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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(30): 13030-13040, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602710

RESUMO

Incorporating chiral organic molecules into organic/inorganic hybrid 2D metal-halide perovskites results in a novel family of chiral hybrid semiconductors with unique spin-dependent properties. The embedded chiral organic moieties induce a chiroptical response from the inorganic metal-halide sublattice. However, the structural interplay between the chiral organic molecules and the inorganic sublattice, as well as their synergic effect on the resulting electronic band structure need to be explored in a broader material scope. Here we present three new layered tin iodide perovskites templated by chiral (R/S-)methylbenzylammonium (R/S-MBA), i.e., (R-/S-MBA)2SnI4, and their racemic phase (rac-MBA)2SnI4. These MBA2SnI4 compounds exhibit the largest level of octahedral bond distortion compared to any other reported layered tin iodide perovskite. The incorporation of chiral MBA cations leads to circularly polarized absorption from the inorganic Sn-I sublattice, displaying chiroptical activity in the 300-500 nm wavelength range. The bandgap and chiroptical activity are modulated by alloying Sn with Pb, in the series of (MBA)2Pb1-xSnxI4. Finally, we show that vertical charge transport through oriented (R-/S-MBA)2SnI4 thin films is highly spin-dependent, arising from a chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect. We demonstrate a spin-polarization in the current-voltage characteristics as high as 94%. Our work shows the tremendous potential of these chiral hybrid semiconductors for controlling both spin and charge degrees of freedom.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(23): 26593-26600, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412232

RESUMO

A stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) has been proven to be a key enabler to most advanced battery chemistries, where the reactivity between the electrolyte and the anode operating beyond the electrolyte stability limits must be kinetically suppressed by such SEIs. The graphite anode used in state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries presents the most representative SEI example. Because of similar operation potentials between graphite and silicon (Si), a similar passivation mechanism has been thought to apply on the Si anode when using the same carbonate-based electrolytes. In this work, we found that the chemical formation process of a proto-SEI on Si is closely entangled with incessant SEI decomposition, detachment, and reparation, which lead to continuous lithium consumption. Using a special galvanostatic protocol designed to observe the SEI formation prior to Si lithiation, we were able to deconvolute the electrochemical formation of such dynamic SEI from the morphology and mechanical complexities of Si and showed that a pristine Si anode could not be fully passivated in carbonate-based electrolytes.

3.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7444-7453, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401484

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic (O-I) heterostructures, consisting of atomically thin inorganic semiconductors and organic molecules, present synergistic and enhanced optoelectronic properties with a high tunability. Here, we develop a class of air-stable vertical O-I heterostructures comprising a monolayer of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including WS2, WSe2, and MoSe2, on top of tetraphenylethylene (TPE) core-based aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecular rotors. The created O-I heterostructures yields a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement of up to ∼950%, ∼500%, and ∼330% in the top monolayer WS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 as compared to PL in their pristine monolayers, respectively. The strong PL enhancement is mainly attributed to the efficient photogenerated carrier process in the AIE luminogens (courtesy of their restricted intermolecular motions in the solid state) and the charge-transfer process in the created type I O-I heterostructures. Moreover, we observe an improvement in photovoltaic properties of the TMDs in the heterostructures including the quasi-Fermi level splitting, minority carrier lifetime, and light absorption. This work presents an inspiring example of combining stable, highly luminescent AIE-based molecules, with rich photochemistry and versatile applications, with atomically thin inorganic semiconductors for multifunctional and efficient optoelectronic devices.

4.
Science ; 367(6482): 1135-1140, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139544

RESUMO

Stacking solar cells with decreasing band gaps to form tandems presents the possibility of overcoming the single-junction Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaics. The rapid development of solution-processed perovskites has brought perovskite single-junction efficiencies >20%. However, this process has yet to enable monolithic integration with industry-relevant textured crystalline silicon solar cells. We report tandems that combine solution-processed micrometer-thick perovskite top cells with fully textured silicon heterojunction bottom cells. To overcome the charge-collection challenges in micrometer-thick perovskites, we enhanced threefold the depletion width at the bases of silicon pyramids. Moreover, by anchoring a self-limiting passivant (1-butanethiol) on the perovskite surfaces, we enhanced the diffusion length and further suppressed phase segregation. These combined enhancements enabled an independently certified power conversion efficiency of 25.7% for perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells. These devices exhibited negligible performance loss after a 400-hour thermal stability test at 85°C and also after 400 hours under maximum power point tracking at 40°C.

5.
Science ; 368(6487): 155-160, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217753

RESUMO

Maximizing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells that can exceed the Shockley-Queisser single-cell limit requires a high-performing, stable perovskite top cell with a wide bandgap. We developed a stable perovskite solar cell with a bandgap of ~1.7 electron volts that retained more than 80% of its initial PCE of 20.7% after 1000 hours of continuous illumination. Anion engineering of phenethylammonium-based two-dimensional (2D) additives was critical for controlling the structural and electrical properties of the 2D passivation layers based on a lead iodide framework. The high PCE of 26.7% of a monolithic two-terminal wide-bandgap perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell was made possible by the ideal combination of spectral responses of the top and bottom cells.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaay0571, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840072

RESUMO

Chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) occurs when the chirality of the transporting medium selects one of the two spin ½ states to transport through the media while blocking the other. Monolayers of chiral organic molecules demonstrate CISS but are limited in their efficiency and utility by the requirement of a monolayer to preserve the spin selectivity. We demonstrate CISS in a system that integrates an inorganic framework with a chiral organic sublattice inducing chirality to the hybrid system. Using magnetic conductive-probe atomic force microscopy, we find that oriented chiral 2D-layered Pb-iodide organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite systems exhibit CISS. Electron transport through the perovskite films depends on the magnetization of the probe tip and the handedness of the chiral molecule. The films achieve a highest spin-polarization transport of up to 86%. Magnetoresistance studies in modified spin-valve devices having only one ferromagnet electrode confirm the occurrence of spin-dependent charge transport through the organic/inorganic layers.

7.
Microsc Microanal ; 25(5): 1160-1166, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475657

RESUMO

Single-crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) grown by various techniques can exhibit hillock defects on the surface when sub-optimal growth conditions are employed. The defects act as nonradiative recombination centers and limit solar cell performance. In this paper, we applied near-field transport imaging to study hillock defects in a GaAs thin film. On the same defects, we also performed near-field cathodoluminescence, standard cathodoluminescence, electron-backscattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. We found that the luminescence intensity around the hillock area is two orders of magnitude lower than on the area without hillock defects in the millimeter region, and the excess carrier diffusion length is degraded by at least a factor of five with significant local variation. The optical and transport properties are affected over a significantly larger region than the observed topography and crystallographic and chemical compositions associated with the defect.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2842, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253800

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite semiconductors possess outstanding characteristics for optoelectronic applications including but not limited to photovoltaics. Low-dimensional and nanostructured motifs impart added functionality which can be exploited further. Moreover, wider cation composition tunability and tunable surface ligand properties of colloidal quantum dot (QD) perovskites now enable unprecedented device architectures which differ from thin-film perovskites fabricated from solvated molecular precursors. Here, using layer-by-layer deposition of perovskite QDs, we demonstrate solar cells with abrupt compositional changes throughout the perovskite film. We utilize this ability to abruptly control composition to create an internal heterojunction that facilitates charge separation at the internal interface leading to improved photocarrier harvesting. We show how the photovoltaic performance depends upon the heterojunction position, as well as the composition of each component, and we describe an architecture that greatly improves the performance of perovskite QD photovoltaics.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(34): 11737-11741, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218795

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites (n≤5) have recently attracted significant attention because of their promising stability and optoelectronic properties. Normally, 2D perovskites contain a monocation [e.g., methylammonium (MA+ ) or formamidinium (FA+ )]. Reported here for the first time is the fabrication of 2D perovskites (n=5) with mixed cations of MA+ , FA+ , and cesium (Cs+ ). The use of these triple cations leads to the formation of a smooth, compact surface morphology with larger grain size and fewer grain boundaries compared to the conventional MA-based counterpart. The resulting perovskite also exhibits longer carrier lifetime and higher conductivity in triple cation 2D perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2D PSCs with triple cations was enhanced by more than 80 % (from 7.80 to 14.23 %) compared to PSCs fabricated with a monocation. The PCE is also higher than that of PSCs based on binary cation (MA+ -FA+ or MA+ -Cs+ ) 2D structures.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(14): 5972-5979, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882210

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic halide perovskites incorporating two-dimensional (2D) structures have shown promise for enhancing the stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the bulky spacer cations often limit charge transport. Here, we report on a simple approach based on molecular design of the organic spacer to improve the transport properties of 2D perovskites, and we use phenethylammonium (PEA) as an example. We demonstrate that by fluorine substitution on the para position in PEA to form 4-fluorophenethylammonium (F-PEA), the average phenyl ring centroid-centroid distances in the organic layer become shorter with better aligned stacking of perovskite sheets. The impact is enhanced orbital interactions and charge transport across adjacent inorganic layers as well as increased carrier lifetime and reduced trap density. Using a simple perovskite deposition at room temperature without using any additives, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of >13% for (F-PEA)2MA4Pb5I16-based PSCs. In addition, the thermal stability of 2D PSCs based on F-PEA is significantly enhanced compared to those based on PEA.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(44): 38373-38380, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027466

RESUMO

Electron-selective layers (ESLs) and hole-selective layers (HSLs) are critical in high-efficiency organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite (PS) solar cells for charge-carrier transport, separation, and collection. We developed a procedure to assess the quality of the ESL/PS junction by measuring potential distribution on the cross section of SnO2-based PS solar cells using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Using the potential profiling, we compared three types of cells made of different ESLs but otherwise having an identical device structure: (1) cells with PS deposited directly on bare fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO)-coated glass; (2) cells with an intrinsic SnO2 thin layer on the top of FTO as an effective ESL; and (3) cells with the SnO2 ESL and adding a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of fullerene. The results reveal two major potential drops or electric fields at the ESL/PS and PS/HSL interfaces. The electric-field ratio between the ESL/PS and PS/HSL interfaces increased in devices as follows: FTO < SnO2-ESL < SnO2 + SAM; this sequence explains the improvements of the fill factor (FF) and open-circuit voltage (Voc). The improvement of the FF from the FTO to SnO2-ESL cells may result from the reduction in voltage loss at the PS/HSL back interface and the improvement of Voc from the prevention of hole recombination at the ESL/PS front interface. The further improvements with adding an SAM is caused by the defect passivation at the ESL/PS interface, and hence, improvement of the junction quality. These nanoelectrical findings suggest possibilities for improving the device performance by further optimizing the SnO2-based ESL material quality and the ESL/PS interface.

12.
Adv Mater ; 28(26): 5214-21, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27145346

RESUMO

Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%.

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