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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000654

RESUMO

Macrophage proliferation and skewed myelopoiesis-induced monocytosis, as well as neutrophils, enhance the generation of atherogenic inflammatory cells in a lesion area, leading to plaque formation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among all risk factors, accumulated data have shown that hyperlipidemia activates hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow (BM) niche. Recently, proliferation of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) has been demonstrated to drive skewed myelopoiesis, while HSPCs remain quiescent. In this review, we discuss how HSPCs and GMPs participate in atherosclerosis of mice in terms of proliferation and cell mobilization from BM to peripheral blood and the lesion area. We also describe how the spleen, an extramedullary organ, is involved in skewed myelopoiesis and inflammation in atherosclerosis. We further summarize the clinical evidence of the relationship of HSPCs with coronary stenoses in patients with CVD. Ultimately, this review facilitates understanding the pathological roles of HSPCs and GMPs in atherosclerosis for future treatments.

2.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048186

RESUMO

Natural products are the important source for the discovery of more potent anti-HIV agents. In this study, six daphnane diterpenoids including three unreported structures were isolated from Trigonostemon lii, which showed significant activities against HIV-1 strains replication in the nanomolar/picomolar range. Meanwhile, these diterpenoids significantly inhibited the fusion of H9/HIV-1 IIIB cells with uninfected C8166 cells, with the EC50s from 1.06 to 8.73 ng/mL, and did not show any inhibition activities against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Moreover, all of the diterpenoids shows significant inhibitions against T20-resistan HIV-1 strains, PNL4-3gp41(36G)V38E, N42S and pNL4-3gp41(36G)V38A, N42T. The results revealed that the six diterpenoids could be a new type of potential lead candidate as an HIV entry inhibitor, particularly for those infected by T20-resistant variants.

3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia and impaired functions were common manifestation in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in both naïve and experienced PLWHA. Granulopoiesis can be divided into two phases: lineage determination and committed granulopoiesis. However, stage-specific impairment of granulopoiesis in PLWHA with neutropenia remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 48 ART-naïve and 49 ART-experienced PLWHA from 2016 to 2018 were recruited and divided into non-, mild-, and moderate-to-severe-neutropenia groups according to their neutrophil counts. The bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood were collected and analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry for granulocyte subsets, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC), apoptosis, and emigration and retention of different subsets. RESULTS: Compared with healthy donors, the percentages of circulating segmented neutrophils were significantly decreased along with an increase of immature neutrophils in both groups. ART-naïve patients with moderate to severe neutropenia exhibited decreased proportion and accelerated apoptosis of relative mature segmented neutrophils. In contrast, ART-experienced patients with neutropenia displayed decreased proportion of granulocyte macrophage progenitors, indicating a defect at a stage of lineage determination. Meanwhile, ART-experienced patients with neutropenia also the expression of CXCR4 segmented neutrophils, suggesting an increased retention of segmented neutrophils inn the bone marrow. CONCLUSIONS: ART-naïve patients with neutropenia is caused by increased apoptosis of relatively differentiated neutrophils at committed granulopoiesis, whereas impaired lineage determination and enhanced retention of segmented neutrophils contribute to in ART-experienced patients.

4.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 19: 951-960, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018116

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common chronic disease and is characterized by airway remodeling and chronic inflammation. Increasingly, studies have found that the activation and M1 phenotypic transformation of macrophages play important roles in asthma progress, including airway remodeling. However, the reversal of M1 macrophages to the M2 phenotype has been shown to attenuate airway remodeling. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles derived from endosomes; they play direct roles in governing physiological and pathological conditions by the intracellular transfer of bioactive cargo, such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids (microRNA [miRNA], mRNA, DNA), and metabolites. However, transfer mechanisms are unclear. To uncover potential therapeutic mechanisms, we constructed an ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model and lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages cells. High-throughput sequencing showed that mmu_circ_0001359 was downregulated in asthmatic mice when compared with normal mice. Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-exosome treatment suppressed inflammatory cytokine expression by the conversion of M1 macrophages to the M2 phenotype, under lipopolysaccharide-induced conditions. Exosomes from mmu_circ_0001359 overexpression in ADSCs increased therapeutic effects, in terms of cytokine expression, when compared with wild-type exosomes. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that exosomes from mmu_circ_0001359-modified ADSCs attenuated airway remodeling by enhancing FoxO1 signaling-mediated M2-like macrophage activation, via sponging miR-183-5p. In conclusion, mmu_circ_0001359-enriched exosomes attenuated airway remodeling by promoting M2-like macrophages.

5.
Fitoterapia ; 142: 104491, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032634

RESUMO

Two new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, bousangines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Bousigonia angustifolia. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated by a combination of MS, NMR, ECD calculation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bousangine A (1) possessed a rearrangement pentacyclic skeleton derived from aspidosperma-type alkaloids with C-17 degradation. Their antiproliferative activity against several human cancer cell lines were evaluated.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029588

RESUMO

Identification of repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation in trinucleotide (CAG) repeat diseases has led to the emerging concept that CAG repeat diseases are caused by nonpolyglutamine products. Nonetheless, the in vivo contribution of RAN translation to the pathogenesis of CAG repeat diseases remains elusive. Via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, we established knock-in mouse models that harbor expanded CAG repeats in the mouse huntingtin gene to express RAN-translated products with or without polyglutamine peptides. We found that RAN translation is not detected in the knock-in mouse models when expanded CAG repeats are expressed at the endogenous level. Consistently, the expanded CAG repeats that cannot be translated into polyglutamine repeats do not yield the neuropathological and behavioral phenotypes that were found in knock-in mice expressing expanded polyglutamine repeats. Our findings suggest that RAN-translated products do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of CAG repeat diseases and underscore the importance in targeting polyglutamine repeats for therapeutics.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 387: 121980, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927255

RESUMO

A cost-effective and eco-friendly engineering method to improve biochar's physicochemical and sorption performance is critical in various environmental applications. In this study, micro-nano-engineered nitrogenous biochars derived from cow bone meal pyrolyzed at different temperatures and were engineered with the assistance of a ball-milling technique. The ball-milled bone biochars were natural composites combined with plant biochars and hydroxyapatite components on the micro-nanoscale. Both the micropore area and the external specific surface area of the bone biochars were significantly improved after ball-milling. The sorption capacities for heavy metal ions were heavy metal ions were MBC-600 > MBC-450 > BC-600 > MBC-300 > BC-450 > BC-300, consistent with the variation tendency in the specific surface areas of the bone biochars. The adsorption capacities of MBC-600 for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) were 165.77, 287.58 and 558.88 mg/g, respectively (T 298K, pH 5.0), representing increases of 93.91.%, 75.56% and 64.61% compared with the un-milled preparation. Surface complexation, cation exchange, chemical precipitation, electrostatic interaction and cation-π bonding were responsible for the removal of heavy metal ions by bone biochar materials. Taken together, the results show that micro-nano-engineered nitrogenous bone biochar prepared using ball-milling technology is a promising material for the remediation of heavy metals-bearing aquatic environments.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 522(3): 553-559, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785815

RESUMO

A heterozygous frameshift PRRT2 mutation (c.649_650InsC) has been identified as the major causative mutation in several paroxysmal disorders, including paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). Since PKD is an autosomal dominant disorder and since the frameshift mutations of PRRT2 may create a truncated protein, it remains unclear whether this mutation causes toxic gain of function or loss of function. By generating Prrt2 knock-in (KI) mice that express human PRRT2 with the c.649_650InsC mutation and by comparing the phenotypes of Prrt2 KI mice with knockout (KO) mice, we find that both KI and KO mice show the same extents of impaired rotarod and balance beam performance as well as the same sensitivity to seizure induction. Both KI and KO mice show altered formation of SNARE complex and number of synaptic vesicles. In addition, western blotting of KI mouse brain tissues could not detect truncated PRRT2 protein that might be generated by the c.649_650InsC mutation. Moreover, the level of PRRT2 mRNA in KI mice is significantly decreased, recapitulating the reduction of PRRT2 mRNA reported in PKD patients. Furthermore, mutant PRRT2 mRNA is unstable and showed shortened half-life than wild-type PRRT2 mRNA. Our studies suggest that PRRT2 frameshift mutation leads to the loss of function by affecting its mRNA stability, a mechanism that is different from haploinsufficiency due to dysfunctional protein or gain of function caused by truncated protein.

9.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 11(11): 957-970, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798777

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The poorly prognosis and survival of GC are due to diagnose in an advanced, non-curable stage and with a limited response to chemotherapy. The acquisition of drug resistance accounts for the majority of therapy failure of chemotherapy in GC patients. Although the mechanisms of anticancer drug resistance have been broadly studied, the regulation of these mechanisms has not been completely understood. Accumulating evidence has recently highlighted the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, in the development and maintenance of drug resistance due to their regulatory features in specific genes involved in the chemoresistant phenotype of GC. We review the literature on ncRNAs in drug resistance of GC. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ncRNAs' characteristics, their regulation of the genes involved in chemoresistance and their potential as targeted therapies for personalized treatment in resistant GC.

10.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838892

RESUMO

A new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP), hypermonin C (1), along with nine known PPAPs (2-10) were obtained from the leaves and twigs of Hypericum monogynum. The structures of the isolates were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The neuroprotective effects of the isolates against several chemical-induced injuries in SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells were assessed, and most of the compounds exhibited significant protective effects at 10 µg/ml. Especially, three compounds (1, 3, and 7) showed excellent neuroprotective activity with a cell viability of 92.4% ∼ 95.8% in KCl-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury. Their preliminary structure-activity relationship was also discussed and the configuration of substituent in furohyperforin may be critical for the neuroprotective activity of PPAP derivatives.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832950

RESUMO

In the process of electrokinetic (EK) remediation of uranium-contaminated soil, the existence form of uranium in soil pore fluid will affect on its migration behavior. In this paper, a novel type of electrolyte (citric acid + ferric chloride, CA+ FeCl3) has been investigated for the EK remediation of uranium-contaminated red soil. The effects of different electrolyte and the concentrations of FeCl3 on migration behavior of U(VI) and environmental risks were investigated after EK remediation. The result showed that the optimum concentration was 0.1 mol/L CA mixed with 0.03 mol/L FeCl3 in this study. At this time, the removal efficiency of uranium was about 61.55 ± 0.41%, and the cumulative energy consumption was 0.2559 kWh. Compared with deionized water and single CA, combined CA with FeCl3 has the advantages of high removal efficiency, low leaching toxicity, and less damage to the soil after the electrokinetic remediation treatment.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(22): 227201, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868418

RESUMO

The new field of spin cavitronics focuses on the interaction between the magnon excitation of a magnetic element and the electromagnetic wave in a microwave cavity. In the strong interaction regime, such an interaction usually gives rise to the level anticrossing for the magnonic and the electromagnetic mode. Recently, the attractive level crossing has been observed, and it is explained by a non-Hermitian model Hamiltonian. However, the mechanism of such attractive coupling is still unclear. We reveal the secret by using a simple model with two harmonic oscillators coupled to a third oscillator with large dissipation. We further identify this dissipative third party as the invisible cavity mode with large leakage in cavity-magnon experiments. This understanding enables one to design dissipative coupling in all sorts of coupled systems.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 267, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636273

RESUMO

Despite the substantial progress made in identifying genetic defects in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the etiology for majority of ASD individuals remains elusive. Maternal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a commonly prescribed antiepileptic drug during pregnancy in human, has long been considered a risk factor to contribute to ASD susceptibility in offspring from epidemiological studies in humans. The similar exposures in murine models have provided tentative evidence to support the finding from human epidemiology. However, the apparent difference between rodent and human poses a significant challenge to extrapolate the findings from rodent models to humans. Here we report for the first time the neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes of maternal VPA exposure in non-human primates. Monkey offspring from the early maternal VPA exposure have significantly reduced NeuN-positive mature neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebellum and the Ki67-positive proliferating neuronal precursors in the cerebellar external granular layer, but increased GFAP-positive astrocytes in PFC. Transcriptome analyses revealed that maternal VPA exposure disrupted the expression of genes associated with neurodevelopment in embryonic brain in offspring. VPA-exposed juvenile offspring have variable presentations of impaired social interaction, pronounced stereotypies, and more attention on nonsocial stimuli by eye tracking analysis. Our findings in non-human primates provide the best evidence so far to support causal link between maternal VPA exposure and neurodevelopmental defects and ASD susceptibility in humans.

14.
Org Lett ; 21(22): 9272-9275, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663757

RESUMO

Melocochines A (1) and B (2), one pair of epimers with an unprecedented skeleton, were isolated from Melodinus cochinchinensis. Their structures and absolute configurations were established by a combination of MS, NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 represent a class of novel alkaloids, characterized by a rare 1H-benzo[b]azepane ring system within monoterpenoid indole alkaloid categories. Compounds 1 and 2 enhanced lysosomal biogenesis with LysoTracker staining intensities of 139.7% and 119.0%, respectively.

15.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607947

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle repair and systemic inflammation/immune responses are linked to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) pathways in myopathic muscle, and muscle cells play an active role in muscular immune reactions by exhibiting immunological characteristics under persistent proinflammation stimuli. Whether ER stress affects the intrinsic immunological capacities of myocytes in the inflammatory milieu, as it does to immune cells, and which arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR) mainly participate in these processes remain mostly unknown. We investigated this issue and showed that inflammatory stimuli can induce the activation of the protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) arms of the UPR in myocytes both in vivo and in vitro. UPR stressor administration reversed the increased IFN-γ-induced expression of the MHC-II molecule H2-Ea, the MHC-I molecule H-2K b , toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and some proinflammatory myokines in differentiated primary myotubes in vitro. However, further IRE1α inhibition thoroughly corrected the trend in the UPR stressor-triggered suppression of immunobiological molecules. In IFN-γ-treated myotubes, dramatic p38 MAPK activation was observed under IRE1α inhibitory conditions, and the pharmacological inhibition of p38 reversed the immune molecule upregulation induced by IRE1α inhibition. In parallel, our coculturing system verified that the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen presentation ability of inflamed myotubes to OT-I T cells was enhanced by IRE1α inhibition, but was attenuated by further p38 inhibition. Thus, the present findings demonstrated that p38 MAPK contributes greatly to IRE1α arm-dependent immunobiological suppression in myocytes under inflammatory stress conditions.

16.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(12): 739-749, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589381

RESUMO

The process of metastasis is characterized by the shedding of tumor cells into the bloodstream, where they are transported to other parts of the body to seed new tumors. These cells, known as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), have the potential to reveal much about an individual cancer case, and theoretically can aid in the prediction of outcomes and design of precision treatments. Recent advances in technology now allow for the robust and reproducible characterization of CTCs from a simple blood draw. Both the number of circulating cells and important molecular characteristics correlated with clinical phenotypes such as drug resistance can be obtained and used for real-time prognostic analysis. Molecular characterization can provide a snapshot of the activity of the main tumor (serving as a "liquid biopsy") and early warnings concerning changes such as the development of resistance, and aid in predicting the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches for treatment optimization. Herein, the authors review the current clinical use of CTCs as prognostic biomarkers for several different cancers. The quantification of CTCs can lead to more accurate staging and decision making regarding options such as adjuvant chemotherapy.

17.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7370-7375, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Many clinical studies have assessed the association of laminoplasty opening size (LOS) with sagittal canal diameter (SCD) based on single-door cervical laminoplasty (SDCL). Nevertheless, the "worn-off" lamina extracted in SDCL was neglected in these reports. We aimed to develop a simple mathematical model to analyze the relationship between the effective LOS and SCD, taking into consideration the worn-off lamina. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 106 patients treated by SDCL at our hospital were included in this study. Pre-operative and post-operative SCDs were assessed using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) based on computed tomography scans. Mini-plate sizes as well as drill bit diameters were recorded in detail in order to determine the effective LOS for each vertebral lamina involved. RESULTS SCD in all patients was increased significantly after SDCL (P<0.01). A linear correlation was found between effective LOS and the post-operative SCD increment from C3 to C7 (R²>0.933, P<0.001). The 12 mm mini-plate was most often used in SDCL, accounting for 64.45% of all cases, whereas 10 mm and 16 mm mini-plates were the least used, accounting for 3.85% and 3.00%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There is a strong linear correlation between effective LOS and the post-operative SCD increment. The SCD was increased by about 0.5 mm per mm increase in effective LOS. Thus, post-operative SCD could be precisely calculated and predicted, enabling the selection of optimal mini-plate prior to SDCL.

18.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 988, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment and XELOX chemotherapy are effective strategies for shortening the duration of hospital stay for cancer patients. This trial aimed to clarify the safety and efficacy of the fast-track multidisciplinary treatment (FTMDT) model compared to conventional surgery combined with chemotherapy in Chinese colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: This trial was a prospective randomized controlled study with a 2 × 2 balanced factorial design and was conducted at six hospitals. Patients in group 1 (FTMDT) received fast-track perioperative treatment and XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients in group 2 (conventional treatment) received conventional perioperative treatment and mFOLFOX6 adjuvant chemotherapy. Subgroups 1a and 2a had laparoscopic surgery and subgroups 1b and 2b had open surgery. The primary endpoint was total length of hospital stay during treatment. RESULTS: A total of 374 patients were randomly assigned to the four subgroups, and 342 patients were finally analyzed, including 87 patients in subgroup 1a, 85 in subgroup 1b, 86 in subgroup 2a, and 84 in subgroup 2b. The total hospital stay of group 1 was shorter than that of group 2 [13 days, (IQR, 11-17 days) vs. 23.5 days (IQR, 15-42 days), P = 0.0001]. Compared to group 2, group 1 had lower surgical costs, fewer in-hospital complications and faster recovery (all P < 0.05). Subgroup 1a showed faster surgical recovery than that of subgroup 1b (all P < 0.05). There was no difference in 5-year overall survival between groups 1 and 2 [87.1% (95% CI, 80.7-91.5%) vs. 87.1% (95% CI, 80.8-91.4%), P = 0.7420]. CONCLUSIONS: The FTMDT model, which integrates laparoscopic surgery, fast-track treatment, and XELOX chemotherapy, was the superior model for enhancing the recovery of Chinese patients with colorectal cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01080547 , registered on March 4, 2010.

19.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(11): 152644, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is the predominant treatment option for patients with breast cancer. Selection of patients according to biomarker will improve chemotherapy efficacy. In the present study, we examined the relations of the expression of candidate genes and 21-recurrence score (RS) results to patients' demographic characteristics, histopathological factors, and outcomes. METHODS: A total of 146 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients underwent 21-gene RS testing. In addition, expressions of candidate genes, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, TOP2A, PTEN, were detected. Information was obtained on age, tumor size, TMN stage, tumor grade, and status of Ki-67, HER2, ER and PR. The treatment information on the type of endocrine therapy was also obtained. RESULTS: Results clearly showed that the 21-gene RS significantly correlated with the TNM stage of breast cancer (P = 0.047). The RS also correlated with the number of sentinel lymph node (P = 0.038). The pathological type of tumors was strongly associated with the expression of RRM1 (P < 0.015), and slightly correlated with TYMS (P = 0.095) and tumor size (P = 0.061). Further analysis showed that TYMS and RRM1 were two independent factors affecting the disease progression of patients. Besides, for HER-2 stain, staining of grade 2 or above significantly increased the risk of disease progression. CONCLUSION: Our studies showed that TNM stage and sentinel lymph node were important clinical parameters correlated with 21-gene RS results. Also, RRM1, TYMS and HER2 expressions were independent factors associated with disease progression in breast cancer patients. Future study is warranted to investigate the usefulness of these genes in treatment efficacy.

20.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 145: 103-117, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553938

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with obesity-induced cardiac remodelling. Recent research suggests that the cristae are the true bioenergetic components of cells. Acetylcholine (ACh), the major neurotransmitter of the vagus nerve, exerts cardio-protective effects against ischaemia. This study investigated the role of cristae remodelling in palmitate (PA)-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and explored the beneficial effects of ACh. We found loose, fragmented and even lysed cristae in PA-treated neonatal cardiomyocytes along with declines in mitochondrial network and complex expression and overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS); these changes ultimately resulted in increased myocardial size. Overexpression of mitofilin by adenoviral infection partly improved cristae shape, mitochondrial network, and ATP content and attenuated cell hypertrophy. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) silencing increased the number of cristae with a balloon-like morphology without disturbing mitofilin expression. Furthermore, AMPK knockdown abolished the effects of mitofilin overexpression on cristae remodelling and inhibited the interaction of mitofilin with sorting and assembly machinery 50 (Sam50) and coiled-coil helix coiled-coil helix domain-containing protein 3 (CHCHD3), two core components of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complex. Intriguingly, ACh upregulated mitofilin expression and AMPK phosphorylation via the muscarinic ACh receptor (MAChR). Moreover, ACh enhanced protein-protein interactions between mitofilin and other components of the MICOS complex, thereby preventing PA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; however, these effects were abolished by AMPK silencing. Taken together, our data suggest that ACh improves cristae remodelling to defend against PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy, presumably by increasing mitofilin expression and activating AMPK to form the MICOS complex through MAChR. These results suggest new and promising therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondria to prevent lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.

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