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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(W1): W671-W678, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009334

RESUMO

Vaccination is one of the most significant inventions in medicine. Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a state-of-the-art technique to predict vaccine candidates from pathogen's genome(s). To promote vaccine development, we updated Vaxign2, the first web-based vaccine design program using reverse vaccinology with machine learning. Vaxign2 is a comprehensive web server for rational vaccine design, consisting of predictive and computational workflow components. The predictive part includes the original Vaxign filtering-based method and a new machine learning-based method, Vaxign-ML. The benchmarking results using a validation dataset showed that Vaxign-ML had superior prediction performance compared to other RV tools. Besides the prediction component, Vaxign2 implemented various post-prediction analyses to significantly enhance users' capability to refine the prediction results based on different vaccine design rationales and considerably reduce user time to analyze the Vaxign/Vaxign-ML prediction results. Users provide proteome sequences as input data, select candidates based on Vaxign outputs and Vaxign-ML scores, and perform post-prediction analysis. Vaxign2 also includes precomputed results from approximately 1 million proteins in 398 proteomes of 36 pathogens. As a demonstration, Vaxign2 was used to effectively analyse SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus causing COVID-19. The comprehensive framework of Vaxign2 can support better and more rational vaccine design. Vaxign2 is publicly accessible at http://www.violinet.org/vaxign2.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Internet , Aprendizado de Máquina , Software , Vacinas , Vacinologia/métodos , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Proteoma , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas/química , Vacinas/imunologia , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777032

RESUMO

Vaccines stimulate various immune factors critical to protective immune responses. However, a comprehensive picture of vaccine-induced immune factors and pathways have not been systematically collected and analyzed. To address this issue, we developed VaximmutorDB, a web-based database system of vaccine immune factors (abbreviated as "vaximmutors") manually curated from peer-reviewed articles. VaximmutorDB currently stores 1,740 vaccine immune factors from 13 host species (e.g., human, mouse, and pig). These vaximmutors were induced by 154 vaccines for 46 pathogens. Top 10 vaximmutors include three antibodies (IgG, IgG2a and IgG1), Th1 immune factors (IFN-γ and IL-2), Th2 immune factors (IL-4 and IL-6), TNF-α, CASP-1, and TLR8. Many enriched host processes (e.g., stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway, SRP-dependent cotranslational protein targeting to membrane) and cellular components (e.g., extracellular exosome, nucleoplasm) by all the vaximmutors were identified. Using influenza as a model, live attenuated and killed inactivated influenza vaccines stimulate many shared pathways such as signaling of many interleukins (including IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, IL-20, and IL-27), interferon signaling, MARK1 activation, and neutrophil degranulation. However, they also present their unique response patterns. While live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist induced significant signal transduction responses, killed inactivated influenza vaccine Fluarix induced significant metabolism of protein responses. Two different Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-Vax) studies resulted in overlapping gene lists; however, they shared more portions of pathways than gene lists. Interestingly, live attenuated YF-Vax simulates significant metabolism of protein responses, which was similar to the pattern induced by killed inactivated Fluarix. A user-friendly web interface was generated to access, browse and search the VaximmutorDB database information. As the first web-based database of vaccine immune factors, VaximmutorDB provides systematical collection, standardization, storage, and analysis of experimentally verified vaccine immune factors, supporting better understanding of protective vaccine immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Internet , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(D1): D693-D700, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365026

RESUMO

Virulence factors (VFs) are molecules that allow microbial pathogens to overcome host defense mechanisms and cause disease in a host. It is critical to study VFs for better understanding microbial pathogenesis and host defense mechanisms. Victors (http://www.phidias.us/victors) is a novel, manually curated, web-based integrative knowledge base and analysis resource for VFs of pathogens that cause infectious diseases in human and animals. Currently, Victors contains 5296 VFs obtained via manual annotation from peer-reviewed publications, with 4648, 179, 105 and 364 VFs originating from 51 bacterial, 54 viral, 13 parasitic and 8 fungal species, respectively. Our data analysis identified many VF-specific patterns. Within the global VF pool, cytoplasmic proteins were more common, while adhesins were less common compared to findings on protective vaccine antigens. Many VFs showed homology with host proteins and the human proteins interacting with VFs represented the hubs of human-pathogen interactions. All Victors data are queriable with a user-friendly web interface. The VFs can also be searched by a customized BLAST sequence similarity searching program. These VFs and their interactions with the host are represented in a machine-readable Ontology of Host-Pathogen Interactions. Victors supports the 'One Health' research as a vital source of VFs in human and animal pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Genoma Fúngico , Genoma Viral , Bases de Conhecimento , Software , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genômica/métodos , Genômica/normas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos
4.
J Biomed Semantics ; 9(1): 3, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329592

RESUMO

Ontologies are critical to data/metadata and knowledge standardization, sharing, and analysis. With hundreds of biological and biomedical ontologies developed, it has become critical to ensure ontology interoperability and the usage of interoperable ontologies for standardized data representation and integration. The suite of web-based Ontoanimal tools (e.g., Ontofox, Ontorat, and Ontobee) support different aspects of extensible ontology development. By summarizing the common features of Ontoanimal and other similar tools, we identified and proposed an "eXtensible Ontology Development" (XOD) strategy and its associated four principles. These XOD principles reuse existing terms and semantic relations from reliable ontologies, develop and apply well-established ontology design patterns (ODPs), and involve community efforts to support new ontology development, promoting standardized and interoperable data and knowledge representation and integration. The adoption of the XOD strategy, together with robust XOD tool development, will greatly support ontology interoperability and robust ontology applications to support data to be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (i.e., FAIR).


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Semântica , Software
5.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 185: 20-33, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28241999

RESUMO

A reverse vaccinology system, Vaxign, was used to identify and select a subset of five African Swine Fever (ASF) antigens that were successfully purified from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells and produced in Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vectors. Three HEK-purified antigens [B646L (p72), E183L (p54), and O61R (p12)], and three MVA-vectored antigens [B646L, EP153R, and EP402R (CD2v)] were evaluated using a prime-boost immunization regimen swine safety and immunogenicity study. Antibody responses were detected in pigs following prime-boost immunization four weeks apart with the HEK-293-purified p72, p54, and p12 antigens. Notably, sera from the vaccinees were positive by immunofluorescence on ASFV (Georgia 2007/1)-infected primary macrophages. Although MVA-vectored p72, CD2v, and EP153R failed to induce antibody responses, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ+) spot forming cell responses against all three antigens were detected one week post-boost. The highest IFN-γ+ spot forming cell responses were detected against p72 in pigs primed with MVA-p72 and boosted with the recombinant p72. Antigen-specific (p12, p72, CD2v, and EP153R) T-cell proliferative responses were also detected post-boost. Collectively, these results are the first demonstration that ASFV subunit antigens purified from mammalian cells or expressed in MVA vectors are safe and can induce ASFV-specific antibody and T-cell responses following a prime-boost immunization regimen in swine.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/genética , Vetores Genéticos , Genoma Viral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Suínos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 45(D1): D347-D352, 2017 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733503

RESUMO

Linked Data (LD) aims to achieve interconnected data by representing entities using Unified Resource Identifiers (URIs), and sharing information using Resource Description Frameworks (RDFs) and HTTP. Ontologies, which logically represent entities and relations in specific domains, are the basis of LD. Ontobee (http://www.ontobee.org/) is a linked ontology data server that stores ontology information using RDF triple store technology and supports query, visualization and linkage of ontology terms. Ontobee is also the default linked data server for publishing and browsing biomedical ontologies in the Open Biological Ontology (OBO) Foundry (http://obofoundry.org) library. Ontobee currently hosts more than 180 ontologies (including 131 OBO Foundry Library ontologies) with over four million terms. Ontobee provides a user-friendly web interface for querying and visualizing the details and hierarchy of a specific ontology term. Using the eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) technology, Ontobee is able to dereference a single ontology term URI, and then output RDF/eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for computer processing or display the HTML information on a web browser for human users. Statistics and detailed information are generated and displayed for each ontology listed in Ontobee. In addition, a SPARQL web interface is provided for custom advanced SPARQL queries of one or multiple ontologies.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Software , Navegador
7.
J Biomed Semantics ; 7: 29, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27213033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathy often occurs following drug treatment such as chemotherapy. Severe instances of neuropathy can result in cessation of life-saving chemotherapy treatment. RESULTS: To support data representation and analysis of drug-associated neuropathy adverse events (AEs), we developed the Ontology of Drug Neuropathy Adverse Events (ODNAE). ODNAE extends the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE). Our combinatorial approach identified 215 US FDA-licensed small molecule drugs that induce signs and symptoms of various types of neuropathy. ODNAE imports related drugs from the Drug Ontology (DrON) with their chemical ingredients defined in ChEBI. ODNAE includes 139 drug mechanisms of action from NDF-RT and 186 biological processes represented in the Gene Ontology (GO). In total ODNAE contains 1579 terms. Our analysis of the ODNAE knowledge base shows neuropathy-inducing drugs classified under specific molecular entity groups, especially carbon, pnictogen, chalcogen, and heterocyclic compounds. The carbon drug group includes 127 organic chemical drugs. Thirty nine receptor agonist and antagonist terms were identified, including 4 pairs (31 drugs) of agonists and antagonists that share targets (e.g., adrenergic receptor, dopamine, serotonin, and sex hormone receptor). Many drugs regulate neurological system processes (e.g., negative regulation of dopamine or serotonin uptake). SPARQL scripts were used to query the ODNAE ontology knowledge base. CONCLUSIONS: ODNAE is an effective platform for building a drug-induced neuropathy knowledge base and for analyzing the underlying mechanisms of drug-induced neuropathy. The ODNAE-based methods used in this study can also be extended to the representation and study of other categories of adverse events.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente
8.
Comp Med ; 66(2): 119-28, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053566

RESUMO

Animal models are indispensable for vaccine research and development. However, choosing which species to use and designing a vaccine study that is optimized for that species is often challenging. Vaxar (http://www.violinet.org/vaxar/) is a web-based database and analysis system that stores manually curated data regarding vaccine-induced responses in animals. To date, Vaxar encompasses models from 35 animal species including rodents, rabbits, ferrets, primates, and birds. These 35 species have been used to study more than 1300 experimentally tested vaccines for 164 pathogens and diseases significant to humans and domestic animals. The responses to vaccines by animals in more than 1500 experimental studies are recorded in Vaxar; these data can be used for systematic meta-analysis of various animal responses to a particular vaccine. For example, several variables, including animal strain, animal age, and the dose or route of either vaccination or challenge, might affect host response outcomes. Vaxar can also be used to identify variables that affect responses to different vaccines in a specific animal model. All data stored in Vaxar are publically available for web-based queries and analyses. Overall Vaxar provides a unique systematic approach for understanding vaccine-induced host immunity.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Factuais , Modelos Animais , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Internet , Metanálise como Assunto , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
9.
J Biomed Semantics ; 6: 37, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26445639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomedical ontologies are representations of classes of entities in the biomedical domain and how these classes are related in computer- and human-interpretable formats. Ontologies support data standardization and exchange and provide a basis for computer-assisted automated reasoning. IDOBRU is an ontology in the domain of Brucella and brucellosis. Brucella is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, the most common zoonotic disease in the world. In this study, IDOBRU is used as a platform to model and analyze how the hosts, especially host macrophages, interact with virulent Brucella strains or live attenuated Brucella vaccine strains. Such a study allows us to better integrate and understand intricate Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity mechanisms. RESULTS: Different levels of host-Brucella interactions based on different host cell types and Brucella strains were first defined ontologically. Three important processes of virulent Brucella interacting with host macrophages were represented: Brucella entry into macrophage, intracellular trafficking, and intracellular replication. Two Brucella pathogenesis mechanisms were ontologically represented: Brucella Type IV secretion system that supports intracellular trafficking and replication, and Brucella erythritol metabolism that participates in Brucella intracellular survival and pathogenesis. The host cell death pathway is critical to the outcome of host-Brucella interactions. For better survival and replication, virulent Brucella prevents macrophage cell death. However, live attenuated B. abortus vaccine strain RB51 induces caspase-2-mediated proinflammatory cell death. Brucella-associated cell death processes are represented in IDOBRU. The gene and protein information of 432 manually annotated Brucella virulence factors were represented using the Ontology of Genes and Genomes (OGG) and Protein Ontology (PRO), respectively. Seven inference rules were defined to capture the knowledge of host-Brucella interactions and implemented in IDOBRU. Current IDOBRU includes 3611 ontology terms. SPARQL queries identified many results that are critical to the host-Brucella interactions. For example, out of 269 protein virulence factors related to macrophage-Brucella interactions, 81 are critical to Brucella intracellular replication inside macrophages. A SPARQL query also identified 11 biological processes important for Brucella virulence. CONCLUSIONS: To systematically represent and analyze fundamental host-pathogen interaction mechanisms, we provided for the first time comprehensive ontological modeling of host-pathogen interactions using Brucella as the pathogen model. The methods and ontology representations used in our study are generic and can be broadened to study the interactions between hosts and other pathogens.

10.
Vaccine ; 33(48): 6938-46, 2015 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26403370

RESUMO

A recombinant vector vaccine uses an attenuated virus, bacterium, or parasite as the carrier to express a heterologous antigen(s). Many recombinant vaccine vectors and related vaccines have been developed and extensively investigated. To compare and better understand recombinant vectors and vaccines, we have generated Vaxvec (http://www.violinet.org/vaxvec), the first web-based database that stores various recombinant vaccine vectors and those experimentally verified vaccines that use these vectors. Vaxvec has now included 59 vaccine vectors that have been used in 196 recombinant vector vaccines against 66 pathogens and cancers. These vectors are classified to 41 viral vectors, 15 bacterial vectors, 1 parasitic vector, and 1 fungal vector. The most commonly used viral vaccine vectors are double-stranded DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and poxviruses. For example, Vaxvec includes 63 poxvirus-based recombinant vaccines for over 20 pathogens and cancers. Vaxvec collects 30 recombinant vector influenza vaccines that use 17 recombinant vectors and were experimentally tested in 7 animal models. In addition, over 60 protective antigens used in recombinant vector vaccines are annotated and analyzed. User-friendly web-interfaces are available for querying various data in Vaxvec. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine vectors, vaccines, and related information is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Vaxvec is a timely and vital source of vaccine vector database and facilitates efficient vaccine vector research and development.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Portadores de Fármacos , Vetores Genéticos , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Animais , Humanos , Internet
11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 10864, 2015 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242322

RESUMO

The response regulator OtpR is critical for the growth, morphology and virulence of Brucella melitensis. Compared to its wild type strain 16 M, B. melitensis 16 MΔotpR mutant has decreased tolerance to acid stress. To analyze the genes regulated by OtpR under acid stress, we performed RNA-seq whole transcriptome analysis of 16 MΔotpR and 16 M. In total, 501 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 390 down-regulated and 111 up-regulated genes. Among these genes, 209 were associated with bacterial metabolism, including 54 genes involving carbohydrate metabolism, 13 genes associated with nitrogen metabolism, and seven genes associated with iron metabolism. The 16 MΔotpR also decreased capacity to utilize different carbon sources and to tolerate iron limitation in culture experiments. Notably, OtpR regulated many Brucella virulence factors essential for B. melitensis intracellular survival. For instance, the virB operon encoding type IV secretion system was significantly down-regulated, and 36 known transcriptional regulators (e.g., vjbR and blxR) were differentially expressed in 16 MΔotpR. Selected RNA-seq results were experimentally confirmed by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Overall, these results deciphered differential phenomena associated with virulence, environmental stresses and cell morphology in 16 MΔotpR and 16 M, which provided important information for understanding the detailed OtpR-regulated interaction networks and Brucella pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Brucella melitensis/genética , RNA Bacteriano/química , Ácidos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Brucella melitensis/metabolismo , Brucella melitensis/patogenicidade , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
12.
J Biomed Semantics ; 6: 2, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25785184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature mining of gene-gene interactions has been enhanced by ontology-based name classifications. However, in biomedical literature mining, interaction keywords have not been carefully studied and used beyond a collection of keywords. METHODS: In this study, we report the development of a new Interaction Network Ontology (INO) that classifies >800 interaction keywords and incorporates interaction terms from the PSI Molecular Interactions (PSI-MI) and Gene Ontology (GO). Using INO-based literature mining results, a modified Fisher's exact test was established to analyze significantly over- and under-represented enriched gene-gene interaction types within a specific area. Such a strategy was applied to study the vaccine-mediated gene-gene interactions using all PubMed abstracts. The Vaccine Ontology (VO) and INO were used to support the retrieval of vaccine terms and interaction keywords from the literature. RESULTS: INO is aligned with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and imports terms from 10 other existing ontologies. Current INO includes 540 terms. In terms of interaction-related terms, INO imports and aligns PSI-MI and GO interaction terms and includes over 100 newly generated ontology terms with 'INO_' prefix. A new annotation property, 'has literature mining keywords', was generated to allow the listing of different keywords mapping to the interaction types in INO. Using all PubMed documents published as of 12/31/2013, approximately 266,000 vaccine-associated documents were identified, and a total of 6,116 gene-pairs were associated with at least one INO term. Out of 78 INO interaction terms associated with at least five gene-pairs of the vaccine-associated sub-network, 14 terms were significantly over-represented (i.e., more frequently used) and 17 under-represented based on our modified Fisher's exact test. These over-represented and under-represented terms share some common top-level terms but are distinct at the bottom levels of the INO hierarchy. The analysis of these interaction types and their associated gene-gene pairs uncovered many scientific insights. CONCLUSIONS: INO provides a novel approach for defining hierarchical interaction types and related keywords for literature mining. The ontology-based literature mining, in combination with an INO-based statistical interaction enrichment test, provides a new platform for efficient mining and analysis of topic-specific gene interaction networks.

13.
J Biomed Semantics ; 6: 4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25785185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is time-consuming to build an ontology with many terms and axioms. Thus it is desired to automate the process of ontology development. Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) provide a reusable solution to solve a recurrent modeling problem in the context of ontology engineering. Because ontology terms often follow specific ODPs, the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) developers proposed a Quick Term Templates (QTTs) process targeted at generating new ontology classes following the same pattern, using term templates in a spreadsheet format. RESULTS: Inspired by the ODPs and QTTs, the Ontorat web application is developed to automatically generate new ontology terms, annotations of terms, and logical axioms based on a specific ODP(s). The inputs of an Ontorat execution include axiom expression settings, an input data file, ID generation settings, and a target ontology (optional). The axiom expression settings can be saved as a predesigned Ontorat setting format text file for reuse. The input data file is generated based on a template file created by a specific ODP (text or Excel format). Ontorat is an efficient tool for ontology expansion. Different use cases are described. For example, Ontorat was applied to automatically generate over 1,000 Japan RIKEN cell line cell terms with both logical axioms and rich annotation axioms in the Cell Line Ontology (CLO). Approximately 800 licensed animal vaccines were represented and annotated in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) by Ontorat. The OBI team used Ontorat to add assay and device terms required by ENCODE project. Ontorat was also used to add missing annotations to all existing Biobank specific terms in the Biobank Ontology. A collection of ODPs and templates with examples are provided on the Ontorat website and can be reused to facilitate ontology development. CONCLUSIONS: With ever increasing ontology development and applications, Ontorat provides a timely platform for generating and annotating a large number of ontology terms by following design patterns. AVAILABILITY: http://ontorat.hegroup.org/.

14.
J Biomed Semantics ; 5: 29, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25093068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. DESCRIPTION: The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term 'adverse event' denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. CONCLUSION: OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of adverse events and of the factors (e.g., vaccinee age) important for determining their clinical outcomes.

15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 15 Suppl 4: S2, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25104313

RESUMO

Since the first DNA vaccine studies were done in the 1990s, thousands more studies have followed. Here we report the development and analysis of DNAVaxDB (http://www.violinet.org/dnavaxdb), the first publically available web-based DNA vaccine database that curates, stores, and analyzes experimentally verified DNA vaccines, DNA vaccine plasmid vectors, and protective antigens used in DNA vaccines. All data in DNAVaxDB are annotated from reliable resources, particularly peer-reviewed articles. Among over 140 DNA vaccine plasmids, some plasmids were more frequently used in one type of pathogen than others; for example, pCMVi-UB for G- bacterial DNA vaccines, and pCAGGS for viral DNA vaccines. Presently, over 400 DNA vaccines containing over 370 protective antigens from over 90 infectious and non-infectious diseases have been curated in DNAVaxDB. While extracellular and bacterial cell surface proteins and adhesin proteins were frequently used for DNA vaccine development, the majority of protective antigens used in Chlamydophila DNA vaccines are localized to the inner portion of the cell. The DNA vaccine priming, other vaccine boosting vaccination regimen has been widely used to induce protection against infection of different pathogens such as HIV. Parasitic and cancer DNA vaccines were also systematically analyzed. User-friendly web query and visualization interfaces are available in DNAVaxDB for interactive data search. To support data exchange, the information of DNA vaccines, plasmids, and protective antigens is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). DNAVaxDB is targeted to become a timely and vital source of DNA vaccines and related data and facilitate advanced DNA vaccine research and development.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Proteínas/imunologia , Software , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vírus/imunologia
16.
Bioinformatics ; 30(9): 1340-2, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24413522

RESUMO

Biomedical ontologies are often very large and complex. Only a subset of the ontology may be needed for a specified application or community. For ontology end users, it is desirable to have community-based labels rather than the labels generated by ontology developers. Ontodog is a web-based system that can generate an ontology subset based on Excel input, and support generation of an ontology community view, which is defined as the whole or a subset of the source ontology with user-specified annotations including user-preferred labels. Ontodog allows users to easily generate community views with minimal ontology knowledge and no programming skills or installation required. Currently >100 ontologies including all OBO Foundry ontologies are available to generate the views based on user needs. We demonstrate the application of Ontodog for the generation of community views using the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations as the source ontology.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Internet , Software
17.
J Biomed Semantics ; 5: 37, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25852852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. CONSTRUCTION AND CONTENT: Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as 'cell line', 'cell line cell', 'cell line culturing', and 'mortal' vs. 'immortal cell line cell'. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. UTILITY AND DISCUSSION: The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO's utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development.

18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(Database issue): D1124-32, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24259431

RESUMO

The integrative Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN) vaccine research database and analysis system (http://www.violinet.org) curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. Since its first publication in NAR in 2008, significant updates have been made. Starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, VIOLIN now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). Under the umbrella of VIOLIN, >10 relatively independent programs are developed. For example, Protegen stores over 800 protective antigens experimentally proven valid for vaccine development. VirmugenDB annotated over 200 'virmugens', a term coined by us to represent those virulence factor genes that can be mutated to generate successful live attenuated vaccines. Specific patterns were identified from the genes collected in Protegen and VirmugenDB. VIOLIN also includes Vaxign, the first web-based vaccine candidate prediction program based on reverse vaccinology. VIOLIN collects and analyzes different vaccine components including vaccine adjuvants (Vaxjo) and DNA vaccine plasmids (DNAVaxDB). VIOLIN includes licensed human vaccines (Huvax) and veterinary vaccines (Vevax). The Vaccine Ontology is applied to standardize and integrate various data in VIOLIN. VIOLIN also hosts the Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events (OVAE) that logically represents adverse events associated with licensed human vaccines.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Vacinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Antígenos/química , Antígenos/genética , Mineração de Dados , Genes , Genômica , Humanos , Internet , Plasmídeos/genética , Proteínas/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Software , Integração de Sistemas , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/química , Vacinas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 14 Suppl 6: S3, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23735014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine protection investigation includes three processes: vaccination, pathogen challenge, and vaccine protection efficacy assessment. Many variables can affect the results of vaccine protection. Brucella, a genus of facultative intracellular bacteria, is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in humans and multiple animal species. Extensive research has been conducted in developing effective live attenuated Brucella vaccines. We hypothesized that some variables play a more important role than others in determining vaccine protective efficacy. Using Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates as study models, this hypothesis was tested by meta-analysis of Brucella vaccine studies reported in the literature. RESULTS: Nineteen variables related to vaccine-induced protection of mice against infection with virulent brucellae were selected based on modeling investigation of the vaccine protection processes. The variable "vaccine protection efficacy" was set as a dependent variable while the other eighteen were set as independent variables. Discrete or continuous values were collected from papers for each variable of each data set. In total, 401 experimental groups were manually annotated from 74 peer-reviewed publications containing mouse protection data for live attenuated Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates. Our ANOVA analysis indicated that nine variables contributed significantly (P-value < 0.05) to Brucella vaccine protection efficacy: vaccine strain, vaccination host (mouse) strain, vaccination dose, vaccination route, challenge pathogen strain, challenge route, challenge-killing interval, colony forming units (CFUs) in mouse spleen, and CFU reduction compared to control group. The other 10 variables (e.g., mouse age, vaccination-challenge interval, and challenge dose) were not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The protection level of RB51 was sacrificed when the values of several variables (e.g., vaccination route, vaccine viability, and challenge pathogen strain) change. It is suggestive that it is difficult to protect against aerosol challenge. Somewhat counter-intuitively, our results indicate that intraperitoneal and subcutaneous vaccinations are much more effective to protect against aerosol Brucella challenge than intranasal vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Literature meta-analysis identified variables that significantly contribute to Brucella vaccine protection efficacy. The results obtained provide critical information for rational vaccine study design. Literature meta-analysis is generic and can be applied to analyze variables critical for vaccine protection against other infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose/administração & dosagem , Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Brucella/imunologia , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 993: 115-27, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23568467

RESUMO

In vaccine design, databases and in silico tools play different but complementary roles. Databases collect experimentally verified vaccines and vaccine components, and in silico tools provide computational methods to predict and design new vaccines and vaccine components. Vaccine-related databases include databases of vaccines and vaccine components. In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintains a database of licensed human vaccines, and the US Department of Agriculture keeps a database of licensed animal vaccines. Databases of vaccine clinical trials and vaccines in research also exist. The important vaccine components include vaccine antigens, vaccine adjuvants, vaccine vectors, and -vaccine preservatives. The vaccine antigens can be whole proteins or immune epitopes. Various in silico vaccine design tools are also available. The Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN; http://www.violinet.org ) is a comprehensive vaccine database and analysis system. The VIOLIN database includes various types of vaccines and vaccine components. VIOLIN also includes Vaxign, a Web-based in silico vaccine design program based on the reverse vaccinology strategy. Vaccine information and resources can be integrated with Vaccine Ontology (VO). This chapter introduces databases and in silico tools that facilitate vaccine design, especially those in the VIOLIN system.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Desenho de Fármacos , Vacinas , Animais , Humanos , Vacinas/imunologia
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