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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 148, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654058

RESUMO

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern. In China, all schools were shut down and students were home quarantined to prevent disease spread; these steps could have potential negative effects on mental health of adolescents. This study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic, and explore factors associated with depression and anxiety. Two survey administrations were conducted among Chinese adolescents between February 20 and February 27 and between April 11 and April 19, 2020, respectively. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale were used to assess depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms, respectively. A total of 9554 and 3886 adolescents participated in the first and second surveys. During the initial survey, the prevalence of depression was 36.6% (95% CI: 35.6-37.6%) while the prevalence of anxiety was 19% (95% CI: 18.2-19.8%). Rates of depression and anxiety increased to 57.0% (95% CI: 55.4-58.6%) and 36.7% (95% CI: 35.2-38.2%), respectively, in the second survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that group membership in the second survey, female gender, senior secondary school enrollment, and concerns about entering a higher grade were positively associated with both depression and anxiety. Conversely, a sleep duration of ≥6 h/day, an exercise duration ≥30 min/day, having the same as typical or higher study efficiency during the COVID-19 outbreak, and living in provinces with 1000-9999 confirmed COVID-19 cases were negatively associated with depression and anxiety. In conclusion, compared to figures reported during the COVID-19 outbreak, the prevalence of depression and anxiety in Chinese adolescents significantly increased after the initial outbreak. Regular screening and appropriate interventions are urgently needed to reduce the risk for emotional disturbances among adolescents during and after the initial COVID-19 outbreaks.

2.
Global Health ; 17(1): 4, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402169

RESUMO

During global pandemics, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), crisis communication is indispensable in dispelling fears, uncertainty, and unifying individuals worldwide in a collective fight against health threats. Inadequate crisis communication can bring dire personal and economic consequences. Mounting research shows that seemingly endless newsfeeds related to COVID-19 infection and death rates could considerably increase the risk of mental health problems. Unfortunately, media reports that include infodemics regarding the influence of COVID-19 on mental health may be a source of the adverse psychological effects on individuals. Owing partially to insufficient crisis communication practices, media and news organizations across the globe have played minimal roles in battling COVID-19 infodemics. Common refrains include raging QAnon conspiracies, a false and misleading "Chinese virus" narrative, and the use of disinfectants to "cure" COVID-19. With the potential to deteriorate mental health, infodemics fueled by a kaleidoscopic range of misinformation can be dangerous. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of research on how to improve crisis communication across media and news organization channels. This paper identifies ways that legacy media reports on COVID-19 and how social media-based infodemics can result in mental health concerns. This paper discusses possible crisis communication solutions that media and news organizations can adopt to mitigate the negative influences of COVID-19 related news on mental health. Emphasizing the need for global media entities to forge a fact-based, person-centered, and collaborative response to COVID-19 reporting, this paper encourages media resources to focus on the core issue of how to slow or stop COVID-19 transmission effectively.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/normas , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais/normas
3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 289-293, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mental health professionals are often exposed to workplace violence (WPV) in China. This study examined the prevalence of WPV and the associated factors and quality of life (QOL) among frontline mental health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This national survey was carried out between March 15 and March 20, 2020. WPV and QOL were assessed with standardized measures. RESULTS: A total of 10,516 participants were included. The prevalence of overall WPV was 18.5% (95% CI: 17.9%-19.3%), while verbal abuse/threats was 15.8% and physical violence was 8.4%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender (OR = 1.42, p < 0.01), higher educational level (OR = 1.40, p < 0.01), working in tertiary hospitals (OR = 1.33, p < 0.01), caring for COVID-19 patients (OR = 3.10, p < 0.01) and having more severe anxiety symptom (OR = 1.21, p < 0.01) were positively associated with WPV. In contrast, working in inpatient departments (OR = 0.74, p < 0.01), having longer work experience (OR = 0.99, p = 0.03), and being a junior nurse (OR = 0.73, p < 0.01) were negatively associated with WPV. After controlling for the covariates, mental health professionals who experienced WPV had a lower overall QOL compared to those without WPV (F(1, 10515) = 68.28, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study found that WPV was common among mental health professionals in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative impact of WPV on QOL and quality of patient care, appropriate measures to prevent WPV should be developed.

4.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; : 100204, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495754

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccines are by no means a silver bullet. With more COVID-19 vaccines expecting approval in the coming months, it is necessary to note that vaccine availability does not equate to vaccine accessibility, nor vaccine efficacy. Some research suggests that approximately 9 out of 10 individuals living in lower-income countries will not have access to COVID-19 vaccines until 2023 or later. For higher-income countries, such as the United States, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy may further compound the situation. These insights combined, in turn, emphasize the fact that even though COVID-19 vaccines are becoming more available, safety measures (e.g., face masks, personal hygiene, and social distancing) are still of pivotal importance in protecting personal and public health against COVID-19. Furthermore, this paper argues for the continued imperative for health experts and government officials to communicate and emphasize the importance of COVID-19 safety measures with the public, to make sure people are protected against COVID-19 till the pandemic ceases to pose a threat to personal or public health.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 75, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500389

RESUMO

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders is unclear. This study examined the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms, and their associations with quality of life (QOL) in clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, insomnia, pain, and QOL were assessed with standardized instruments. A total of 1063 patients were included. The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms, and combined depressive and anxiety symptoms were 62.3% (95%CI = 59.4-65.2%), 52.4% (95%CI = 49.3-55.4%), and 45.9% (95%CI = 42.9-48.9%), respectively. Patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms had significantly lower QOL than those without (P < 0.01). Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that having depressive symptoms was positively associated with more severe insomnia (OR = 1.29, P < 0.01) and pain (OR = 1.14, P < 0.01), and was negatively associated with other psychiatric diagnoses (except for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and organic mental disorder; OR = 0.50, P < 0.01), while having anxiety symptoms was positively associated with severe physical diseases (OR = 1.57, P = 0.02), poor adherence to treatment (OR = 1.50, P < 0.01), and more severe insomnia (OR = 1.15, P < 0.01) and pain (OR = 1.11, P < 0.01). Having combined depression and anxiety symptoms was positively associated with poor adherence to treatment (OR = 1.42, P = 0.02) and more severe insomnia (OR = 1.19, P < 0.01) and pain (OR = 1.15, P < 0.01), and was negatively associated with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (OR = 0.50, P = 0.04) and others (OR = 0.53, P < 0.01). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were common in clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative impact of these symptoms on QOL, regular screening and appropriate treatment are recommended for this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(3): 270-279, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies regarding the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on quality of life (QOL) have reported conflicting results, and the underlying QOL domains require further study. In order to understand the association between PD and QOL, we conducted this meta-analysis to systematically compare QOL between PD patients and healthy controls. METHOD: The PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched. Data were analyzed using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty studies covering 2707 PD patients and 150,661 healthy controls were included in the study. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients had significantly poorer QOL overall and in most domains with moderate to large effects sizes. Different QOL measures varied in their association with quality of life, with the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) having the largest effect size (standard mean difference, SMD = -1.384, 95% CI: -1.607, -1.162, Z = 12.189, P < 0.001), followed by the Europe Quality of Life Questionnaire-visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) (SMD = -1.081, 95% CI: -1.578, -0.584, Z = -4.265, P < 0.001), Europe Quality of Life Questionnaire-5D (EQ-5D) (SMD = -0.889, 95% CI: -1.181, -0.596, Z = -5.962, P < 0.001), and the Short-form Health Survey (SF) scales (physical dimension: SMD = -0.826, 95% CI: -1.529, -0.123, Z = -2.303, P = 0.021; mental dimension: SMD = -0.376, 95% CI: -0.732, -0.019, Z = -2.064, P = 0.039). CONCLUSION: PD patients had lower QOL compared with healthy controls in most domains, especially in physical function and mental health. Considering the negative impact of poor QOL on daily life and functional outcomes, effective measures should be developed to improve QOL in this population.

8.
Psychosom Med ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In recent studies, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with increased risk of mental health problems across many subpopulations including pregnant and postnatal women. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (depression hereafter) in Chinese pregnant and postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a multicentre, cross-sectional study comprising 1,309 pregnant and postpartum women across 12 provinces in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression in pregnant and postpartum women was 27.43% (95% CI=25.01%-29.85%). Women who were worried about themselves or their babies being infected with COVID-19 (OR=2.562, 95%CI=1.670-3.929), and those who had delayed regular medical check-ups (OR=2.434, 95%CI=1.580-3.750) were at higher risk of depression. Compared to those living in central and western parts of China, women living in northern (OR=0.513, 95%CI=0.326-0.807) and southeastern parts of China (OR=0.626, 95%CI=0.463-0.846) were less likely to have depression." CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increased likelihood of mental health problems among pregnant and postnatal women. Over a quarter of the pregnant and postpartum women in China suffered from depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative health impact of depression, preventive measures, regular mental health screening and medical check-ups are needed with the goal to reduce the risk of depression in this vulnerable population during a pandemic.

9.
Global Health ; 16(1): 119, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pattern of fatigue in older psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 outbreak was unknown. This study examined the prevalence of fatigue and its association with overall quality of life (overall QOL) in clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Fatigue, depressive symptoms, pain, insomnia symptoms, and overall QOL were assessed with standardized instruments. RESULTS: A total of 1063 patients were recruited. The prevalence of fatigue was 47.1% (95%CI: 44.1-50.1%). An analysis of covariance revealed that overall QOL was significantly lower in patients with fatigue compared to those without (P = 0.011). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that more severe depressive symptoms (OR = 1.15, P < 0.001), insomnia symptoms (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001) and pain (OR = 1.43, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue is common among clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak. Considering its negative impact on overall QOL, regular assessment of fatigue and appropriate treatment warrant attention in this subpopulation.


Assuntos
/complicações , Fadiga/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Dor/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Affect Disord ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) are often misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), which delays the introduction of appropriate treatment resulting in adverse outcomes. This study examined the psychometric properties of the 33-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-33) and its accuracy to distinguish BD from MDD in adolescents. METHOD: A total of 248 participants (171 MDD and 77 BD patients) were recruited from a university-affiliated hospital in China. Depression was measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. All participants completed the assessment with the HCL-33. RESULTS: A two-factor structure was found for the HCL-33, which explained 30.2% of the total variance. The internal consistency and split half reliability of the total scale were acceptable. The optimal cut-off value of 18 generated sensitivity of 0.52 and specificity of 0.73 for distinguishing BD from MDD. CONCLUSION: The HCL-33 seems to be a useful screening instrument to distinguish BD from depressed adolescents. However, considering certain less than robust psychometric properties, the HCL-33 needs to be modified and further refined for adolescent patients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191455

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Past suicide attempts (SA) are a major contributor to suicide. The prevalence of SA in pregnant and postpartum women varied significantly across studies. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence of SA and its mediating factors in this population. METHODS: Relevant articles published in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Medline complete, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP database were systematically searched from inception to March 28, 2019. Titles, abstracts and full texts were reviewed independently by three researchers. Studies were included if they reported data on SA prevalence or provided relevant data that enabled the calculation of SA prevalence. Data were extracted by two researchers and checked by one senior researcher. The random-effects model was used to analyze data by the CMA 2.0 and Stata 12.0, with the high degree of statistical heterogeneity present. The primary outcomes were prevalence of SA with 95% CI during pregnancy and during the first-year postpartum. RESULTS: Fourteen studies covering 6,406,245 pregnant and postpartum women were included. The pooled prevalence of SA was 680 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 0.10-4.69%) during pregnancy and 210 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 0.01-3.21%) during the first-year postpartum. Data source was significantly associated with prevalence of SA in the subgroup analysis (pregnancy, p < 0.001; the first-year postpartum, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SA is not high in pregnant and postpartum women. Due to the potential loss of life and negative impact of SA on health outcomes, however, careful screening and effective preventive measures should be implemented for this population.

12.
PeerJ ; 8: e9731, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150054

RESUMO

There is an increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in older adults in China, but the findings across prevalence studies have been mixed. This is the first meta-analysis of the prevalence of HIV infection and its moderating factors in older adults in China. Two investigators systematically and independently searched both international (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, CNKI, and CQVIP) databases. HIV infection rates in older adults were analyzed using the random-effects model. Altogether 46 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of HIV infection in older adults was 2.1% (95% CI [1.9%-2.3%], I 2 = 99.4%). Subgroup analyses revealed that men who have sex with men (MSM), hospital population samples, publications after 2014, studies conducted in the western region of China, and higher study quality were significantly associated with higher HIV infection rate. This meta-analysis found that the HIV infection prevalence in older adults is significantly higher than the general population in China. Attention should be given to this urgent public health issue, and effective HIV/AIDS preventive, screening and treatment measures are warranted in this population. PROSPERO: CRD42019124286.

13.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 571179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192697

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with increases in psychiatric morbidity, including depression. It is unclear if people with depressive symptoms understand or apply COVID-19 information differently to the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to examine associations between depression, health beliefs, and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Hong Kong. This study gathered data from 11,072 Hong Kong adults via an online survey. Respondents self-reported their demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), face mask use, and health beliefs about COVID-19. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify independent variables associated with depression. The point-prevalence of probable depression was 46.5% (n = 5,150). Respondents reporting higher mask reuse (OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.17-1.34), wearing masks for self-protection (OR = 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.06), perceived high susceptibility (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.09-1.23), and high severity (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.28-1.37) were more likely to report depression. Depression was less likely in those with higher scores for cues to action (OR = 0.82, 95%CI 0.80-0.84), knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), and self-efficacy to wear mask properly (OR = 0.90 95%CI 0.83-0.98). We identified a high point-prevalence of probable major depression and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong, but this should be viewed with caution due to the convenience sampling method employed. Future studies should recruit a representative probability sample in order to draw more reliable conclusions. The findings highlight that COVID-19 health information may be a protective factor of probable depression and suicidal ideation during the pandemic. Accurate and up-to-date health information should be disseminated to distressed and vulnerable subpopulations, perhaps using digital health technology, and social media platforms to prompt professional help-seeking behavior.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 549148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250790

RESUMO

Objective: Poor mental health is associated with impaired social functioning, lower quality of life, and increased risk of suicide and mortality. This study examined the prevalence of poor general mental health among older adults (aged 65 years and above) and its sociodemographic correlates in Hebei province, which is a predominantly agricultural area of China. Methods: This epidemiological survey was conducted from April to August 2016. General mental health status was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: A total of 3,911 participants were included. The prevalence of poor mental health (defined as GHQ-12 total score ≥ 4) was 9.31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4-10.2%]. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that female gender [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.29-2.07], lower education level (P = 0.048, OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.75), lower annual household income (P = 0.005, OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.17-2.51), presence of major medical conditions (P < 0.001, OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 2.19-3.96) and family history of psychiatric disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.02-6.17) were significantly associated with poor mental health. Conclusion: The prevalence of poor mental health among older adults in a predominantly agricultural area was lower than findings from many other countries and areas in China. However, continued surveillance of mental health status among older adults in China is still needed.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poor oral health is common in dementia, but findings of epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined oral health in patients with dementia diagnosed according to standardized diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Six international databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) were searched from their commencement date until 8 November 2018. Oral health was measured by the Remaining Teeth (RT) and Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index. The mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of DMFT Index total and component scores were calculated using a random-effect model. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included for analyses. The pooled DMFT Index was 23.48 (95% CI: 22.34, 24.62), while the pooled score for each component was 2.38 (95% CI: 1.56, 3.20) in decayed teeth (DT), 18.39 (95% CI: 15.92, 20.87) in missing teeth (MT), 2.29 (95% CI: 0.62, 3.95) in filled teeth (FT), and 11.59 (95% CI: 9.14, 14.05) in RT. Compared to controls, people with dementia had significantly a higher DMFT Index total score (MD = 3.80, 95% CI: 2.21, 5.39, p < 0.00,001), and significantly lower number of RT (MD = -3.15, 95% CI: -4.23, -2.06, p < 0.00,001). Subgroup analyses revealed that higher DMFT Index score was significantly associated with year of survey (>2010), study design (case-control study), percentage of females (≤54.3), and the Mini Mental State Examination score (≤18.2). Higher MT score was significantly associated with study design (cross-sectional study), and lower FT score was significantly associated with year of survey (>2010). CONCLUSIONS: Oral health was significantly poorer in people with dementia compared with controls. Regular screening and effective treatment should be implemented for this population.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 353-360, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School closures due to the COVID-19 outbreak have affected 87% of the world's students physically, socially, and psychologically, yet rigorous investigation into their mental health during this period is still lacking. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 4-342 primary and secondary school students from Shanghai, China was conducted during March 13-23, 2020. Besides demographic information, psychological distress (including depression, anxiety, and stress), life satisfaction, perceived impact of home quarantine, and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: The three most prevalent symptoms were: anxiety (24.9%), depression (19.7%), and stress (15.2%). Participants were generally satisfied with life and 21.4% became more satisfied with life during school closures. Senior grades were positively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and negatively associated with life satisfaction, whereas the perceived benefit from home quarantine and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were negatively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and positively correlated with life satisfaction. Among participants who perceived no benefit from home quarantine, those who had discussions with their parents about COVID-19 experienced less depression, anxiety, and stress. LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the inability to infer the casual relationship, no parental report for mental health of children aged 6 to 9, and the inadequate measurement of parent-child discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems and resilience co-existed in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak. Given the important role of parent-child discussions, open communication between parents and children about the pandemic should be encouraged to help children and adolescents cope with mental health problems in public health crisis.

18.
Psychophysiology ; : e13700, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040366

RESUMO

Numerous investigators have tested contentions that angry faces capture early attention more completely than happy faces do in the context of other faces. However, syntheses of studies on early event-related potentials related to the anger superiority hypothesis have yet to be conducted, particularly in relation to the N200 posterior-contralateral (N2pc) component which provides a reliable electrophysiological index related to orienting of attention suitable for testing this hypothesis. Fifteen samples (N = 534) from 13 studies featuring the assessment of N2pc amplitudes during exposure to angry-neutral and/or happy-neutral facial expression arrays were included for meta-analysis. Moderating effects of study design features and sample characteristics on effect size variability were also assessed. N2pc amplitudes elicited by affectively valenced expressions (angry and happy) were significantly more pronounced than those elicited by neutral expressions. However, the mean effect size difference between angry and happy expressions was ns. N2pc effect sizes were moderated by sample age, number of trials, and nature of facial images used (schematic vs. real) with larger effect sizes observed when samples were comparatively younger, more task trials were presented and schematic face arrays were used. N2pc results did not support anger superiority hypothesis. Instead, attentional resources allocated to angry versus happy facial expressions were similar in early stages of processing. As such, possible adaptive advantages of biases in orienting toward both anger and happy expressions warrant consideration in revisions of related theory.

19.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(5): 394-397, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) toward Chinese psychiatric nurses and its association with quality of life (QOL). METHODS: A total of 2124 psychiatric nurses were consecutively recruited from 10 psychiatric hospitals distributed across 10 provinces of China; of them, 1,449 were included for analyses. Participants' socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of workplace SH in the past year, and QOL were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 21.5% (n = 311) of participants reported SH, with 8.4% (n = 121) reporting once, 7.1% (n = 103) reporting twice and 6.0% (n = 87) reporting three times or more. Psychiatric nurses who experienced SH had lower QOL in physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that nurses with shorter clinical experience were more likely to experience SH. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace SH toward psychiatric nurses is common in mental health treatment settings in China. Considering its deleterious impact on nurses' well-being and care quality, effective staff training on the management of SH and a zero tolerance policy against SH should be developed for this population.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a major cause of premature death among physicians, but the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors (including suicidal ideation, SI and suicide attempt, SA) is inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors among physicians and its associated factors. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched from commencement date to August 14, 2018. Eligible studies on the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors among physicians were included. RESULTS: Thirty-five eligible studies with 70,368 physicians were included. The lifetime prevalence of SI was 17.4% (95% CI: 13.8%-21.8%), while the 1-year prevalence was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.1%-10.3%), 6-month prevalence was 11.9% (95% CI: 2.7%-39.2%), and 1-month prevalence was 8.6% (95% CI: 5.6%-13.0%). The lifetime prevalence of SA was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.9%-3.7%), while the 1-year prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.1%-0.8%). Subgroup analyses revealed that geographic region was significantly associated with lifetime and 1-year prevalence of SI, while sample size was significantly associated with 1-month prevalence of SI. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found a relatively high prevalence of suicide-related behaviors, particularly lifetime SI, among physicians. Appropriate preventive and treatment measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of suicide-related behaviors in this population.

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