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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 736692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646271

RESUMO

Background: It is well documented that laboratory mice bred and maintained in ultra-hygienic specific pathogen-free (SPF) barriers display reduced richness and complexity of microbiota compared with wild mice. The laboratory mice profoundly lack lung parenchymal mast cells. Hence, we aimed to investigate the lung distribution of mast cells in free-living wild mice. Methods: Wild house mice were trapped in South-Eastern Norway and Hemtabad, West Bengal, India. C57BL/6 laboratory mice were bred in a purposefully built, closed environment with bedding material obtained from the natural environment in order to normalize the gut microbiota of these laboratory mice to that of the wild mice, and the offspring were collected for study at eight weeks of age. Results: Mast cells were easily identified at a substantial density in the lung parenchymal tissues of wild mice from both Norway and India, which stands in clear contrast to the rare distribution of lung parenchymal mast cells in the conventional laboratory SPF mice. Consistently, wild mice also expressed higher pulmonary levels of stem cell factor, a critical growth factor for mast cell survival. Higher levels of histamine were recorded in the lung tissues of the wild mice. Interestingly, "naturalized" C57BL/6 laboratory mice which spent their entire life in a semi-natural environment developed lung parenchymal mast cells at an appreciable density. Conclusion: Our observations support that environmental factors, possibly through modulation of microbiota, may impact the tissue distribution of mast cells in mouse lung parenchyma.

2.
Cytometry A ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472218
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 692733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367151

RESUMO

Background: The calcium-binding protein S100A4 demonstrates important regulatory roles in many biological processes including tumorigenesis and inflammatory disorders such as allergy. However, the specific mechanism of the contribution of S100A4 to allergic diseases awaits further clarification. Objective: To address the effect of S100A4 on the regulation of mast cell activation and its impact on allergy. Methods: Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs) were derived from wild-type (WT) or S100A4-/- mice for in vitro investigation. WT and S100A4-/- mice were induced to develop a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model, a passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) model, and an ovalbumin (OVA)-mediated mouse asthma model. Results: Following OVA/alum-based sensitization and provocation, S100A4-/- mice demonstrated overall suppressed levels of serum anti-OVA IgE and IgG antibodies and proinflammatory cytokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung exudates. S100A4-/- mice exhibited less severe asthma signs which included inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue and BALF, and suppressed mast cell recruitment in the lungs. Reduced levels of antigen reencounter-induced splenocyte proliferation in vitro were recorded in splenocytes from OVA-sensitized and challenged mice that lacked S100A4-/-. Furthermore, deficiency in the S100A4 gene could dampen mast cell activation both in vitro and in vivo, evidenced by reduced ß-hexosaminidase release and compromised PCA and PSA reaction. We also provided evidence supporting the expression of S100A4 by mast cells. Conclusion: S100A4 is required for mast cell functional activation, and S100A4 may participate in the regulation of allergic responses at least partly through regulating the activation of mast cells.

4.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7640-7657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335955

RESUMO

Background: Since primary prostate cancer (PCa) can advance to the life-threatening metastatic PCa, exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa metastasis is crucial for developing the novel targeted preventive strategies for decreasing the mortality of PCa. RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an emerging regulatory mechanism for gene expression and its specific roles in PCa progression remains elusive. Methods: Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses were used to detect target gene expression in PCa cells in vitro and prostate tissues from patients. RNA immunoprecipitation was conducted to analyze the specific binding of mRNA to the target protein. Migration and invasion assays were used to assess the migratory capacities of cancer cells. The correlation between target gene expression and survival rate of PCa patients was analyzed based the TCGA database. Results: We found that total RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification levels were markedly upregulated in human PCa tissues due to increased expression of methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3). Further studies revealed that the migratory and invasive capacities of PCa cells were markedly suppressed upon METTL3 knockdown. Mechanistically, METTL3 mediates m6A modification of USP4 mRNA at A2696, and m6A reader protein YTHDF2 binds to and induces degradation of USP4 mRNA by recruiting RNA-binding protein HNRNPD to the mRNA. Decrease of USP4 fails to remove the ubiquitin group from ELAVL1 protein, resulting in a reduction of ELAVL1 protein. Lastly, downregulation of ELAVL1 in turn increases ARHGDIA expression, promoting migration and invasion of PCa cells. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the role of METTL3 in modulating invasion and metastasis of PCa cells, providing insight into promising therapeutic strategies for hindering PCa progressing to deadly metastases.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244427

RESUMO

Although inflammation is critical for the clearance of pathogens, uncontrolled inflammation also contributes to the development of multiple diseases such as cancer and sepsis. Since NF-κB-mediated transactivation in the nucleus is pivotal downstream of various stimuli to induce inflammation, searching the nuclear-localized targets specifically regulating NF-κB activation will provide important therapeutic application. Here, we have identified that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), a nuclear serine/threonine kinase, increases its expression in inflammatory macrophages. Importantly, HIPK2 deficiency or overexpression could enhance or inhibit inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated macrophages, respectively. HIPK2-deficient mice were more susceptible to LPS-induced endotoxemia and CLP-induced sepsis. Adoptive transfer of Hipk2 +/- bone marrow cells (BMs) also aggravated AOM/DSS-induced colorectal cancer. Mechanistically, HIPK2 bound and phosphorylated histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) at serine 374 to inhibit its enzymatic activity, thus reducing the deacetylation of p65 at lysine 218 to suppress NF-κB activation. Notably, the HDAC3 inhibitors protected wild-type or Hipk2 -/- BMs-reconstituted mice from LPS-induced endotoxemia. Our findings suggest that the HIPK2-HDAC3-p65 module in macrophages restrains excessive inflammation, which may represent a new layer of therapeutic mechanism for colitis-associated colorectal cancer and sepsis.

6.
Immunology ; 164(2): 292-304, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999409

RESUMO

Allergic diseases are caused by dysregulated Th2 immune responses involving multiple effector cells including basophils. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate, exert immunomodulatory functions via activation of its receptors GPR41 and GPR43, and inhibition of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity. In allergic diseases, SCFAs suppress the activity of mast cells, eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) but enhance the function of Th2 cells. Here, we aimed to elucidate the function of SCFAs on human basophils. Human basophils were purified from healthy donors by flow cytometric sorting. The surface proteins, apoptosis and degranulation of basophils were analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. The mRNA expression was assayed using real-time PCR. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 were measured by ELISA. Histone acetylation was examined by western blot. GPR41 was expressed by basophils and was enhanced by IL-3. Acetate induced intracellular calcium influx in basophils which was suppressed by blocking GPR41. Propionate and butyrate, but not acetate, induced the expression of CD69 and IL-13. In addition, propionate and butyrate enhanced IgE-mediated basophil degranulation but inhibited basophil survival and IL-4 secretion. Propionate and butyrate induced histone acetylation of basophils and suppression of HDACs activity mimicked the effects of propionate and butyrate on human basophils. Our findings demonstrate that propionate and butyrate may play a complex role in regulating basophil apoptosis, activation and degranulation via inhibiting HDACs activity. The in vivo effects of SCFAs on the regulation of basophil-associated allergic diseases need to be further explored.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Basófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Butiratos/farmacologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Propionatos/farmacologia , Apoptose/imunologia , Basófilos/imunologia , Basófilos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249806, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819310

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188029.].

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(5): 166077, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515677

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal and agnogenic interstitial lung disease, which has limited therapeutic options. Recently, the NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been demonstrated as an important contributor to various fibrotic diseases following its persistent activation. However, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in pulmonary fibrogenesis still needs to be further clarified. Here, we found that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was raised in fibrotic lungs. In addition, the NLRP3 inflammasome was found to be activated in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in the lung tissue of both IPF patients and pulmonary fibrosis mouse models. Further research revealed that epithelial cells, following activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, could induce the myofibroblast differentiation of lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs). In addition, inhibiting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in epithelial cells promoted the expression of dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a secreted Wnt antagonist. DKK1 was capable of suppressing the profibrogenic differentiation of LR-MSCs and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, this study not only provides a further in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but also reveals a potential therapeutic strategy for disorders associated with pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos/imunologia , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 121, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420277

RESUMO

This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of different whole body vibration (WBV) frequencies on concentric and eccentric leg muscle strength, bone turnover and walking endurance after stroke. The study involved eighty-four individuals with chronic stroke (mean age = 59.7 years, SD = 6.5) with mild to moderate motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment lower limb motor score: mean = 24.0, SD = 3.5) randomly assigned to either a 20 Hz or 30 Hz WBV intervention program. Both programs involved 3 training sessions per week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic knee concentric and eccentric extension strength, serum level of cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx), and walking endurance (6-min walk test; 6MWT) were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significant time effect for all muscle strength outcomes and NTx, but not for 6MWT. The time-by-group interaction was only significant for the paretic eccentric knee extensor work, with a medium effect size (0.44; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.87). Both WBV protocols were effective in improving leg muscle strength and reducing bone resorption. Comparatively greater improvement in paretic eccentric leg strength was observed for the 30 Hz protocol.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Vibração , Idoso , Remodelação Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Caminhada
10.
Autophagy ; 17(2): 457-475, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983283

RESUMO

Macroautophagy/autophagy is indispensable for testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells (LCs), and here we report a negative association between m6A modification and autophagy in LCs during testosterone synthesis. A gradual decrease of METTL14 (methyltransferase like 14) and an increase of ALKBH5 (alkB homolog 5, RNA demethylase) were observed in LCs during their differentiation from stem LCs to adult LCs. These events led to reduced mRNA methylation levels of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and enhanced autophagy in LCs. Similar regulation of METTL14, ALKBH5, and m6A was also observed in LCs upon treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HsCG). Mechanistically, m6A modification promoted translation of PPM1A (protein phosphatase 1A, magnesium dependent, alpha isoform), a negative AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulator, but decreased expression of CAMKK2 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta), a positive AMPK regulator, by reducing its RNA stability. Thus, m6A modification resulted in reduced AMPK activity and subsequent autophagy inhibition. We further demonstrated that ALKBH5 upregulation by HsCG was dependent on enhanced binding of the transcriptional factor CEBPB (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein [C/EBP], beta) and the TFEB (transcription factor EB) to its gene promoter. Moreover, HsCG treatment decreased METTL14 by reducing its stability. Collectively, this study highlights a vital role of m6A RNA methylation in the modulation of testosterone synthesis in LCs, providing insight into novel therapeutic strategies by exploiting m6A RNA methylation as targets for treating azoospermatism and oligospermatism patients with reduction in serum testosterone.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ACTB: Actin, beta; ALKBH5: alkB homolog 5, RNA demethylase; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CAMKK2: calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta; CEBPB: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), beta; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; FTO: fat mass and obesity associated; HsCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; HSD3B: 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; LCs: Leydig cells; m6A: N6-methyladenosine; METTL14: methyltransferase like 14; METTL3: methyltransferase like 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PPM1A: protein phosphatase 1A, magnesium dependent, alpha isoform; PRKAA: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STK11/LKB1: serine/threonine kinase 11; TFEB: transcription factor EB; ULK1: unc-51-like kinase 1; WTAP: Wilms tumor 1-associating protein; YTHDF: YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein.

11.
FEBS J ; 288(11): 3530-3546, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314622

RESUMO

The alternative activation of macrophages in the lungs has been considered as a major factor promoting pulmonary fibrogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still elusive. In this study, we investigated the interaction between macrophages and fibrosis-associated alveolar epithelial cells using a bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis model and a coculture system. We demonstrated that fibrosis-promoting macrophages are spatially proximate to alveolar type II (ATII) cells, permissive for paracrine-induced macrophage polarization. Importantly, we revealed that fibrosis-associated ATII cells secrete Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a hedgehog pathway ligand, and that ATII cell-derived Shh promotes the development of pulmonary fibrosis by osteopontin (OPN)-mediated macrophage alternative activation. Mechanistically, Shh promotes the secretion of OPN in macrophages via Shh/Gli signaling cascade. The secreted OPN acts on the surrounding macrophages in an autocrine or paracrine manner and induces macrophage alternative activation through activating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Tissue samples from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients confirmed the increased expression of Shh and OPN in ATII cells and macrophages, respectively. Together, our study illustrated an alveolar epithelium-dependent mechanism for macrophage M2 polarization and pulmonary fibrogenesis and suggested that targeting Shh may offer a selective and efficient therapeutic strategy for the development and progression of pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
12.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128295, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297237

RESUMO

Microcystins-LR (MC-LR) acts as a possible carcinogen for humans and causes a serious risk to public environmental health. The current study aimed to evaluate the interaction between MC-LR exposure and prostate cancer development and elucidate the underlying mechanism. In this study, mice were exposed to MC-LR at various doses for 180 days. MC-LR was able to induce the progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and microinvasion. Furthermore, MC-LR notably increased angiogenesis and susceptibility to prostate cancer in vivo. In vitro, over 25 weeks of MC-LR exposure, normal human prostate epithelial (RWPE-1) cells increased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and colony formation, features typical for cancer cells. These MC-LR-transformed prostate epithelial cells displayed increased expression of forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); abrogation of FOXM1 or COX-2 activity by specific inhibitors could abolish the invasion and migration of MC-LR-treated cells. In conclusion, we have provided compelling evidence demonstrating the induction of a malignant phenotype in human prostate epithelial cells and the in vivo development of prostate cancer by exposure to MC-LR, which might be a potential tumor promoter in the progression of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Microcistinas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Células Epiteliais , Proteína Forkhead Box M1 , Humanos , Masculino , Toxinas Marinhas , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Camundongos , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/induzido quimicamente
13.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019842

RESUMO

TFE3 (transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3) nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity has been implicated in PINK1-PRKN/parkin-dependent mitophagy. However, the transcriptional control governing the mitophagy in TFE3/Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TFE3 tRCC) is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PRCC-TFE3 fusion protein, one of TFE3 fusion types in TFE3 tRCC, in governing mitophagy to promote development of PRCC-TFE3 tRCC. We observed and analyzed mitophagy, transcriptional control of PRCC-TFE3 on PINK1-PRKN-dependent mitophagy, PRCC-TFE3 fusions nuclear translocation, cancer cell survival and proliferation under mitochondrial oxidative damage in PRCC-TFE3 tRCC cell line. We found that nuclear-aggregated PRCC-TFE3 fusions constitutively activated expression of the target gene E3 ubiquitin ligase PRKN, leading to rapid PINK1-PRKN-dependent mitophagy that promoted cell survival under mitochondrial oxidative damage as well as cell proliferation through decreasing mitochondrial ROS formation. However, nuclear translocation of TFE3 fusions escaped from PINK1-PRKN-dependent mitophagy. Furthermore, we confirmed that PRCC-TFE3 fusion accelerated mitochondrial turnover by activating PPARGC1A/PGC1α-NRF1. In conclusion, our findings indicated a major role of PRCC-TFE3 fusion-mediated mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in promoting proliferation of PRCC-TFE3 tRCC.

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 533(4): 770-778, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988585

RESUMO

Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR), produced by cyanobacteria, accumulates in the liver through blood circulation. We investigated the impact of MC-LR on liver fibrosis. Mice received a daily injection of MC-LR at various concentrations for 14 consecutive days aa and then mouse liver was obtained for histopathological and immunoblot analysis. Next, a human hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) was treated with MC-LR at various concentrations followed by measurement of cell viability, cell cycle and relevant protein expression levels. Our data confirmed the induction of mouse liver fibrosis after exposure to MC-LR at 15 µg/kg and 30 µg/kg. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LX-2 cells could uptake MC-LR, resulting in cell proliferation and differentiation through impacting the Hedgehog signaling after the treatment of MC-LR at 50 nM. Our data supported that MC-LR could induce liver fibrosis by modulating the expression of the transcription factor Gli2 in the Hedgehog signaling in hepatic stellate cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139678, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479959

RESUMO

A father's lifetime experience is a major risk factor for a range of diseases in an individual, and the consequences of the exposure can also be transmitted to his offspring. Our previous work has demonstrated that damage to testicular structures and decline in sperm quality in male mice can be caused by microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), but the overall effects of the scope and extent of paternal exposure on health and disease in the offspring remain underexplored. Here, we report that MC-LR-paternal-exposed offspring mice showed reduced litter size and body weight accompanied by increased abnormalities in the lung. Analyses of the small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in the sperm from MC-LR-exposed males demonstrated the downregulation of a wide range of piRNAs enriched for those target genes involved in the regulation of the embryo implantation pathways. Gene and protein expression analyses, as well as biochemical and functional studies, revealed suppressed expression of Hsp90α in testicular tissues from MC-LR-exposed males. Decreased Hsp90α in testicular tissues impaired the development of the offspring. In this study, we revealed that MC-LR alters the expression of Hsp90α in testicular tissues to cause changes in the expression profiles of sperm piRNAs produced by paternal mice. These changes lead to aberrant activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in pulmonary tissues of offspring mice, causing lung tissue damage and abnormal development. We hereby confirmed that MC-LR-induced alterations in epigenetic inheritance are capable of contributing to intergenerational developmental defects in paternal-exposed offspring mice.


Assuntos
Arginina , Microcistinas , Animais , Pai , Humanos , Leucina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
16.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(2): 136, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075954

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a group of chronic interstitial pulmonary diseases characterized by myofibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition with limited treatment options. Based on our previous observation, we hypothesized microcystin-leucine arginine (LR), an environmental cyanobacterial toxin, could potentially suppress pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we first demonstrated that chronic exposure of microcystin-LR by oral for weeks indeed attenuated the pulmonary fibrosis both on bleomycin-induced rat and fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced mouse models. Our data further indicated that treatment with microcystin-LR substantially reduced TGF-ß1/Smad signaling in rat pulmonary tissues. The experiments in vitro found that microcystin-LR was capable of blocking epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast-myofibroblast transition (FMT) through suppressing the differentiation of CD206+ macrophages. Mechanically, microcystin-LR was found to bind to glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and suppress endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPRER) signaling pathways. These events led to the modulation of M2 polarization of macrophages, which eventually contributed to the alleviation of pulmonary fibrosis. Our results revealed a novel mechanism that may account for therapeutic effect of microcystin-LR on IPF.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/prevenção & controle , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas/farmacologia , Microcistinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células NIH 3T3 , Fenótipo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
17.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 84, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rats with hyperandrogen-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been shown to develop ovarian oxidative stress (OS) and fibrosis. The Sirt1 agonist, resveratrol, can reduce OS through inhibiting p66Shc in other models of OS. METHODS: We created a rat PCOS model with increased OS levels following treatment with one of the two androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The PCOS related features were determined by measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels or by examining the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels using the DCF-DA probe. The potential mechanisms by which p66Shc/Sirt1 mediates ovarian fibrosis were explored by western blotting, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Hyperandrogen dramatically augmented OS and activation of fibrotic factors in the ovary. Our data demonstrated that treatment with resveratrol enhanced Sirt1 and decreased ovarian OS as well as inhibited phosphorylation of p66Shc both in vivo and in vitro. The treatment suppressed fibrotic factor activation and improved ovarian morphology. Lentivirus- or siRNA-mediated p66Shc knockdown resulted in a dramatic enhancement of Sirt1 expression, down-regulation of ROS and suppression of fibrotic factors in granulosa cells. Moreover, p66Shc overexpression markedly increased the expression of fibrotic factors. Additionally, silencing Sirt1 induced a dramatic increase in p66Shc and enhanced activation of fibrotic factors. CONCLUSIONS: p66Shc may be a direct target of Sirt1 for inducing ROS and thus promoting fibrosis. Further exploration of the mechanisms of p66Shc in both fibrosis and OS may provide novel therapeutic strategies that will facilitate the improvement in PCOS symptoms and reproductive functions.


Assuntos
Hiperandrogenismo , Ovário , Animais , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/patologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Proteína 1 de Transformação que Contém Domínio 2 de Homologia de Src/metabolismo
18.
Cell Signal ; 67: 109501, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837464

RESUMO

Inactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) via hypermethylation is an early and common event in prostate carcinogenesis. Functional inactivation of GSTP1 increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress and enhance progression risk of the prostatic carcinoma. In this study, we hypothesized that the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) could be a sequence-recognition and guidance molecule for induction of promoter methylation of GSTP1 facilitating prostate carcinogenesis. We found that piR-31470 was highly expressed in prostate cancer cells, and piR-31470 could bind to piwi-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 4 (PIWIL4) to form the PIWIL4/piR-31470 complex. This complex could bind to the nascent RNA transcripts of GSTP1, and recruit DNA methyltransferase 1, DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 to initiate and maintain the hypermethylation and inactivation of GSTP1. Our data demonstrated that the overexpression of piR-31470 inhibited the levels of GSTP1 and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and DNA damage in human prostate epithelial RWPE1 cells. In conclusion, this study characterized the roles of the PIWIL4/piR-31470 complex in the regulation of the transcription of GSTP1 by methylating the CpG island of GSTP1. This discovery may provide a novel therapeutic strategy by targeting piRNAs for the epigenetic treatment of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
19.
Lab Invest ; 100(3): 363-377, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541181

RESUMO

Lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) are important regulators of lung repair and regeneration, and evidence suggests that this cell population also plays a vital role in fibrosis. Crosstalk between sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and wingless/integrated (Wnt) has been demonstrated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the underlying correlation between LR-MSCs and the Shh-Wnt signaling cascade remains poorly understood. Here, we identified Wnt10a as a key factor in pulmonary fibrosis. Using a bleomycin mouse model, we found that highly expressed Wnt10a was secreted by LR-MSCs undergoing myofibroblastic differentiation. LR-MSCs with myofibroblast characteristics isolated from fibrotic lungs exhibited increased Shh pathway activity, suggesting their role as Shh targets. In vitro, LR-MSCs responded to stimulation by recombinant Shh, acquiring a myofibroblast phenotype. We further demonstrated that the Shh/glioblastoma (Gli) system machinery regulated LR-MSC-to-myofibroblast transition and pulmonary fibrosis via manipulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Accordingly, inhibition of the Shh-Wnt signaling cascade prevented LR-MSC transformation into myofibroblasts and ameliorated pulmonary fibrotic lesions. Moreover, induction of Wnt10a expression and activation of Shh/Gli signaling were confirmed in human pulmonary fibrosis. In summary, this study linking the Shh-Wnt signaling cascade with LR-MSC fibrogenic activity furthered the current understanding of pulmonary fibrosis pathogenesis and might provide a new perspective in the development of treatment strategies for IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 373: 504-518, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947040

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that toxins produced by toxic cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous materials. Although microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been revealed to inflict damage to the brain, the mechanisms underlying its neurotoxicity as a result of chronic exposure to MC-LR are not fully described. In this study, the mice were exposed to MC-LR dissolved in drinking water at doses of 1, 7.5, 15, or 30 µg/L for 180 days. MC-LR accumulated mostly in the mouse hippocampus (55 ng/g dry weight) followed by cortex (28 ng/g dry weight) after exposure to MC-LR at 30 µg/L. MC-LR exposure at this concentration induced dysfunction of learning and memory, accompanied with apoptosis of neuronal cells (with 10% reduction of the neurons in the CA1 region and 15% in the CA2 region), reduction of spine density, accumulation of ß-amyloid plaques 1-42 (Aß1-42), and enhanced phosphorylation of tau (p-tau) in the brain, which is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These data indicate that MC-LR may induce AD-like pathology. Following prolonged exposure, MC-LR significantly upregulated the ratio of proBDNF to BDNF by downregulating the tPA levels, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways to improve the expression of p-JNK, and c-Jun while to inhibit the expression of p-Creb and p-PKC. This study uncovered new molecular mechanisms that account for neurotoxicity after chronic exposure to MC-LR, which has wide-ranging implications for public health.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Toxinas Marinhas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
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