of urinary metabolites with CHD risk among Chinese adults in a nested case-control study of 275 incident cases and 275 matched controls (127 pairs of men and 148 pairs of women). Fifty metabolites were measured by a predefined metabolomics panel and adjusted using urinary creatinine. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). After adjusting for traditional CHD risk factors, urinary tryptophan showed a positive association with incident CHD: OR (95% CI) for the highest vs. lowest quartiles was 2.02 (1.15-3.56) among all study participants (p-trend = 0.02). The tryptophan-CHD association was more evident among individuals with dyslipidemia than among those without the condition (OR [95% CI] for the highest vs. lowest quartiles = 3.90 [1.86-8.19] and 0.74 [0.26-2.06], respectively; p-interaction<0.01). Other metabolites did not show significant associations with CHD risk among all study participants. However, a positive association of methionine with CHD risk was observed only among women (OR [95% CI] for the highest vs. lowest quartiles = 2.77 [1.17-6.58]; p-interaction = 0.03), and an inverse association of inosine with CHD risk was observed only among men (OR [95% CI] for the highest vs. lowest quartiles = 0.29 [0.11-0.81]; p-interaction = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Elevated urinary tryptophan may be related to CHD risk among Chinese adults, especially for those with dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/urina , Triptofano/urina , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Regulação para Cima
19.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(2): e194107, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647500

RESUMO

Importance: Dietary fiber (the main source of prebiotics) and yogurt (a probiotic food) confer various health benefits via modulating the gut microbiota and metabolic pathways. However, their associations with lung cancer risk have not been well investigated. Objective: To evaluate the individual and joint associations of dietary fiber and yogurt consumption with lung cancer risk and to assess the potential effect modification of the associations by lifestyle and other dietary factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis included 10 prospective cohorts involving 1 445 850 adults from studies that were conducted in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Data analyses were performed between November 2017 and February 2019. Using harmonized individual participant data, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer risk associated with dietary fiber and yogurt intakes were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Participants who had a history of cancer at enrollment or developed any cancer, died, or were lost to follow-up within 2 years after enrollment were excluded. Exposures: Dietary fiber intake and yogurt consumption measured by validated instruments. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident lung cancer, subclassified by histologic type (eg, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma). Results: The analytic sample included 627 988 men, with a mean (SD) age of 57.9 (9.0) years, and 817 862 women, with a mean (SD) age of 54.8 (9.7) years. During a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 18 822 incident lung cancer cases were documented. Both fiber and yogurt intakes were inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjustment for status and pack-years of smoking and other lung cancer risk factors: hazard ratio, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for the highest vs lowest quintile of fiber intake; and hazard ratio, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.87) for high vs no yogurt consumption. The fiber or yogurt associations with lung cancer were significant in never smokers and were consistently observed across sex, race/ethnicity, and tumor histologic type. When considered jointly, high yogurt consumption with the highest quintile of fiber intake showed more than 30% reduced risk of lung cancer than nonyogurt consumption with the lowest quintile of fiber intake (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.61-0.73] in total study populations; hazard ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.54-0.89] in never smokers), suggesting potential synergism. Conclusions and Relevance: Dietary fiber and yogurt consumption was associated with reduced risk of lung cancer after adjusting for known risk factors and among never smokers. Our findings suggest a potential protective role of prebiotics and probiotics against lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Iogurte , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2728-2735, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351006

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the oxyntic glands of the stomach. Previous work by our group has suggested that serum ghrelin concentrations are inversely associated with gastric and esophageal cancer risk. We measured ghrelin concentrations in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT), and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS). In NIT, we analyzed serum samples from 298 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases, 518 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) cases, 258 gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) cases and 770 subcohort controls (case-cohort). In SWHS, we measured ghrelin in plasma samples from 249 GNCA cases and 498 matched controls (nested case-control). Ghrelin was measured using radioimmunoassay. In NIT and SWHS, low ghrelin concentrations were associated with an increased risk of developing GNCA and GCA. The hazard ratio (HR Q1:Q4 ) for GNCA in NIT was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.89-2.05; p-trend = 0.02); the odds ratio in SWHS was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.02-2.70; p-trend = 0.06). Low ghrelin was associated with a twofold increase of GCA (HR Q1:Q4 = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.45-2.77; p-trend<0.001). In contrast, a lower risk of ESCC (NIT ESCC HR Q1:Q4 = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; p-trend = 0.02) was found in NIT. Low baseline ghrelin concentrations were associated with an increased risk for GNCA and GCA in the NIT and the SWHS. In contrast, low ghrelin concentrations at baseline were associated with a reduced risk of developing ESCC in the NIT. Ghrelin may be an early marker of future cancer risk for developing upper gastrointestinal cancer in regions of high incidence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
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