Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.789
Filtrar
1.
World J Pediatr ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dent disease is a rare tubulopathy characterized by manifestations of proximal tubular dysfunction, which occurs almost exclusively in males. It mainly presents symptoms in early childhood and may progress to end-stage renal failure between the 3rd and 5th decades of human life. According to its various genetic basis and to clinical signs and symptoms, researchers define two forms of Dent disease (Dent diseases 1 and 2) and suggest that these forms are produced by mutations in the CLCN5 and OCRL genes, respectively. Dent diseases 1 and 2 account for 60% and 15% of all Dent disease cases, and their genetic cause is generally understood. However, the genetic cause of the remaining 25% of Dent disease cases remains unidentified. DATA SOURCES: All relevant peer-reviewed original articles published thus far have been screened out from PubMed and have been referenced. RESULTS: Genetic testing has been used greatly to identify mutation types of CLCN5 and OCRL gene, and next-generation sequencing also has been used to identify an increasing number of unknown genotypes. Gene therapy may bring new hope to the treatment of Dent disease. The abuse of hormones and immunosuppressive agents for the treatment of Dent disease should be avoided to prevent unnecessary harm to children. CONCLUSIONS: The current research progress in classification, genetic heterogeneity, diagnosis, and treatment of Dent disease reviewed in this paper enables doctors and researchers to better understand Dent disease and provides a basis for improved prevention and treatment.

2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 876: 173062, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173379

RESUMO

Dezocine is an opioid analgesic widely used in China, occupying over 45% of the domestic market of opioid analgesics. We have recently demonstrated that dezocine produced mechanical antiallodynia and thermal antihyperalgesia through spinal µ-opioid receptor activation and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition in neuropathic pain. This study further explored the dual µ-opioid receptor and norepinephrine reuptake mechanisms underlying dezocine-induced mechanical antiallodynia in bone cancer pain, compared with tapentadol, the first recognized analgesic in this class. Dezocine and tapentadol, given subcutaneously, exerted profound mechanical antiallodynia in bone cancer pain rats in a dose-dependent manner, yielding similar maximal effects but different potencies: ED50s of 0.6 mg/kg for dezocine and 7.5 mg/kg for tapentadol, respectively. Furthermore, their mechanical antiallodynia was partially blocked by intrathecal injection of the specific µ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP, but not κ-opioid receptor antagonists GNTI and nor-BNI or δ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. Intrathecal administrations of the specific norepinephrine depletor 6-OHDA (but not the serotonin depletor PCPA) for three consecutive days and single injection of the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine/α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine partially blocked dezocine- and tapentadol-induced mechanical antiallodynia. Strikingly, the combination of CTAP and yohimbine nearly completely blocked dezocine- and tapentadol-induced mechanical antiallodynia. Our results illustrate that both dezocine and tapentadol exert mechanical antiallodynia in bone cancer pain through dual mechanisms of µ-opioid receptor activation and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, and suggest that the µ-opioid receptor and norepinephrine reuptake dual-targeting opioids are effective analgesics in cancer pain.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2902-2909, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212731

RESUMO

Zero-dimensional (0D) hybrid metal halides have emerged as a new generation of luminescent phosphors owing to their high radiative recombination rates, which, akin to their three-dimensional cousins, commonly demonstrate thermal quenching of luminescence. Here, we report on the finding of antithermal quenching of luminescence in 0D hybrid metal halides. Using (C9NH20)2SnBr4 single crystals as an example system, we show that 0D metal halides can demonstrate antithermal quenching of luminescence. A combination of experimental characterizations and first-principles calculations suggests that antithermal quenching of luminescence is associated with trap states introduced by structural defects in (C9NH20)2SnBr4. Importantly, we find that antithermal quenching of luminescence is not only limited to (C9NH20)2SnBr4 but also exists in other 0D metal halides. Our work highlights the important role of defects in impacting photophysical properties of hybrid metal halides and may stimulate new efforts to explore metal halides exhibiting antithermal quenching of luminescence at higher temperatures.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141289

RESUMO

The capability of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) as efficient charge transfer mediators to stimulate Schottky-junction-triggered charge flow in multifarious photocatalysis has garnered enormous attention in the past decade. Nevertheless, fine-tuning and controllable fabrication of a directional charge transport channel in metal/semiconductor heterostructures via suitable interface engineering is poorly investigated. Here, we report the progressive fabrication of a tailor-made directional charge transfer channel in Pt nanoparticles (NPs)-inlaid WO3 (Pt-WO3) nanocomposites via an efficient electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly integrated with a thermal reduction treatment, by which oppositely charged metal precursor ions and polyelectrolyte building blocks were intimately and alternately assembled on the WO3 nanorods (NRs) by substantial electrostatic interaction. LbL self-assembly buildup and in situ self-etching-induced structural variation of WO3 NRs to a microsized superstructure occur simultaneously. We found that such exquisitely crafted Pt-WO3 nanocomposites exhibit conspicuously enhanced and versatile photoactivities for nonselective mineralizing of organic dye pollution and reduction of heavy metal ions at ambient conditions under both visible and simulated sunlight irradiation, demonstrating a synergistic effect. This is attributed to the imperative contribution of Pt NPs as electron traps to accelerate the directional high-efficiency electron transport from WO3 to Pt NPs, surpassing the confinement of electron transfer kinetics of WO3 owing to low conduction level. More intriguingly, photoredox catalysis can also be triggered simultaneously in the same reaction system. The primary in situ produced active species in the photocatalytic reactions were specifically analyzed, and underlying photocatalytic mechanisms were determined. Our work would provide a universal synthesis strategy for constructing various metal-decorated semiconductor nanocomposites for widespread photocatalytic utilizations.

5.
Food Chem ; 318: 126507, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145544

RESUMO

Vegetables are easily contaminated by phthalate esters (PAEs) from the environment, agricultural films and fertilizers, affecting human health. In this paper, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays were prepared by electrochemical anodic oxidation on the surface of titanium wire. Covalent organic framework of TpBD was in situ bonded to the titanium wire via TiO2 nanotube arrays using monomers of 1,3,5-trimethylphloroglucinol (Tp) and benzidine (BD). The fabricated TpBD-TiO2 coated titanium wire was used as the solid-phase microextraction fiber to extract 11 PAEs in vegetable samples. Coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), the limits of detection for PAEs were from 0.001 (di-n-butyl phthalate) to 0.430 (butyl benzyl phthalate) µg/L (S/N = 3) and enrichment factors were between 226 (dimethyl phthalate) and 2154 (di-n-butyl phthalate). Our fabricated TpBD-TiO2 fiber can be used at least 150 times without significant loss of extraction efficiency (<4.8%). Quantitative determination of PAEs in vegetable samples (tomato, lettuce, cucumber) was achieved by standard addition.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 75, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cinobufagin is the major bufadienolide of Bufonis venenum (Chansu), which has been traditionally used for the treatment of chronic pain especially cancer pain. The current study aimed to evaluate its antinociceptive effects in bone cancer pain and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Rat bone cancer model was used in this study. The withdrawal threshold evoked by stimulation of the hindpaw was determined using a 2290 CE electrical von Frey hair. The ß-endorphin and IL-10 levels were measured in the spinal cord and cultured primary microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. RESULTS: Cinobufagin, given intrathecally, dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia in bone cancer pain rats, with the projected Emax of 90% MPE and ED50 of 6.4 µg. Intrathecal cinobufagin also stimulated the gene and protein expression of IL-10 and ß-endorphin (but not dynorphin A) in the spinal cords of bone cancer pain rats. In addition, treatment with cinobufagin in cultured primary spinal microglia but not astrocytes or neurons stimulated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-10 and ß-endorphin, which was prevented by the pretreatment with the IL-10 antibody but not ß-endorphin antiserum. Furthermore, spinal cinobufagin-induced mechanical antiallodynia was inhibited by the pretreatment with intrathecal injection of the microglial inhibitor minocycline, IL-10 antibody, ß-endorphin antiserum and specific µ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP. Lastly, cinobufagin- and the specific α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonist PHA-543613-induced microglial gene expression of IL-10/ß-endorphin and mechanical antiallodynia in bone cancer pain were blocked by the pretreatment with the specific α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that cinobufagin produces mechanical antiallodynia in bone cancer pain through spinal microglial expression of IL-10 and subsequent ß-endorphin following activation of α7-nAChRs. Our results also highlight the broad significance of the recently uncovered spinal microglial IL-10/ß-endorphin pathway in antinociception.

7.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(1): 124-127, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131951

RESUMO

Patients with uremia can suffer from decreased renal function and endocrine and metabolism disorders,which can lead to the accumulation of toxins in the body.Accumulation of uremic toxins is a major cause of cognitive dysfunction in uremic patients.This article summarizes some of the cognitive dysfunction-related uremic toxins and their possible mechanisms.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Toxinas Biológicas , Uremia/fisiopatologia , Humanos
8.
ACS Sens ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181650

RESUMO

For the first time, a reproducible surface plasmon-enhanced optical sensor for the detection of gaseous formaldehyde was proposed, which was fabricated by depositing a mixture of CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs), fumed silica (FS), and gold nanoparticles (GNs) on the surface of a silica sphere array to meet the urgent requirement of a rapid, sensitive, and highly convenient formaldehyde detection method. Because of the spectral overlap between QDs and GNs, plasmon-enhanced fluorescence was observed in the film of QDs/FS/GNs. When exposed to formaldehyde molecules, the enhanced fluorescence was quenched linearly with the increase of formaldehyde concentration in the range of 0.5-2.0 ppm. The reason is attributed to the nonradiative electron transfer from QDs to the carbonyl of formaldehyde molecules with the assistance of amino groups. Our results demonstrate that the designed sensors are capable of detecting ultralow concentration gaseous formaldehyde at room temperature with a fast response-recovery time and excellent selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. This work provides a simple and low-cost approach for optical formaldehyde sensor fabrication and shows promising applications in environmental detection.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013411

RESUMO

Directional and high-efficiency charge transport to the target active sites of photocatalyst is central to boost the solar energy conversion but is retarded by the sluggish charge transfer kinetics and deficiency of active sites. Here, we report the elaborate design of cascade unidirectional charge transfer channel over spatially multilayered CdS@CdTe@MoS2 dual core-shell ternary heterostructures by partial transformation of CdS to CdTe interim layer followed by seamless encapsulation with an ultrathin MoS2 layer. The suitable energy-level alignment and unique coaxial multilayered assembly mode among the building blocks accelerate the interfacial charge separation and transport, endowing the CdS@CdTe@MoS2 heterostructures with conspicuously enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen generation performances along with good photostability. The integrated roles of ultrathin CdTe intermediate layer in passivating the defect sites of CdS NWs framework, mediating the unidirectional charge transfer cascade and prolonging the charge lifetime, were ascertained. Besides, the crucial role of the outermost MoS2 layer as the metal-free cocatalyst in enriching the surface active sites for hydrogen evolution was also determined. Our work would provide new alternatives for finely tuning the charge flow toward promising solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075020

RESUMO

Lightning waveform plays an important role in lightning observation, location, and lightning disaster investigation. Based on a large amount of lightning waveform data provided by existing real-time very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) lightning waveform acquisition equipment, an automatic and accurate lightning waveform classification method becomes extremely important. With the widespread application of deep learning in image and speech recognition, it becomes possible to use deep learning to classify lightning waveforms. In this study, 50,000 lightning waveform samples were collected. The data was divided into the following categories: positive cloud ground flash, negative cloud ground flash, cloud ground flash with ionosphere reflection signal, positive narrow bipolar event, negative narrow bipolar event, positive pre-breakdown process, negative pre-breakdown process, continuous multi-pulse cloud flash, bipolar pulse, skywave. A multi-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) was designed to automatically extract VLF/LF lightning waveform features and distinguish lightning waveforms. The model achieved an overall accuracy of 99.11% in the lightning dataset and overall accuracy of 97.55% in a thunderstorm process. Considering its excellent performance, this model could be used in lightning sensors to assist in lightning monitoring and positioning.

11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(1): 19-29, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029055

RESUMO

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the association of red meat usual intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and explore the contribution of red meat usual intake to serum ferritin. Methods: Based on the data from the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), 2,797 healthy adults aged 18-75 years without hypertension, diabetes, and MetS were selected in 2009 as subjects and follow-up studies were carried out till 2015. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to estimate the usual intake of foods. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between red meat usual intake and the risk of MetS. Quantile regression analysis was used to study the relationship between red meat consumption and serum ferritin levels. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, red meat, and fresh red meat were positively associated with the risk of MetS ( RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.90 and RR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02-1.85, respectively). These relationships showed increasing trend ( P < 0.05). The level of serum ferritin increased significantly with the number of MetS components ( P < 0.05). The quantile regression analysis showed that red meat and fresh red meat usual intake had a significant positive association with serum ferritin levels across the entire conditional serum ferritin distribution ( P < 0.05). Processed red meat did not exhibit a similar association. Conclusion: Higher red meat usual intake was associated with an increased risk of MetS and elevated serum ferritin levels.

12.
Cornea ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040009

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether subconjunctival bevacizumab help prevent corneal graft neovascularization and prolong the graft survival of patients with chemical burns. METHODS: We performed a prospective nonrandomized comparative case series study. Twenty-six eyes received subconjunctival bevacizumab (10 mg/0.4 mL) once and topical immunosuppressive agents after sclerocorneal lamellar keratoplasty as the treatment, and 13 eyes received a topical immunosuppressant alone and served as the control group. The main outcomes were a cumulative probability of graft survival, development of corneal neovascularization, and complications. RESULTS: The postoperative follow-up time was 14.3 months (range, 2-62 mo). The cumulative graft survival time was significantly longer in the treatment group than that in the control group (42.9 ± 5.9 vs. 4.8 ± 0.7 mo; log rank < 0.001). In the treatment group, 19 of the 26 grafts (73.1%) survived as transparent with a mean follow-up of 18.7 ± 3.0 months. At the end of the follow-up, 4 grafts remained free of neovascularization, 2 developed edema without neovascularization, and 15 remained transparent with a stable ocular surface and some neovascular vessels in the peripheral transplant interface. The other 5 grafts became opaque and neovascularized. In the control group, all grafts became opaque and neovascularized within the follow-up period (5.5 ± 0.7 mo). During the follow-up, a corneal epithelial defect developed in 9 eyes in the treatment group and 7 in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Early application of subconjunctival bevacizumab after sclerocorneal lamellar keratoplasty can significantly prevent corneal neovascularization and promote graft survival for severe late-stage ocular chemical burns.

13.
Talanta ; 211: 120717, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070619

RESUMO

We reported a novel colorimetric method for highly selective halide ions (Cl-, Br-and I-) recognition by Ag nanoclusters hydrogel (Ag-NCs hydrogel). The Ag-NCs hydrogel could discriminate Cl-, Br-and I- ions from a wide range of environmentally important anions, identified by the distinct UV-vis absorption band changes or the change in the color of Ag-NCs hydrogel. On the basis of this strategy, 20 µM and 200 µM of Cl-, 5 µM and 100 µM of Br-, 5 µM and 100 µM of I- could be recognized within 5 min by UV-vis spectrum and naked eye observation, respectively. The surface color of hydrogel changed from yellow to dark green for Cl-, to brown for Br-, and to deep brown for I-. In addition, this sensing method had been applied successfully to detect chloride anion in real water samples such as tap water, pond water and pure water. Therefore, this rapid, facile, and cost-effective colorimetric assay based on Ag-NCs hydrogel was attractive and promising.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence and clinical outcome of pericardial and pleural effusion after cryoballoon ablation (CBA) or radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been fully investigated. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with paroxysmal AF were treated with either CBA (n = 30) or RFCA (n = 30) groups, with assessment of serum troponin I level, left atrial pulmonary vein computed tomography (CT) angiography and echocardiography within 24 hours before ablation, and serum troponin I level at 12 hours, and chest CT and echocardiography within 24 hours postablation. Repeat chest CT was performed 1 month after the index procedure in patients with pericardial or pleural effusion. RESULTS: With similarly distributed baseline characteristics, the CBA group relative to the RFCA group had postablation: higher serum troponin I level (13.48 vs 1.84 µg/L, P < .001); similarly high pericardial effusion rates on chest CT (80% vs 93.3%, P > .05), with chest CT yielding significantly higher detection rate than echocardiography; similarly high pleural effusion rates on chest CT (73.3% vs 80%, P > .05); and smaller maximum depths on chest CT cross-section of pericardial effusion (5.21 ± 3.37 vs 7.13 ± 2.68 mm, P < .05) and pleural effusion bilaterally (left: 4.16 ± 4.90 vs 6.96 ± 5.42 mm; right: 5.04 ± 4.46 vs 7.55 ± 4.95 mm, both P < .05). The effusions self-resolved within a mean period of 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: Both CBA and RFCA were associated with high rates of pericardial and pleural effusion, with RFCA yielding numerically higher incidence and significantly higher effusion extent, and chest CT significantly higher detection rates than echocardiography.

15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109898, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004977

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture produces analgesia in chronic pain patients and animal models of pain hypersensitivity. The current study aims to illustrate the mechanisms underlying electroacupuncture-attenuated neuropathic pain. Neuropathic rats, induced by tight ligation of L5/L6 spinal nerves, markedly reduced mechanical thresholds in the ipsilateral hindpaws relative to the contralateral hindpaws. Low frequency (2 Hz) electroacupuncture stimulation for a period of 20 min alleviated neuropathic pain in the ipsilateral hindpaws of neuropathic rats in a time-dependent manner. The same electroacupuncture treatment also stimulated spinal gene and protein expression of IL-10 and ß-endorphin but not dynorphin A, measured by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA kits. Intrathecal injection of the specific IL-10 antibody in neuropathic rats completely blocked electroacupuncture-increased spinal expression of ß-endorphin, but the ß-endorphin antibody failed to alter electroacupuncture-stimulated spinal IL-10 expression. Using a double fluorescence immunostaining technique, we observed that electroacupuncture stimulated spinal IL-10 and ß-endorphin expression in microglia but not in neurons or astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn of neuropathic rats. Pretreatment with intrathecal injection of the microglial inhibitor minocycline, specific IL-10 antibody and ß-endorphin antiserum (but not the dynorphin A antibody), or selective µ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (but not κ- or δ-opioid receptor antagonist) completely blocked electroacupuncture-induced attenuation of neuropathic pain. These results suggest that low frequency electroacupuncture alleviates neuropathic pain through stimulation of the spinal microglial expression of IL-10 and subsequent expression of ß-endorphin.

17.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(4): 1021-1031, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the treatment patterns and survival after positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided local consolidation therapy (LCT) for oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of Chinese patients with oligometastatic stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (≤ 5 metastases) who had undergone PET/CT and were eligible for systemic therapy at two centers between May 2005 and August 2019. Propensity score matching (1:1) was used to reduce selection bias and imbalanced distribution of confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified 84 eligible patients and used propensity scores to create well-matched groups of 35 patients who did or did not undergo LCT. Among all patients, the 1-year overall survival (OS) rate was 47.6% and the 2-year OS rate was 22.6%. Relative to the group that did not receive LCT, the LCT group had a significantly higher OS rate (13 months vs. 7 months, p = 0.002). The two groups had similar incidences and classifications of LCT-related side effects. In multivariable analysis, LCT was found to be strongly associated with a favorable OS (hazard ratio: 0.508, 95% confidence interval: 0.311-0.828, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: We concluded that LCT was significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes among the Chinese patients with oligometastatic NSCLC who were eligible for systemic treatment and could undergo PET/CT evaluation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Metástase Neoplásica , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Pontuação de Propensão , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relationship between serum cholesterol level and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. We investigated the effects of serum cholesterol level on development of liver tumors in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6J mice, mice with disruption of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (Ldlr-/-mice), and mice with conditional deletion of nature killer (NK) cells (NKdele mice). Some C57BL/6J and NKdele mice were given injections of diethylinitrosamine to induce liver tumor formation. Mice were placed on a normal diet (ND) or high-cholesterol diet (HCD) to induce high serum levels of cholesterol. We also studied mice with homozygous disruption of ApoE (ApoE-/- mice), which spontaneously develop high serum cholesterol. C57BL/6J and NKdele mice on the ND or HCD were implanted with Hep1-6 (mouse hepatoma) cells and growth of xenograft tumors and lung metastases were monitored. Blood samples were collected from mice and analyzed by biochemistry and flow cytometry; liver and tumor tissues were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and RNA-sequencing analysis. NK cells were isolated from mice and analyzed for cholesterol content, lipid raft formation, immune signaling, and changes in functions. We obtained matched tumor tissues and blood samples from 30 patients with HCC and blood samples from 40 healthy volunteers; levels of cholesterol and cytotoxicity of NK cells were measured. RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice on HCD and ApoE-/- mice with high serum levels of cholesterol developed fewer and smaller liver tumors and lung metastases after diethylinitrosamine injection or implantation of Hep1-6 cells than mice on ND. Liver tumors from HCD-fed mice and ApoE-/- mice had increased numbers of NK cells compared to tumors from ND-fed mice. NKdele mice or mice with antibody-based depletion for NK cells showed similar tumor number and size in ND and HCD groups after diethylinitrosamine injection or implantation of Hep1-6 cells. NK cells isolated from C57BL/6J mice fed with HCD had increased expression of NK cell-activating receptors (natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 and natural killer group 2, member D), markers of effector function (granzyme B and perforin), and cytokines and chemokines compared with NK cells from mice on ND; these NK cells also had enhanced cytotoxic activity against mouse hepatoma cells, accumulated cholesterol, increased lipid raft formation, and immune signaling activation. NK cells isolated from HCD-fed Ldlr-/- mice did not have increased cholesterol content or cytotoxic activity against mouse hepatoma cells compared with ND-fed Ldlr-/- mice. Serum levels of cholesterol correlated with number and activity of NK cells isolated from human HCCs. CONCLUSIONS: Mice with increased serum levels of cholesterol due to an HCD or genetic disruption of ApoE develop fewer and smaller tumors after injection of hepatoma cells or a chemical carcinogen. We found cholesterol to accumulate in NK cells and activate their effector functions against hepatoma cells. Strategies to increase cholesterol uptake by NK cells can be developed for treatment of HCC.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110160, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951899

RESUMO

Although much has been determined about the molecular mechanisms of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]-induced hepatotoxicity, more remains to be explored. In particular, explicit epigenetic alterations of microRNAs (miRNAs) which can negatively regulate mRNAs at post transcriptional level remain understudied. In the present study, cell apoptosis was determined using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, while proliferative growth was analyzed by colony formation assay and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) detection. miRNA microarray was performed to compare the global miRNAs expression patterns. miR-21-5p mimics (mi)/inhibitor (in), and PDCD4-siRNAs were transfected into L02 hepatocytes. Our results revealed that Cr(VI) induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in L02 hepatocytes via reactive oxygen species (ROS), the formation of which is closely related to mitochondrial damage, especially the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (MRCC). We also confirmed that ROS-mediated miR-21-5p inhibition participated in cell apoptosis and proliferative inhibition induced by Cr(VI). Furthermore, programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), the up-regulation of which was related to ROS over-production, was predicted and verified as a target of miR-21-5p. Transcription factor PDCD4 silencing suppressed apoptosis and stimulated cell proliferation. In conclusion, from the perspective of epigenetics, the present study revealed that ROS-mediated miR-21-5p regulated the proliferation and apoptosis of Cr(VI)-exposed L02 hepatocytes via targeting PDCD4, which provided the new targets for molecular intervention and treatment of liver damage in Cr(VI)-exposed population.

20.
Exp Cell Res ; 388(1): 111815, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911152

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicular long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to influence recipient cells is emerging as a novel mechanism for disease progression. TC0101441 is a newly identified metastasis-related lncRNA involved in cancer. Since endometriosis exhibits prometastasis behavior similar to those observed in cancer, we aimed to investigate whether TC0101441 is involved in endometriosis and, if so, whether extracellular vesicular TC0101441 contributes to the migration/invasion of endometriotic cyst stromal cells (ECSCs). Clinically, we found that TC0101441 was highly expressed in ectopic endometria than in the eutopic and normal endometria. Serum extracellular vesicular TC0101441 levels were substantially increased in patients at stage III/IV endometriosis in comparison with stage I/II endometriosis and controls. In vitro, using TC0101441-high-expression ECSCs (ECSCs-H) as extracellular vesicles (EVs)-generating cells and TC0101441-low-expression ECSCs (ECSCs-L) as recipient cells, we observed that the PKH67-labeled ECSCs-H-derived EVs were effectively internalized by ECSCs-L. ECSCs-H-derived EVs shuttling TC0101441 were transferred to ECSCs-L, modulating their migratory/invasive abilities partially by regulating certain metastasis-related proteins, which eventually facilitated endometriosis migration/invasion. This study elucidates a potential crosstalk between ECSCs via EVs in endometriotic milieus, suggests a novel mechanism for endometriosis migration/invasion from the perspective of the "extracellular vesicular transfer of lncRNAs" and highlights the potential of circulating extracellular vesicular TC0101441 as a biomarker for endometriosis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA