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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633573

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Our study aimed to examine the impact of diabetes, smoking and BMI on pancreatic cancer survival in a population-based setting by adjusting both sociodemographic and clinical factors and measuring their attributable risk. METHODS: Data on pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients diagnosed in 2011-2017 were acquired from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Diabetes, smoking, height, and weight were abstracted from medical records and linked with Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data to enhance the completeness of the diabetes data. The Cox regression model was used to assess effect sizes of diabetes, smoking, and BMI on cancer-specific survival and survival rate. The partial population attributable risk was employed to measure the attributable risk of these risk factors. RESULTS: Of the 3,200 eligible patients, 34.6% were diabetics, 23.9% were current smokers, and 52.3% had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors, diabetic patients had an increased cancer-specific death risk of 15% (95% CI, 1.06-1.25), 36% (95% CI, 1.19-1.44) for current smokers, and 24% (95% CI, 1.00-1.54) for patients with a BMI ≥ 40 when compared to their counterparts. Diabetic current smokers had significantly lower 2- and 3-year adjusted cancer-specific survival rates, 13.1% and 10.5%, respectively. By eliminating diabetes and modifiable risk factors, an estimated 16.6% (95% CI, 6.9%-25.9%) of the cancer-specific deaths could be avoided during a nine-year observational period between 2011 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes and smoking contributed substantially to the reduction of pancreatic cancer survival even after controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors; however, BMI ≥ 35 was observed to increase risk of mortality among stage III-IV patients only.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 493-503, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626991

RESUMO

Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF67) derivatives are considered as promising active materials for energy storage owing to the possible formation of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite. Cobalt oxide has multiple redox states for generating redox reactions for charge storage, while N-doped graphite can provide high electrical conductivity for charge transfer. In this study, it is the first time to synthesize binder-free electrodes composed of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite derived from ZIF67 on carbon cloth (CC) for supercapacitor (SC). Successive oxidation and carbonization along with additional coverage of ZIF67 derivatives are applied to synthesize ZIF67 derivatives composed of cobalt oxide, N-doped graphite and cobalt oxide/N-doped graphite composites with different layer compositions. The highest specific capacitance (CF) of 90.0F/g at 20 mV/s is obtained for the oxidized ZIF67/carbonized ZIF67/carbon cloth (O67/C67/CC) electrode, due to the large surface area and high electrical conductivity benefitted from preferable morphology and growing sequence of Co3O4 and N-doped graphite. The symmetric SC composed of O67/C67/CC electrodes shows the maximum energy density of 2.53 Wh/kg at the power density of 50 W/kg. Cycling stability with CF retention of 70% and Coulombic efficiency of 65% after 6000 times repeatedly charge/discharge process is also obtained for this symmetric SC.

3.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 53: 101957, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481193

RESUMO

The Microreader™ 19X Direct ID System was a newly developed multiplex PCR kit, which could detect 19 X-chromosomal STR loci (DXS6795, DXS9907, DXS6803, GATA172D05, DXS6807, GATA31E08, DXS7423, DXS6810, DXS101, DXS9902, DXS7133, DXS6800, DXS981, DXS10162, DXS6809, DXS10135, HPRTB, GATA165B12, DXS10079) and the sex determination locus of AMEL simultaneously. Different from other X-STR multiplex PCR kits, no linkage groups are included in this system, so the likelihood ratios could be calculated without the consideration of linkage groups. In this study, PCR conditions, sensitivity, species specificity, stability, DNA mixtures, concordance, stutter, sizing precision and population studies were conducted according to the SWGDAM developmental validation guidelines. The results indicated that this new X-STRs multiplex system was an efficient and reliable detection system, which could facilitate human kinship analysis and identification testing, as a powerful supplementary to autosomal STR kits.

4.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-458951

RESUMO

Recently, patients co-infected by two SARS-CoV-2 lineages have been sporadically reported. Concerns are raised because previous studies have demonstrated co-infection may contribute to the recombination of RNA viruses and cause severe clinic symptoms. In this study, we have estimated the compositional lineage(s), tendentiousness, and frequency of co-infection events in population from a large-scale genomic analysis for SARS-CoV-2 patients. SARS-CoV-2 lineage(s) infected in each sample have been recognized from the assignment of within-host site variations into lineage-defined feature variations by introducing a hypergeometric distribution method. Of all the 29,993 samples, 53 (~0.18%) co-infection events have been identified. Apart from 52 co-infections with two SARS-CoV-2 lineages, one sample with co-infections of three SARS-CoV-2 lineages was firstly identified. As expected, the co-infection events mainly happened in the regions where have co-existed more than two dominant SARS-CoV-2 lineages. However, co-infection of two sub-lineages in Delta lineage were detected as well. Our results provide a useful reference framework for the high throughput detecting of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection events in the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data. Although low in average rate, the co-infection events showed an increasing tendency with the increased diversity of SARS-CoV-2. And considering the large base of SARS-CoV-2 infections globally, co-infected patients would be a nonnegligible population. Thus, more clinical research is urgently needed on these patients.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4730-4735, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581082

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the mechanism of the sweating of Dipsacus asper on content changes of triterpene sa-ponins by detecting the total triterpene saponins and the index component asperosaponin Ⅵ in the crude and sweated D. asper, and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification(iTRAQ) combined with LC-MS/MS. After sweating, the content of total triterpene saponins decreased manifestly, while that of asperosaponin Ⅵ increased significantly. As revealed by the iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS analysis, 140 proteins with significant differential expression were figured out, with 50 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated. GO analysis indicated a variety of hydrolases, oxido-reductases, and transferases in the differential proteins. The results of activity test on two differentially expressed oxido-reductases were consistent with those of the iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS analysis. As demonstrated by the analysis of enzymes related to the triterpene saponin biosynthesis pathway, two enzymes(from CYP450 and UGT families, respectively, which are involved in the structural modification of triterpene saponins) were significantly down-regulated after sweating. The findings suggested that sweating of D. asper presumedly regulated triterpene saponins by affecting the expression of downstream CYP450 s and UGTs in the biosynthesis pathway of triterpene saponins of D. asper.


Assuntos
Dipsacaceae , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Sudorese , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112082, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449307

RESUMO

RIPK1 is a protein kinase that simultaneously regulates inflammation, apoptosis, and necroptosis. It is thought that RIPK1 has separate functions through its scaffold structure and kinase domains. Moreover, different post-translational modifications in RIPK1 play distinct or even opposing roles. Under different conditions, in different cells and species, and/or upon exposure to different stimuli, infections, and substrates, RIPK1 activation can lead to diverse results. Despite continuous research, many of the conclusions that have been drawn regarding the complex interactions of RIPK1 are controversial. This review is based on an examination and analysis of recent studies on the RIPK1 structure, post-translational modifications, and activation conditions, which can affect its functions. Finally, because of the diverse functions of RIPK1 and their relevance to the pathogenesis of many diseases, we briefly introduce the roles of RIPK1 in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and the prospects of its use in future diagnostics and treatments.

7.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 2936667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447854

RESUMO

Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is crucial for endothelial function. This study is aimed at assessing whether the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide has a protective effect on endothelial function via the mTOR signaling pathway. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were administered liraglutide (100 nM) for 0, 10, 30, 60, 720, and 1440 minutes, respectively. Then, the expression and phosphorylation levels of mTOR, mTOR-Raptor complex (mTORC1), and mTOR-Rictor complex (mTORC2) were determined by Western blot and immunoprecipitation, while mTORC1 and mTORC2 expression was blocked by siRNA-Raptor and siRNA-Rictor, respectively. Akt phosphorylation was detected by Western blot. HUVECs were then incubated with liraglutide in the absence or presence of Akt inhibitor IV. Nitric oxide (NO) release was assessed by the nitrate reductase method. Phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and apoptosis-related effectors were assessed for protein levels by Western blot. Telomerase activity was evaluated by ELISA. Results: Sustained mTOR phosphorylation, mTORC2 formation, and mTORC2-dependent Akt phosphorylation were induced by liraglutide. In addition, eNOS phosphorylation, NO production, nuclear hTERT accumulation, and nuclear telomerase activity were enhanced by mTORC2-mediated Akt activation. Liraglutide also showed an antiapoptotic effect by upregulating antiapoptotic proteins and downregulating proapoptotic proteins in an mTORC2-Akt activation-dependent manner. Conclusion: Liraglutide significantly improves endothelial function, at least partially via the mTORC2/Akt signaling pathway.

8.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 321(3): C443-C452, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260301

RESUMO

Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital heart defects (CHDs). Studies have documented that ISL1 has a crucial impact on cardiac growth, but the role of variants in the ISL1 gene promoter in patients with VSD has not been explored. In 400 subjects (200 patients with isolated and sporadic VSDs: 200 healthy controls), we investigated the ISL1 gene promoter variant and performed cellular functional experiments by using the dual-luciferase reporter assay to verify the impact on gene expression. In the ISL1 promoter, five variants were found only in patients with VSD by sequencing. Cellular functional experiments demonstrated that three variants decreased the transcriptional activity of the ISL1 promoter (P < 0.05). Further analysis with the online JASPAR database demonstrated that a cluster of putative binding sites for transcription factors may be altered by these variants, possibly resulting in change of ISL1 protein expression and VSD formation. Our study has, for the first time, identified novel variants in the ISL1 gene promoter region in the Han Chinese patients with isolated and sporadic VSD. In addition, the cellular functional experiments, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and bioinformatic analysis have demonstrated that these variants significantly alter the expression of the ISL1 gene and affect the binding of transcription factors, likely resulting in VSD. Therefore, this study may provide new insights into the role of the gene promoter region for a better understanding of genetic basis of the formation of CHDs and may promote further investigations on mechanism of the formation of CHDs.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interventricular/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Comunicação Interventricular/etnologia , Comunicação Interventricular/metabolismo , Comunicação Interventricular/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Septo Interventricular/metabolismo , Septo Interventricular/patologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(31)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326263

RESUMO

Bulk crystalline ices with ultralow densities have been demonstrated to be thermodynamically metastable at negative pressures. However, the direct formation of these bulk porous ices from liquid water at negative pressures is extremely challenging. Inspired by approaches toward porous media based on host-guest chemistry, such as metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks, we herein demonstrate via molecular dynamics simulations that a class of ultralow-density porous ices with upright channels can be formed spontaneously from liquid water at 300 K with the assistance of carbon nanotube arrays. We refer to these porous ice polymorphs as water oxygen-vertex frameworks (WOFs). Notably, our simulations revealed that the liquid-WOF phase transition is first-order and occurs at room temperature. All the WOFs exhibited the unique structural feature that they can be regarded as assemblies of nanoribbons of hexagonal bilayer ice (2D ice I) at their armchair or zigzag edges. Based on density functional theory calculations, a comprehensive phase diagram of the WOFs was constructed considering both the thermodynamic and thermal stabilities of the porous ices at negative pressures. Like other types of porous media, these WOFs may be applicable to gas storage, purification, and separation. Moreover, these biocompatible porous ice networks may be exploited as medical-related carriers.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309159

RESUMO

Aqueous reactions between organic peroxides and SO2 are of intense interest in atmospheric science because of their ubiquitous implications for sulfate formation in secondary aerosols. However, the relative yields of the reaction products (inorganic vs. organic sulfates) remain controversial (i.e., 90 % vs. 40-70 % for inorganic sulfate) due in part to the lack of understanding of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Here, our computational results suggest that the reactions of HSO3 - (dissolved SO2 ) with organic peroxides are initiated on the surface of water nanodroplets and then proceed under two reaction pathways, in which the S atom of HSO3 - attacks either the O1 or O2 atom of the peroxide group -O(O2)O(O1)H, leading to the formation of inorganic and organic sulfates, respectively. Notably, we find that thse reaction initiated by O1 atom exhibits a relatively low energy barrier and high reaction rate, which favours the formation of inorganic sulfate.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(30): 16150-16156, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297026

RESUMO

CeO2-Catalyzed esterification of CO2, a well-known greenhouse gas, with methanol has been widely recognized as a promising alternative method to produce dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Herein, we performed a comprehensive study of catalytic mechanisms underlying the formation of DMC from CO2 and methanol on both stoichiometric and reduced CeO2(111) and (110) surfaces. To this end, the saddle-point searching algorithm is employed. Specifically, using the monomethyl carbonate (MMC) as the key intermediate, a three-step Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism, including the formation and esterification of monomethyl carbonate and removal of water molecule, is identified for the catalytic DMC formation on either the reduced or the stoichiometric CeO2(111) and (110) surfaces. For both CeO2(111) and (110) surfaces, our study indicates that the presence of oxygen vacancies can markedly lower the activation energy barrier. Different rate-limiting steps are identified, however, for the reduced CeO2(111) and (110) surfaces. Successful identification of the rate-limiting step and the associated active CO2 species will provide atomic-level guidance on selection of metal-oxide-based catalysts toward direct synthesis of DMC from the green-house gas CO2 and methanol.

12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244603

RESUMO

The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) system, which includes DA neurons in the ventral and dorsal tiers of the substantia nigra pars compacta (vSNc, dSNc) and DA terminals in the dorsal striatum, is critically implicated in motor control. Accumulating studies demonstrate that both the nigrostriatal DA system and motor function are impaired in aged subjects. However, it is unknown whether dSNc and vSNc DA neurons and striatal DA terminals age in similar patterns, and whether these changes parallel motor deficits. To address this, we performed ex vivo patch-clamp recordings in dSNc and vSNc DA neurons, measured striatal dopamine release, and analyzed motor behaviors in rodents. Spontaneous firing in dSNc and vSNc DA neurons and depolarization-evoked firing in dSNc DA neurons showed inverse V-shaped changes with age. But depolarization-evoked firing in vSNc DA neurons increased with age. In the dorsal striatum, dopamine release declined with age. In locomotor tests, 12-month-old rodents showed hyperactive exploration, relative to 6- and 24-month-old rodents. Additionally, aged rodents showed significant deficits in coordination. Elevating dopamine levels with a dopamine transporter inhibitor improved both locomotion and coordination. Therefore, key components in the nigrostriatal DA system exhibit distinct aging patterns and may contribute to age-related alterations in locomotion and coordination.

13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 662876, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150706

RESUMO

Delayed surgery is associated with worse lung cancer outcomes. Social determinants can influence health disparities. This study aimed to examine the potential racial disparity and the effects from social determinants on receipt of timely surgery among lung cancer patients in Louisiana, a southern state in the U.S. White and black stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed in Louisiana between 2004 and 2016, receiving surgical lobectomy or a more extensive surgery, were selected. Diagnosis-to-surgery interval >6 weeks were considered as delayed surgery. Social determinants included marital status, insurance, census tract level poverty, and census tract level urbanicity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized multiple mediation analysis were conducted. A total of 3,616 white (78.9%) and black (21.1%) patients were identified. The median time interval from diagnosis to surgery was 27 days in whites and 42 days in blacks (P < 0.0001). About 28.7% of white and 48.4% of black patients received delayed surgery (P < 0.0001). Black patients had almost two-fold odds of receiving delayed surgery than white patients (adjusted odds ratio: 1.91; 95% confidence interval: 1.59-2.30). Social determinants explained about 26% of the racial disparity in receiving delayed surgery. Having social support, private insurance, and living in census tracts with lower poverty level were associated with improved access to timely surgery. The census tract level poverty level a stronger effect on delayed surgery in black patients than in white patients. Tailored interventions to improve the timely treatment in NSCLC patients, especially black patients, are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Humanos , Louisiana , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 73: 101967, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the race-specific second primary bladder cancer (SPBC) risk following prostatic irradiation. METHODS: Louisiana residents who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (PCa) in 1996-2013 and received surgery or radiation were included. Patients were followed until SPBC diagnosis, death, or Dec. 2018. The exposure variable was type of treatment (radiation only vs. surgery only). The outcome was time from PCa diagnosis to SPBC diagnosis, stratified by race. Fine and Gray's competing risk model was applied with death as a competing event and adjustment of sociodemographic and tumor characteristics. We used 5 years and 10 years as lag time in the analyses. RESULTS: A total of 26,277 PCa patients with a median follow-up of 10.7 years were analyzed, including 18,598 white and 7679 black patients. About 42.9 % of whites and 45.7 % of blacks received radiation. SPBC counted for 1.84 % in the radiation group and 0.90 % in the surgery group among white patients and for 0.91 % and 0.58 %, respectively, among black patients. The adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio of SPBC was 1.80 (95 % CI: 1.30-2.48) for radiation recipients compared to surgery recipients among white patients; 1.93 (95 % CI: 1.36-2.74) if restricted to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The SPBC risk was not significantly different between irradiated and surgically treated among blacks. CONCLUSIONS: The SPBC risk is almost two-fold among white irradiated PCa patients compared to their counterparts treated surgically. Our findings highlight the need for enhanced surveillance for white PCa survivors receiving radiotherapy, especially those received EBRT.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias da Próstata , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etnologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Fatores Raciais , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etnologia
15.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of pelvic irradiation in men receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer is unclear, in part due to a lack of data on patient-reported outcomes. We sought to compare functional outcomes for men receiving prostate and pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy, longitudinally over 5 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a population-based, prospective cohort study of men with clinically-localized prostate cancer undergoing EBRT. We examined the effect of prostate and pelvic (n = 102) versus prostate-only (n = 485) radiotherapy on patient-reported disease-specific (using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite[EPIC]-26) and general health-related (using the SF-36) function, over 5 years. Regression models were adjusted for outcome-specific baseline function, clinicopathologic characteristics, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). RESULTS: 587 men (median [quartiles] age 69 [64-73] years) met inclusion criteria and completed ≥1 post-treatment survey. More men treated with prostate and pelvic radiotherapy had high-risk disease (58% vs. 18%, P < 0.01) and received ADT (75% vs. 41%, P < 0.01). These men reported worse sexual (6 months-5 years), hormonal (at 6 months), and physical (6 months-5 years) function. Accounting for baseline function, patient and tumor characteristics, and use of ADT, pelvic irradiation was not associated with statistically or clinically significant differences in bowel function, urinary incontinence, irritative voiding symptoms or sexual function through 5-years (all P > 0.05). Marginally clinically important differences were noted in hormonal function at 3-years (adjusted mean difference 4.7, 95% confidence interval [1.2-8.3]; minimally clinically important difference (MCID) 4 to 6) and 5-years (4.2, [0.4-8.0]) following treatment. After adjustment, there was a transient statistically significant, but not clinically important, difference in emotional well-being at 6 months (3.0, [0.19-5.8]; MCID 6) that resolved by 1 year and no differences in physical functioning or energy and fatigue. CONCLUSION: This prospective, population-based cohort study of men with localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT, showed no clinically important differences in disease-specific or general health-related quality of life with the addition of pelvic irradiation to prostate radiotherapy, supporting the use of pelvic radiotherapy when it may be of clinical benefit, such as men with increased risk of nodal involvement.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181001

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to delayed medical care in the US. We examined changes in patterns of cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment between January 1 and December 31 in 2020 and 2019 with real-time electronic pathology report data from population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries from Georgia and Louisiana. During 2020, there were 29,905 fewer pathology reports than in 2019, representing a 10.2% decline. Declines were observed in all age groups, including children and adolescents less than18 years. The nadir was early April 2020, with 42.8% fewer reports than in April 2019. Numbers of reports through December 2020 never consistently exceeded those in 2019 after first declines. Patterns were similar by age group and cancer site. Findings suggest substantial delays in diagnosis and treatment services for cancers during the pandemic. Ongoing evaluation can inform public health efforts to minimize any lasting adverse effects of the pandemic on cancer diagnosis, stage, treatment, and survival.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, are common among men undergoing treatment for localized prostate cancer. Both local treatments and systemic androgen deprivation therapy may contribute to these outcomes and are differentially indicated based on disease characteristics. We sought to compare sexual function through 5 years after radiation treatment with and without androgen deprivation therapy in men with good baseline sexual function to better understand long-term effects in this understudied subset of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively assembled population-based cohort of men who underwent radiation with and without androgen deprivation therapy for intermediate or high-risk localized prostate cancer. Sexual function was assessed longitudinally over 5 years. Men with erections sufficient for intercourse at baseline were selected for inclusion. RESULTS: Out of 167 patients included, 73 underwent radiation alone and 94 received androgen deprivation therapy plus radiation (51 with intermediate and 43 with high-risk disease). Androgen deprivation therapy use was associated with worse sexual function through 1 year regardless of disease risk. This difference was no longer statistically significant at 3 years in the intermediate-risk group. Compared to radiation alone, androgen deprivation therapy in high-risk disease was associated with worse sexual function at 3 years (effect: -20.3 points, CI [-31.8, -8.8], p < 0.001) but not at 5 years (effect: -3.4, CI [-17.2, 10.5], p = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deprivation therapy plus radiation is associated with worse sexual function through 3-years follow-up in men with high-risk prostate cancer compared to radiation alone. The addition of androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of intermediate-risk disease does not appear to result in worse sexual function at 3 or 5-year follow-up compared to radiation alone.

18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 221: 113519, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984805

RESUMO

Arsenic (As), as well as its various compounds have been widely used for nearly 4000 years either as drugs or poisons. These compounds are valuable in the treatment of various diseases ranging from dermatosis to cancer, thereby emphasizing their important roles as therapeutic agents. The ability of As compounds, especially arsenic trioxide (ATO) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), has fundamentally altered people's understanding of the poison, and has become a major factor in the re-emergence of Western medicine candidates to treat leukemia and other solid tumors. However, long-term exposure to As has been correlated with numerous disadvantageous influences on health, particularly carcinogenesis. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that biotransformation of As, as a step to eliminate As from the human body, can induce alterations at the genetic and epigenetic levels, resulting in therapeutic effects or carcinogenesis. In this article, we aimed to provide a systematic overview of the primary contributions associated with As and its compounds, as well as the detailed mechanisms applied in APL cells and carcinogenic toxicology. This review may help to understand the underlying mechanisms and safe wide clinical applications of medicinal As along with its compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Arsenicais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/metabolismo
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008407

RESUMO

As with bulk ices, two-dimensional (2D) ices exhibit diverse crystalline structures, and the majority of these 2D structures have been predicted based on classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here, the spontaneous freezing transition of 2D liquid water within hydrophobic nanoslits is demonstrated for the first time using first-principles MD simulations. Various 2D ices are observed under different lateral pressure and temperature conditions. Notably, the liquid water confined to a 6.0 Å-wide nanoslit can spontaneously freeze into a monolayer ice consisting of an array of zigzag water chains at 2.5 GPa and 250 K. Moreover, within an 8.0 Å-wide nanoslit and at 4.0 GPa and 300 K, a previously unreported bilayer ice forms spontaneously that has a structure resembling that of the double surface layers of bulk ice-VII. Both 2D crystalline ices do not obey the ice rule, suggesting first-principles simulation can access a certain phase space that is not easily approached using classical simulations.

20.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 6692695, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046504

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health issue, and the aim of the present study was to identify the factors associated with GDM. Databases were searched for observational studies until August 20, 2020. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. 103 studies involving 1,826,454 pregnant women were identified. Results indicated that maternal age ≥ 25 years (OR: 2.466, 95% CI: (2.121, 2.866)), prepregnancy overweight or obese (OR: 2.637, 95% CI: (1.561, 4.453)), family history of diabetes (FHD) (OR: 2.326, 95% CI: (1.904, 2.843)), history of GDM (OR: 21.137, 95% CI: (8.785, 50.858)), macrosomia (OR: 2.539, 95% CI: (1.612, 4.000)), stillbirth (OR: 2.341, 95% CI: (1.435, 3.819)), premature delivery (OR: 3.013, 95% CI: (1.569, 5.787)), and pregestational smoking (OR: 2.322, 95% CI: (1.359, 3.967)) increased the risk of GDM with all P < 0.05, whereas history of congenital anomaly and abortion, and HIV status showed no correlation with GDM (P > 0.05). Being primigravida (OR: 0.752, 95% CI: (0.698, 0.810), P < 0.001) reduced the risk of GDM. The factors influencing GDM included maternal age ≥ 25, prepregnancy overweight or obese, FHD, history of GDM, macrosomia, stillbirth, premature delivery, pregestational smoking, and primigravida.

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