Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 645
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130674, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343801

RESUMO

Strontium chloride added to aqueous suspensions of metastable calcium citrate tetrahydrate increased calcium ion activity measured electrochemically without transition of metastable tetrahydrate to stable calcium citrate hexahydrate as shown by DSC. Calcium activity increase was explained by lower solubility of strontium citrate pentahydrate formed (8.9 × 10-4 M at 25 °C) increasing with temperature compared to calcium citrate tetrahydrate (1.6 × 10-3 M) decreasing with temperature. Strontium binding to citrate was found endothermic, ΔH0 = 45 kJ∙mol-1 at 25 °C, while calcium binding shows variation from ΔH0 = 94 kJ∙mol-1 at 10 °C becoming exothermic above physiological temperature with ΔH0 = -9 kJ∙mol-1 at 45 °C as determined from temperature and concentration variation in electric conductivity. These differences in solution thermodynamics and pH effect on complex formation between calcium and strontium citrate are discussed in relation to biomineralization.


Assuntos
Citrato de Cálcio , Cálcio , Solubilidade , Estrôncio , Termodinâmica
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114716, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626781

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fructus Tribuli (FT) has been commonly used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. With the diverse uses of FT, more attention has been paid to its hepatorenal toxicity. However, the compounds causing the hepatorenal toxicity of FT remain undetermined. Terrestrosin D (TED), a major spirostanol saponin isolated from FT, may exert hepatorenal toxicity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatorenal toxicity of TED, and preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity assays, a repeated-dose 28-day in-vivo study, a toxicokinetic study, and a tissue distribution study were used to evaluate the potential hepatorenal toxicity of TED. Furthermore, network pharmacology was applied to preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity. RESULTS: Both the in vitro and in vivo studies showed that the spirostanol saponin TED had potential hepatorenal toxicity. Nonetheless, hepatorenal toxicity induced by oral treatment with TED at a dosage range of 5 - 15 mg/kg daily for 28 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was reversible after 14 days of TED withdrawal. The toxicokinetic study demonstrated that the systematic exposure of SD rats to TED had an accumulation phenomenon and a dose-dependent trend after a 28-day repeated-dose oral administration. The tissue distribution study revealed that TED had a targeted distribution in the liver and kidneys accompanied by a phenomenon of accumulation in SD rats. Network pharmacology combined with molecular docking methods was used to screen for the key targets (HSP90AA1, CNR1, and DRD2) and the key pathways of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The spirostanol saponin TED, a major spirostanol saponin isolated from FT, had potential hepatorenal toxicity.

3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1008-1014, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of the course of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics on intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: A total of 29 VLBW infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Children's Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University from June to December 2020 were enrolled as subjects for this prospective study. According to the course of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, they were divided into two groups: ≤7 days (n=9) and >7 days (n=20). Fecal samples were collected on days 14 and 28 of hospitalization, and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the flora and SCFAs in fecal samples. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in Chao index of the intestinal flora in the ≤7 days group and the >7 days group from week 2 to week 4 (P<0.05). In the ≤7 days group, there were significant increases in the proportions of Firmicutes and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and a significant reduction in the proportion of Proteobacteria from week 2 to week 4 (P<0.05). At week 4, compared with the ≤7 days group, the >7 days group had significant reductions in the proportions of Firmicutes and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and a significant increase in the proportion of Proteobacteria (P<0.05), as well as significant reductions in the content of isobutyric acid and valeric acid (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The course of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics can affect the abundance, colonization, and evolution of intestinal flora and the content of their metabolites SCFAs in VLBW infants. The indication and treatment course for broad-spectrum antibiotics should be strictly controlled in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Antibacterianos , Criança , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Biomaterials ; 279: 121180, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768152

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) present grand challenges for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Conventional chemotherapy drugs, including Camptothecin (CPT), not only cannot eradicate CSCs but also foster a suppressive immune microenvironment for the initiation and proliferation of CSCs. Herein, we report a novel prodrug CPT-SS-NLG919 (CN) and its nanoformulation CN@PLA-HES-FA (CN@PHF), which potently suppress CSCs by regulating CSCs niche in murine TNBC 4T1 tumors. Via inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD) and simultaneous inhibiting indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), CN and CN@PHF promote DC maturation, decrease Treg cells, mitigate tryptophan consumption, and reduce the amount of IL-6, IL-13, and TGF-ß, converting CSCs niche to a hostile condition for CSCs to live in and eliminating CSCs efficiently, thereby inducing efficient tumor inhibition in 4T1 tumor models. Our work represents a new paradigm of eliminating CSCs by regulating tumor immune microenvironment and suggests that CN and its nanoformulation CN@PHF are promising candidates for the treatment of intractable TNBC.

5.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 486-489, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816658

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of different doses of nuclei exposure at different time on morbidity, mortality, and damage indicators in a rat model of decompression sickness caused by rapid flotation escape at a large depth. Methods: Eighty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group, escape control group and six intervention groups (escape at 4 hours after 4 Gy radiation, escape at 4 hours after 6 Gy radiation, escape at 4 hours after 12 Gy radiation, escape at 8 hours after 4 Gy radiation, escape at 8 hours after 6 Gy radiation, escape at 8 hours after 12 Gy radiation). Rats in intervention groups were exposed to different doses of γ-ray (4,6,12 Gy, respectively), and then were carried out a large depth and rapid buoyancy escape experiment (maximum pressure depth of 150 m). The changes of lung W/D, spleen index and plasma IL-1ß levels were analyzed. Results: Compared with the blank control group, decompression sickness incidence and mortality of rats in escape groups after nuclear exposure were increased significantly. In 4 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation groups, higher morbidity and mortality were observed in rats which escaped at 4 h post nuclear exposure when compared with rats in 8 h groups. Consistent with the changes in morbidity and mortality, the wet / dry ratio of lung tissue, the pathological damage of lung tissue, and the decrease of spleen index showed the same trends: the changes were obvious at 4 h after lower doses nuclear radiation (4 Gy and 6 Gy), not at 8 h. However, these indicators all changed markedly at 4 and 8 h after higher doses nuclear radiation (12 Gy). Plasma IL-1ß levels were significantly increased in each post-radiation exposure group when compared with the blank control group and the exposed control group. Conclusion: Nuclear radiation-induced lung injury, the damaged immune function and elevated plasma inflammatory factor concentrations increase the risk of decompression sickness after rapid ascent.

6.
World J Pediatr ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the imaging characteristics, diversity and changing trend in CT scans of pediatric patients infected with Delta-variant strain by studying imaging features of children infected with Delta and comparing the results to those of children with original COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative analysis of initial chest CT manifestations between 63 pediatric patients infected with Delta variant in 2021 and 23 pediatric patients with COVID-19 in 2020 was conducted. Corresponding imaging features were analyzed. In addition, the changing trend in imaging features of COVID-19 Delta-variant cases were explored by evaluating the initial and follow-up CT scans. RESULTS: Among 63 children with Delta-variant COVID-19 in 2021, 34 (53.9%) showed positive chest CT presentation; and their CT score (1.10 ± 1.41) was significantly lower than that in 2020 (2.56 ± 3.5) (P = 0.0073). Lesion distribution: lung lesions of Delta cases appear mainly in the lower lungs on both sides. Most children had single lobe involvement (18 cases, 52.9%), 14 (41.2%) in the right lung alone, and 14 (41.2%) in both lungs. A majority of Delta cases displayed initially ground glass (23 cases, 67.6%) and nodular shadows (13 cases, 38.2%) in the first CT scan, with few extrapulmonary manifestations. The 34 children with abnormal chest CT for the first time have a total of 92 chest CT examinations. These children showed a statistically significant difference between the 0-3 day group and the 4-7 day group (P = 0.0392) and a significant difference between the 4-7 day group and the more than 8 days group (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: The early manifestations of COVID-19 in children with abnormal imaging are mostly small subpleural nodular ground glass opacity. The changes on the Delta-variant COVID-19 chest CT were milder than the original strain. The lesions reached a peak on CT in 4-7 days and quickly improved and absorbed after a week. Dynamic CT re-examination can achieve a good prognosis.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150610, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597578

RESUMO

Thousands of unlined landfills and open dumpsites seriously threatened the safety of soil and groundwater due to leachate leakage with a mass of pollutants, particularly heavy metals, organic contaminants and ammonia. Phytoremediation is widely used in the treatment of cocontaminated soils because it is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. However, the extent to which phytoremediation efficiency and plant physiological responses are affected by the high nitrogen (N) content in such cocontaminated soil is still uncertain. Here, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of N addition on the applicability of legume alfalfa remediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon­cadmium (PAHCd) co-/contaminated soil and the corresponding microbial regulation mechanism. The results showed that the PAH dissipation rates and Cd removal rates in the high-contamination groups increased with the external N supply, among which the pyrene dissipation rates in the cocontaminated soil was elevated most significantly, from 78.10% to 87.25%. However, the phytoremediation efficiency weakened in low cocontaminated soil, possibly because the excessive N content had inhibitory effects on the rhizobium Ensifer and restrained alfalfa growth. Furthermore, the relative abundance of PAH-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere dominated PAH dissipation. As reflected by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis and hierarchical dendrograms, the microbial community composition changed with N addition, and a more pronounced shift was found in the rhizosphere relative to the endosphere or shoots of alfalfa. This study will provide a theoretical basis for legume plant remediation of dumpsites as well as soil contaminated with multiple pollutants.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 723988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658862

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis with no effective therapy. Subchondral bone and overlying articular cartilage are closely associated and function as "osteo-chondral unit" in the joint. Abnormal mechanical load leads to activated osteoclast activity and increased bone resorption in the subchondral bone, which is implicated in the onset of OA pathogenesis. Thus, inhibiting subchondral bone osteoclast activation could prevent OA onset. Betaine, isolated from the Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC), has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and antiangiogenic properties. Here, we evaluated the effects of betaine on anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced OA mice. We observed that betaine decreased the number of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13)-positive and collagen X (Col X)-positive cells, prevented articular cartilage proteoglycan loss and lowered the OARSI score. Betaine decreased the thickness of calcified cartilage and increased the expression level of lubricin. Moreover, betaine normalized uncoupled subchondral bone remodeling as defined by lowered trabecular pattern factor (Tb.pf) and increased subchondral bone plate thickness (SBP). Additionally, aberrant angiogenesis in subchondral bone was blunted by betaine treatment. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that betaine suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and subsequent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. These data demonstrated that betaine attenuated OA progression by inhibiting hyperactivated osteoclastogenesis and maintaining microarchitecture in subchondral bone.

9.
Front Physiol ; 12: 735986, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650446

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to explore whether a single deep helium-oxygen (heliox) dive affects physiological function. Methods: A total of 40 male divers performed an open-water heliox dive to 80 m of seawater (msw). The total diving time was 280 min, and the breathing helium-oxygen time was 20 min. Before and after the dive, blood and saliva samples were collected, and blood cell counts, cardiac damage, oxidative stress, vascular endothelial activation, and hormonal biomarkers were assayed. Results: An 80 msw heliox dive induced a significant increase in the percentage of granulocytes (GR %), whereas the percentage of lymphocytes (LYM %), percentage of intermediate cells (MID %), red blood cell number (RBC), hematocrit (hCT), and platelets (PLT) decreased. During the dive, concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), a myocardial-specific isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) in serum and amylase alpha 1 (AMY1), and testosterone levels in saliva increased, in contrast, IgA levels in saliva decreased. Diving caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) levels and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels but had no effect on malondialdehyde (MDA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels. Conclusion: A single 80 msw heliox dive activates the endothelium, causes skeletal-muscle damage, and induces oxidative stress and physiological stress responses, as reflected in changes in biomarker concentrations.

10.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(2): nwaa262, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691579

RESUMO

Waveguides and resonators are core components in the large-scale integration of electronics, photonics and phononics, both in existing and future scenarios. In certain situations, there is critical coupling of the two components; i.e. no energy passes through the waveguide after the incoming wave couples into the resonator. The transmission spectral characteristics resulting from this phenomenon are highly advantageous for signal filtering, switching, multiplexing and sensing. In the present study, adopting an elastic-wave platform, we introduce topological insulator (TI), a remarkable achievement in condensed matter physics over the past decade, into a classical waveguide-ring-resonator configuration. Along with basic similarities with classical systems, a TI system has important differences and advantages, mostly owing to the spin-momentum locked transmission states at the TI boundaries. As an example, a two-port TI waveguide resonator can fundamentally eliminate upstream reflections while completely retaining useful transmission spectral characteristics, and maximize the energy in the resonator, with possible applications being novel signal processing, gyro/sensing, lasering, energy harvesting and intense wave-matter interactions, using phonons, photons or even electrons. The present work further enhances confidence in using topological protection for practical device performance and functionalities, especially considering the crucial advantage of introducing (pseudo)spins to existing conventional configurations. More in-depth research on advancing phononics/photonics, especially on-chip, is foreseen.

11.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110714, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600648

RESUMO

Calcium binding to peptides formed by hydrolysis of whey proteins during digestion is important for calcium uptake in the intestines and affects the antioxidant function of the peptides. For the two dipeptides, Gly-Tyr and Tyr-Gly, potential hydrolysis products of α-lactalbumin, calcium binding to the three forms of each dipeptide in acid-base equilibrium at intestinal pH was determined electrochemically and compared to binding to tyrosine for aqueous 0.16 M NaCl for 5 < pH < 9 at 15 °C, 25 °C, and 37 °C. At milk pH at 25 °C, binding of calcium to the zwitterion of GlyTyr dominates, with an association constant Kass2 = 22 M-1 with ΔH0 = -46 kJ·mol-1, while binding to the mononegative TyrGly dominates for TyrGly with Kass3 = 32 M-1 and ΔH0 = -38 kJ·mol-1. At intestinal conditions, pH = 7 and 37 °C, binding of calcium has similar affinity for GlyTyr and TyrGly, while at higher pH and lower temperature, GlyTyr binds stronger. Density Functional Theory calculations confirmed a stronger binding to the zwitterion of GlyTyr than of TyrGly and an increasing affinity with increasing pH for both. Calcium binding to the acid/base forms of the dipeptides is at neutral pH strongly exothermic with ΔH0 becoming less negative at higher pH, and a linear enthalpy-entropy compensation (r2 = 0.99) results in comparable binding important for calcium bioavailability along the changing distribution among acid-base forms. Calcium binding decreases radical scavenging rate and antioxidative activity of both dipeptides.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Lactalbumina , Dipeptídeos , Entropia , Glicina , Hidrólise , Tirosina
12.
Cell ; 184(22): 5559-5576.e19, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678143

RESUMO

Glucose consumption is generally increased in tumor cells to support tumor growth. Interestingly, we report that glycogen accumulation is a key initiating oncogenic event during liver malignant transformation. We found that glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) catalyzing the last step of glycogenolysis is frequently downregulated to augment glucose storage in pre-malignant cells. Accumulated glycogen undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation, which results in the assembly of the Laforin-Mst1/2 complex and consequently sequesters Hippo kinases Mst1/2 in glycogen liquid droplets to relieve their inhibition on Yap. Moreover, G6PC or another glycogenolysis enzyme-liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) deficiency in both human and mice results in glycogen storage disease along with liver enlargement and tumorigenesis in a Yap-dependent manner. Consistently, elimination of glycogen accumulation abrogates liver growth and cancer incidence, whereas increasing glycogen storage accelerates tumorigenesis. Thus, we concluded that cancer-initiating cells adapt a glycogen storing mode, which blocks Hippo signaling through glycogen phase separation to augment tumor incidence.

13.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) include pain and numbness. Neuronal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays an important role in various pain models. Cisplatin treatment can induce the activation of proinflammatory microglia in spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of spinal neuronal GRK2 in cisplatin-induced CIPN and in the prevention of CIPN by electroacupuncture (EA). METHODS: The pain and sensory deficit behaviors of mice were examined by von Frey test and adhesive removal test. The expression of neuronal GRK2 in the spinal cord is regulated by intraspinal injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing neuron-specific promoters. The protein levels of GRK2, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), and DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12) in spinal dorsal horn were detected by Western blot, the density of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) was detected by immunofluorescence, and microglia activation were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: In this study, cisplatin treatment led to the decrease of GRK2 expression in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Overexpression of neuronal GRK2 in spinal cord by intraspinal injection of an AAV vector expressing GRK2 with human synapsin (hSyn) promotor significantly inhibited the loss of IENFs and alleviated the mechanical pain and sensory deficits induced by cisplatin. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of neuronal GRK2 significantly inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and M1 microglia marker cluster of differentiation (CD)16 induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, the TREM2 and DAP12, which has been demonstrated to play a role in microglia activation and in the development of CIPN, were also downregulated by overexpression of neuronal GRK2 in this study. Interestingly, preventive treatment with EA completely mimics the effect of overexpression of neuronal GRK2 in the spinal cord in this mouse model of cisplatin-induced CIPN. EA increased GRK2 level in spinal dorsal horn after cisplatin treatment. Intraspinal injection of AAV vector specifically downregulated neuronal GRK2, completely reversed the regulatory effect of EA on CIPN and microglia activation. All these indicated that the neuronal GRK2 mediated microglial activation contributed to the process of CIPN. CONCLUSIONS: Neuronal GRK2 in the spinal cord contributed to the preventive effect of EA on CIPN. The neuronal GRK2 may be a potential target for CIPN intervention.

14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112835, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600292

RESUMO

Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are emerging and widespread disinfection byproducts (DBPs), but their toxicological mechanisms to aquatic organisms remain elusive. Herein, we evaluated oxidative stress, cardiac toxicity, and cerebral toxicity after 2, 6-dichloro-1, 4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ) exposure in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were respectively exposed to 0.25, 0.5, and 1 µM 2,6-DCBQ for 96 h. The mortality rate of 2,6-DCBQ (1 µM) was 10%, while the LC50 value was 1.532 µM. Besides, 2,6-DCBQ exposure caused irregularity and elimination of myocardial fiber in the heart, and the pyknosis of nuclears and the agglutination of chromatin in the brain. We measured the 2,6-DCBQ-induced oxidative stresses in the heart and brain. Additionally, the glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly inhibited. To better understand the potential toxicity of 2,6-DCBQ, transcriptomic analysis was performed in the control and 1 µM group after 96 h exposure. As a result, 545 and 1228 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the heart and brain, respectively. GO analysis revealed that these DEGs were primarily enriched in blood vessel development, vasculature development, and oxidoreductase activity in the heart; response to stimulus, nervous system development, and oxidoreductase activity in the brain. KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were mainly enriched in VEGF signaling pathway and vascular smooth muscle contraction pathway in the heart; neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway in the brain. These findings exposed the underlying toxicity mechanism of 2,6-DCBQ exposure on zebrafish cardiovascular and brain systems.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Benzoquinonas , Encéfalo , Água Potável/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética
15.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4053-4069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611395

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Two Chinese herbal medicines Huang Qi (HQ, Astragalus mongholicus) and Dan Shen (DS, Salvia miltiorrhiza) are often combined to treat coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying synergistic effects and mechanisms of HQ and DS against CHD. Methods: The active components and targets of HQ and DS, CHD-related genes, and the biological progression were analysed by network pharmacology. The myocardial infarction (MI) rat model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cardiac function was detected by ultrasonic electrocardiography. The MI size, fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, lipid metabolism, blood viscosity, and coagulation indexes were analysed by histological staining or chemical methods, respectively. Results: A total of 170 shared and specific seed genes of HQ and DS against CHD were identified. The shared and specific biological processes of HQ and DS against CHD were obtained. The LVEF and LVFS values significantly increased, the myocardium infarct size and fibrosis significantly decreased, the values of lipid metabolism indexes and blood viscosity indexes significantly reduced in the HQ + DS treatment group vs HQ or DS single treatment (P < 0.05); the LVEDd, LVEDs, and the CSA values significantly reduced in HQ single and HQ + DS treatment groups vs MI group (P < 0.05); the coagulation index (APTT, PT, TT, and FIB) values decreased significantly in the DS single and HQ + DS treatment groups vs MI group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In MI rats, HQ and DS exhibited synergistic effects on improving cardiac function, reducing MI size, fibrosis, regulating hyperlipidaemia, and maintaining circulatory system homeostasis; HQ had the specific advantage of alleviating cardiac remodelling; DS had the specific advantage of regulating hypercoagulability. This study revealed that HQ and DS not only exerted synergistic effects but also exhibited complementary effects on CHD.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621321

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease. While the main pathological characteristic of AD is widely believed to be the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) in neurons around neurofibrillary plaques, the molecular mechanism of pathological changes is not clear. Traditional Chinese medicine offers many treatments for AD. Among these, Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS) is a classic prescription. In this study, an AD model was established by injecting Aß 1-42 into the brains of rats, which were then treated with different concentrations of Danggui Shaoyao San (sham operation; model; and Danggui Shaoyao San high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose intervention groups). The Morris water maze test was used to assess the learning and memory abilities of the animals in each group. Nissl staining was used to detect neurons. Mitophagy was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence colocalization. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression levels of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins were measured by western blot. Compared to the model group, the groups of AD rats administered medium and high doses of Danggui Shaoyao San showed significantly increased learning and memory abilities (P < 0.05), as well as significantly increased autophagosomes in the hippocampus. Moreover, the expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), Parkin, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-I/LC3-II) was increased, while that of p62 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The neuronal apoptosis rate was also significantly decreased, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly increased, and the cleaved caspase-3 protein expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Therefore, Danggui Shaoyao San inhibited neuronal apoptosis in AD rats via a mechanism that may be related to the activation of the PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy signaling pathway.

17.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608504

RESUMO

Angina pectoris is cardiac pain that is a common clinical symptom often resulting from myocardial ischemia. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is effective in treating refractory angina pectoris, but its underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The spinal dorsal horn is the first region of the central nervous system that receives nociceptive information; it is also the target of SCS. In the spinal cord, glial (astrocytes and microglia) activation is involved in the initiation and persistence of chronic pain. Thus, the present study investigated the possible cardiac pain­relieving effects of SCS on spinal dorsal horn glia in chronic myocardial ischemia (CMI). CMI was established by left anterior descending artery ligation surgery, which induced significant spontaneous/ongoing cardiac pain behaviors, as measured using the open field test in rats. SCS effectively improved such behaviors as shown by open field and conditioned place preference tests in CMI model rats. SCS suppressed CMI­induced spinal dorsal horn microglial activation, with downregulation of ionized calcium­binding adaptor protein­1 expression. Moreover, SCS inhibited CMI­induced spinal expression of phosphorylated­p38 MAPK, which was specifically colocalized with the spinal dorsal horn microglia rather than astrocytes and neurons. Furthermore, SCS could depress spinal neuroinflammation by suppressing CMI­induced IL­1ß and TNF­α release. Intrathecal administration of minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, alleviated the cardiac pain behaviors in CMI model rats. In addition, the injection of fractalkine (microglia­activating factor) partially reversed the SCS­produced analgesic effects on CMI­induced cardiac pain. These results indicated that the therapeutic mechanism of SCS on CMI may occur partially through the inhibition of spinal microglial p38 MAPK pathway activation. The present study identified a novel mechanism underlying the SCS­produced analgesic effects on chronic cardiac pain.

18.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105389, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601295

RESUMO

Dried flowers of Inula britannica commercially serve as pharmaceutical/nutraceutical herbs in the manufacture of medicinal products and functional tea that has been reported to possess extensive biological property. However, the neuroprotective constituents in I. britannica flowers are not known. In the current study, phytochemicals of sesquiterpenoid-enriched I. britannica flowers extract and their potential multifunctional neuroprotective effects were investigated. Nineteen structurally diverse sesquiterpenoids, including two new sesquiterpenoid dimers, namely, inubritanolides A and B (1, 2), and four new sesquiterpenoid monomers (3-6), namely, 1-O-acetyl-6-O-chloracetylbritannilactone (3), 6-methoxybritannilactone (4), 1-hydroxy-10ß-methoxy-4αH-1,10-secoeudesma-5(6),11(13)-dien-12,8ß-olide (5) and 1-hydroxy-4αH-1,10-secoeudesma-5(6),10(14),11(13)-trien-12,8ß-olide (6), as well as 13 known congeners (7-19) were isolated from this source. The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D- NMR and HR-ESI-MS data, and their absolute configurations were discerned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, inubritannolide A (1) is a new type [4 + 2] Diels-Alder dimer featuring a hepta-membered cycloether skeleton. Most of the compounds showed potential multifunctional neuroprotective effects, including antioxidative, anti-neuroinflammatory, and microglial polarization properties. Specifically, 1 and 6 displayed slight strong neuroprotective potency against different types of neuronal cells mediated by various inducers including H2O2, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Overall, this is the first report on multifunctional neuroprotective effects of sesquiterpenoid-enriched I. britannica flowers extract, which supports its potential pharmaceutical/nutraceutical application in neurodegenerative diseases.

19.
Neuron ; 109(17): 2707-2716.e6, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473954

RESUMO

The strychnine-sensitive pentameric glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian nervous system. Only heteromeric GlyRs mediate synaptic transmission, as they contain the ß subunit that permits clustering at the synapse through its interaction with scaffolding proteins. Here, we show that α2 and ß subunits assemble with an unexpected 4:1 stoichiometry to produce GlyR with native electrophysiological properties. We determined structures in multiple functional states at 3.6-3.8 Å resolutions and show how 4:1 stoichiometry is consistent with the structural features of α2ß GlyR. Furthermore, we show that one single ß subunit in each GlyR gives rise to the characteristic electrophysiological properties of heteromeric GlyR, while more ß subunits render GlyR non-conductive. A single ß subunit ensures a univalent GlyR-scaffold linkage, which means the scaffold alone regulates the cluster properties.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Multimerização Proteica , Receptores de Glicina/química , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas , Receptores de Glicina/metabolismo , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
20.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 9274964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394778

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on the anticipatory delay of core muscles in nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) patients. Methods: Forty participants with NSLBP were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group. The sEMG signals of deltoid, erector spines (ES), multifidus (MF), rectus abdominis (RA), and transversus abdominus/internal oblique muscles (TrA/IO) were recorded before and after the intervention in the weight-shifting task. The relative activation time of each muscle was calculated. Results: In the WBV group, the relative activation time of bilateral MF and bilateral TrA/IO was significantly reduced on shoulder flexion (right MF: P=0.014; left MF: P=0.011; right TrA/IO: P=0.008; left TrA/IO: P=0.026). As for shoulder abduction, except for the left TrA/IO and the left RA, the relative activation time of other muscles was significantly reduced (right ES: P=0.001; left ES: P < 0.001; right MF: P=0.001; left MF: P=0.009; right TrA/IO: P < 0.001; right RA: P=0.001). In the control group, there was no significant difference in the relative activation time of each muscle before and after the intervention (P > 0.05). Conclusions: WBV exercise can effectively alleviate the anticipatory delay of core muscles in NSLBP patients, but the long-term effects still need further study. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-13003708.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Músculos Abdominais , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...