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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 126: 104255, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487788

RESUMO

Dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) functions as a negative regulator of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-mediated interferon (IFN) production in human. To explore its role in teleost fish, DAK homologue of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized in this paper. The transcription of black carp DAK (bcDAK) variated in host cells in response to LPS, poly (I:C) and virus stimulation, and bcDAK was majorly distributed in the cytoplasm. Overexpressed bcDAK in EPC cells showed little IFN promoter-inducing ability in the reporter assay and no antiviral activity in plaque assay. When co-expressed with black carp MDA5 (bcMDA5) in EPC cells, bcDAK obviously inhibited bcMDA5-mediated IFN promoter transcription in reporter assay and the antiviral activity in plaque assay. The knockdown of bcDAK enhanced the antiviral activity of the host cells. The association between bcDAK and bcMDA5 has been identified through immunofluorescent staining and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay. Thus, the data generated in this study support the conclusion that black carp DAK interacts with MDA5 and negatively regulates MDA5-mediated antiviral signaling.

2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130738, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384978

RESUMO

A homogeneous galactoglucan was purified from the alkali-extracted polysaccharides from the basidioma of Macrolepiota albuminosa by gradient ethanol precipitation, whose proposed structure was given for the first time. Results showed it had a molecular weight of 210 kDa, and mainly consisted of glucose and galactose. There were abundant filaments, randomly distributed sheet-like and flaky appearance in its surface by SEM observation. Its backbone comprised ß-(1 â†’ 6)-Glcp, α-(1 â†’ 6)-Galp and ß-(1 â†’ 3,6)-Glcp residues at 4:1:1, terminated by ß-(1 â†’ 3)-Glcp and T-Glcp residues. Rheological measurements suggested its steady flow behavior was highly dependent on concentrations. Newtonian behavior was evident at low concentrations, whereas pseudoplastic behavior was observed at high concentrations. Besides, the X-ray diffraction patterns proved the presence of amorphous structure. The conformational parameters were detected by HPSEC-MALLS-RI, revealing a random coil conformation in NaNO3 aqueous solution. This work provides a theoretical basis for the application of polysaccharides from M. albuminosa in food- and drug-based therapies.


Assuntos
Galactanos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Glucanos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130772, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399182

RESUMO

Macrolepiota albuminosa (Berk.) Pegler is abundant in active polysaccharides, but little is known about their structures and solution properties. In this study, water-extracted polysaccharides from M. albuminosa (MAWP) were purified into three fractions with structural heterogeneity, which was attributed to the diversity in molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and linkage patterns, further affecting their solution properties. Methylation and NMR analysis revealed MAWP-60p and MAWP-70 were a 3-O-methylated glucomannogalactan and a previously unreported glucomannogalactan, whereas MAWP-80 was elucidated as a branched galactoglucan. Besides, three fractions exhibited random coil conformation in aqueous solution, while MAWP-60p had the highest viscosity due to its highest molecular weight, mean square radius of gyration (Rg) and O-methyl group attached to the backbone. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages might be the major contributors to the flexibility, molecular size and stereochemistry of mushroom polysaccharide chains.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Polissacarídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Viscosidade
4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1163-1169, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487935

RESUMO

Mn-doped perovskite nanocrystals have promised new optoelectronic applications due to their unique material properties. In the present study, Mn-doped perovskite nanocrystalline films were prepared in situ in a polymer matrix. The Mn-doped perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) had good crystallinity and uniform size/spatial distributions in the polymer film. Bright dual-color emission and the long lifetime of the excited state of the dopant were observed from the host exciton and the Mn2+ dopant, respectively. Furthermore, magnetism was observed in the optimal Mn2+ concentration, implying that magnetic coupling was achieved in the Mn-doped perovskite lattice. The Mn-doped perovskite films also showed superior stability against moisture. To demonstrate the practicality of this composite film, a white light emitting device was fabricated by combining a single composite film with a blue light emitting diode; the device showed a high-quality white light emission, and the Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinate of the white light emitting diode (WLED) (0.361, 0.326) was close to the optimal white color index. In this single-layer WLED, self-absorption among the luminous multilayers in traditional white light emitting diodes can be avoided. The study findings revealed that Mn-doped perovskite nanocrystalline films have many exciting properties, which bodes well for the fundamental study and design of high-performance optoelectronic devices.

5.
Comput Human Behav ; 127: 107050, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646057

RESUMO

Social media browsing is commonly seen as a trigger of unhealthy social comparison (i.e., upward contrast), which negatively affects well-being. One underlying assumption is the predominance of positive self-presentation on social media, which may have shifted during the COVID-19 pandemic when negative disclosures have become more prevalent. In this study, we conceptualize social comparison as a multi-dimensional construct based on different comparing targets and processes, and explore how individual (i.e., cognitive reappraisal) and contextual (i.e., quarantine status) factors may influence the relationships among passive social media use, social comparison and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on a survey with 1131 Wuhan residents in China, we found that passive social media use was positively related to both upward contrast and downward identification, which in turn predicted a higher level of stress. Cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with unhealthy social comparison (i.e., upward contrast and downward identification) but was positively related to healthy social comparison such as upward identification. Quarantined people tended to report more upward contrast, especially when they engaged in more frequent social media browsing. This study contributes to the larger debate about the impact of social media on mental health and offers practical implications.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 301-308, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been a continuous global threat since the first identification of the disease in December 2019. COVID-19 vaccination is a crucial preventive approach that can halt this pandemic. However, many factors affect the willingness of the public to be vaccinated against COVID-19 at the early stage of the vaccination programme. We used network analysis to investigate the interrelation of vaccination willingness and its associated factors. METHODS: A population-representative sample of 539 Chinese adults completed a battery of online self-assessments, including those on vaccination willingness, health status, attitude towards vaccines, COVID-19-related psychological elements and other variables. Network analysis was performed using the R qgraph package. RESULTS: In total, 445 (82.6%) participants scored high on their willingness to vaccinate. Attitude towards vaccines, the influence of people around an individual and health status were directly significantly related to vaccination willingness. The betweenness of age was the highest and, the emotional states had the strongest centrality. LIMITATIONS: Network analysis is not sufficient to determine the causal relationships of the links between nodes. In addition, there are other latent essential elements that were not evaluated. Finally, the sample size was relatively small. CONCLUSION: Network analysis showed that attitude toward vaccines and emotional states are the most critical factors affecting vaccination willingness, which indicates that we should pay attention to the impact of the dissemination of Internet information on vaccination willingness and public emotional states during a pandemic which is very important for promoting vaccination programs.

7.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 127: 104294, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655618

RESUMO

Sterile triploid fish (3n = 150), derived from the hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n = 100) and allotetraploid (♂, 4n = 200), exhibits the improved disease resistance compared with its parents, but the current knowledge of the immunity of triploid fish is limited. Here, we report the identification and characterization of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) homologues from red crucian carp, triploid fish and allotetraploid. In this study, one red crucian carp MDA5 transcript (2nMDA5), two triploid fish MDA5 transcripts (3nMDA5-a and 3nMDA5-b) and two allotetraploid fish MDA5 transcripts (4nMDA5-a and 4nMDA5-b) have been cloned and identified separately. Immunofluorescence staining assay displayed that these MDA5 proteins were cytoplasmic proteins. RT-qPCR assay showed that, in response to spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and poly (I:C) stimuli, the increase of 3nMDA5 mRNA level was obviously higher than those of 2nMDA5 and 4nMDA5. Interestingly, the reporter assay and plaque assay revealed collectively that 3nMDA5-b, a shorter splicing form of MDA5, exhibited the strongest IFN promoter-inducing ability and antiviral activity. Additionally, when co-expressed with 3nMAVS, 3nMDA5-b induced a considerably higher level of IFN promoter activation than 3nMDA5-a; and the interactions between 3nMAVS/3nMDA5-a and 3nMAVS/3nMDA5-b were verified by co-IP assay. Taken together, our findings support the conclusion that in triploid fish, 3nMDA5-b mediates a robust antiviral signaling in host innate immune response.

8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 401, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848680

RESUMO

Met tyrosine kinase, a receptor for a hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. Mitochondria are highly dynamic and undergo fission and fusion to maintain a functional mitochondrial network. Dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics are responsible for the progression and metastasis of many cancers. Here, using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and high spatial and temporal resolution live cell imaging, we identified mitochondrial trafficking of receptor tyrosine kinase Met. The contacts between activated Met kinase and mitochondria formed dramatically, and an intact HGF/Met axis was necessary for dysregulated mitochondrial fission and cancer cell movements. Mechanically, we found that Met directly phosphorylated outer mitochondrial membrane protein Fis1 at Tyr38 (Fis1 pY38). Fis1 pY38 promoted mitochondrial fission by recruiting the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Fragmented mitochondria fueled actin filament remodeling and lamellipodia or invadopodia formation to facilitate cell metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells both in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal a novel and noncanonical pathway of Met receptor tyrosine kinase in the regulation of mitochondrial activities, which may provide a therapeutic target for metastatic HCC.

9.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(11): 1741-1754, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is a potential preneoplastic lesion. AIM: To elucidate the microRNA (miR)-7-mediated preventive and inhibitive effects of Yiwei Xiaoyu granules (YWXY) in SPEM lesions. METHODS: Gastric mucosa biopsies were collected from chronic atrophic gastritis patients and healthy people with signed informed consent. YWXY was administered to the mice with induced SPEM by tamoxifen, and the gastric mucosa was harvested on the tenth day of the experiment. Then immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to validate the SPEM, lesions and the potential mechanism was investigated. RNA transcripts were detected with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The expression of miR-7 was downregulated in the SPEM lesions, and expression of trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) and clusterin was high in the human gastric mucosa. In vivo experiments showed that YWXY could inhibit the cell proliferation in the tamoxifen-induced SPEM lesions by regulating Ki67. Simultaneously, YWXY could restore the expression of miR-7 by regulating TFF2 by detection with immunofluorescence but not with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, indicating its potential mechanism of targeting miR-7 by mediating TFF2. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-ß and gastric intrinsic factor was restored within 3 d of YWXY administration for the SPEM lesions, speculating that the possible mechanism of YWXY is to inhibit the development and progression of SPEM by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-ß and gastric intrinsic factor. CONCLUSION: miR-7 downregulation is an early event in SPEM through regulation of TFF2 in human gastric mucosa. YWXY is able to inhibit the cell proliferation and restore the expression of miR-7 by mediating TFF2 in the SPEM mouse model.

10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 758512, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778077

RESUMO

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT), an alternative donor source, offers a curative therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are transplant candidates. Advances in transplantation techniques, such as donor selection, conditioning regimen modification, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, have successfully improved the outcomes of AML patients receiving haplo-SCT and extended the haploidentical transplant indictions for AML. Presently, treating de novo AML, secondary AML, therapy-related AML and refractory and relapsed AML with haplo-SCT can achieve comparable outcomes to those of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT), unrelated donor transplantation or umbilical cord blood transplantation. For some subgroups of AML subjects, such as patients with positive pretransplantation minimal/measurable residual disease, recent studies suggest that haplo-SCT might be superior to MSDT in decreasing relapse and improving survival. Unfortunately, for patients with AML after haplo-SCT, relapse and infections remain the causes of death that restrict further improvement in clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and challenges in haplo-SCT for AML treatment, mainly focusing on unmanipulated haplo-SCT protocols. We provide an outlook on future prospects and suggest that relapse prophylaxis, intervention, and treatment, as well as infection prevention and therapy, are areas of active research in AML patients who receive haploidentical allografts.

11.
Phytomedicine ; : 153786, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer has become the principal cause of cancer-related deaths. Emodin is a Chinese herb-derived compound extracted from the roots of Rheum officinale that exhibits numerous pharmacological characteristics. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa (sPLA2-IIa) is overexpressed in cancers and plays an important role in cancer development. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the anti-tumor mechanism of emodin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: MTT assay was applied to detect the sensitivity of emodin to NSCLC cell line. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of emodin on cell cycle distribution and evaluate ROS level and apoptosis. Western blot analysis was utilised to examine the expression levels of sPLA2-IIa, PKM2, and AMPK and its downstream pathways induced by emodin. Enzyme inhibition assay was applied to investigate the inhibitory effect of emodin on sPLA2-IIa. The anticancer effect of emodin was also detected using an in vivo model. RESULTS: Emodin significantly inhibited NSCLC proliferation in vivo and in vitro and was relatively less cytotoxic to normal lung cell lines. Most importantly, emodin inhibited the proliferation of KRAS mutant cell lines by decreasing the expression of sPLA2-IIa and NF-κB pathways. Emodin also inhibited mTOR and AKT and activated the AMPK pathway. Furthermore, emodin induced apoptosis, increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and arrested the cell cycle. CONCLUSION: Emodin exhibited a novel anti-tumor mechanism of inhibiting the proliferation of KRAS mutant cell lines by decreasing the expression levels of sPLA2-IIa and NF-κB pathways. Hence, emodin can potentially serve as a therapeutic target in NSCLC.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787307

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells exert anti-viral effects after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The balance between inhibition and activation of NK cells determined by the inherited repertoire of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes may influence Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation after transplantation. To evaluate the relative contributions of KIR genotypes to EBV reactivation, we prospectively enrolled 300 patients with malignant haematological disease who were suitable for haploidentical HSCT. Univariate analysis showed that donors with KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 or KIR3DS1 genes were associated with an increased risk of EBV reactivation [hazard ratio (HR) 1·86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·19-2·9, P = 0·0067; HR 1·78, 95% CI 1·07-2·97, P = 0·027; HR 1·86, 95% CI 1·19-2·91, P = 0·0065 respectively]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 or KIR3DS1 genes was associated with increased EBV reactivation after HSCT. This effect was more evident in the absence of the cognate ligands for the corresponding activating receptors. Our present data firstly showed that donors with activating KIR genes, specifically activating KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 and KIR3DS1, had an increased risk of EBV reactivation. Precaution for patients whose donors carry activating genes will help prevent EBV reactivation and improve patient prognosis after HSCT.

13.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(11): 1236-40, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of ZHU Lian inhibition type Ⅰ acupuncture for acne with spleen-stomach dampness-heat, and to explore its possible action mechanism. METHODS: A total of 82 patients of acne with spleen-stomach dampness-heat were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 41 cases in each group. The patients in the control group were treated with danshentong capsules (1 g, 3 times per day) and 0.1% adapalene gel smear (once every night) for 4 weeks. The patients in the observation group were treated with ZHU Lian inhibition type Ⅰ acupuncture at Hegu (LI 4), Neiting (ST 44), Quchi (LI 11), Yangbai (GB 14), Sibai (ST 2), Qihai (CV 6), Xuehai (SP 10), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and skin lesions, once every other day, 7 times as a course of treatment, totaling for 2 courses of treatment. The skin lesion score of the global acne grading system (GAGS) and quality of life-acne (Qol-Acne) score as well as the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were compared between the two groups before and after treatment; the clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups, and the recurrence rate was evaluated 4 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: After treatment, the skin lesion scores of GAGS in the two groups were reduced (P<0.05), and the score in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the Qol-Acne scores were increased in the two groups (P<0.05), and the score in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The serum levels of TNF-αand IL-6 in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 95.1% (39/41) in the observation group, which was higher than 82.9% (34/41) in the control group (P<0.05). Four weeks after treatment, the recurrence rate of acne lesions was 10.3% (4/39) in the observation group, which was lower than 32.4% (11/34) in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: ZHU Lian inhibition type Ⅰ acupuncture is effective for acne with spleen-stomach dampness-heat, and the recurrence rate is low. Its mechanism may be related to the reduction of serum inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Terapia por Acupuntura , Acne Vulgar/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Baço , Estômago , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the more severe form of metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), and no pharmacologic treatment approved as yet. Identification of novel therapeutic targets and their agents are critical to overcome the current inadequacy of drug treatment for NASH. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The correlation between heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) levels and the development of NASH and the target genes of HSF1 in hepatocyte were revealed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing. The effects and mechanisms of SYSU-3d in alleviating NASH were examined in relevant cell models and mouse models (the Ob/Ob mice, high-fat and high-cholesterol diet, the methionine-choline deficient diet fed mice). The drug-like properties of SYSU-3d in vivo were evaluated. KEY RESULTS: HSF1 is progressively reduced with mitochondrial dysfunction in NASH pathogenesis and activation of this transcription factor by its newly-identified activator SYSU-3d efficiently ameliorated all manifestations of NASH in mice. When activated, the phosphorylated HSF1 (Ser326) translocated to nucleus and bound to the promoter of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) to induce mitochondrial biogenesis, thus increasing mitochondrial adaptive oxidation and inhibiting oxidative stress. The deletion of HSF1 and PGC-1α or recovery of HSF1 in HSF1-deficiency cells revealed the HSF1/PGC-1α metabolic axis mainly responsible for the anti-NASH effects of SYSU-3d independent of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Activation of HSF1 is a practicable therapeutic approach for NASH treatment via the HSF1/PGC-1α/mitochondrial axis, and SYSU-3d would take into consideration as a potential candidate for the treatment of NASH.

15.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1574, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790780

RESUMO

Background: The precise role collagen plays in acute aortic dissection (AAD) was investigated in an animal model of ß-aminopropinitrile (BAPN)-induced AAD. Methods: The 30 3-week-old male specific-pathogen free (SPF)-grade Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups: 10 in the Control group and 20 in the Model group. The Model group was treated with 0.1% BAPN for 4 weeks, while the Control group received untreated water. Histopathological staining and western blot were used to detect changes of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and collagen content in the aorta. Results: At the end of the experiment, the incidence of AAD was 25%, the aortic ECM of surviving rats was severely damaged, and the arrangement was disordered. Fibroblast cells are unevenly distributed, with wide gaps, collagen fibers were also distributed unevenly in a disordered arrangement and their thickness was uneven. The elastic membrane disappeared over a large area. Compare to Control group, the Collagen types I, III and their subunits were upregulated (P<0.05), while matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 were downregulated in the aorta of Model group (P<0.05). Conclusions: In the animal model of BAPN-induced AAD, collagen types I, III and subunits were increased, while MMP2 and MMP9 were decreased in thoracic aorta, which may lead to stiffness of the aorta and be the cause of dissection.

16.
Phytomedicine ; : 153831, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the identification of accurate biomarkers for the diagnosis of patients with early-stage lung cancer remains difficult. Fortunately, metabolomics technology can be used to improve the detection of plasma metabolic biomarkers for lung cancer. In a previous study, we successfully utilised machine learning methods to identify significant metabolic markers for early-stage lung cancer diagnosis. However, a related research platform for the investigation of tumour metabolism and drug efficacy is still lacking. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: A novel methodology for the comprehensive evaluation of the internal tumour-metabolic profile and drug evaluation needs to be established. METHODS: The optimal location for tumour cell inoculation was identified in mouse chest for the non-traumatic orthotopic lung cancer mouse model. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was applied to monitor lung tumour growth. Proscillaridin A (P.A) and cisplatin (CDDP) were utilised to verify the anti-lung cancer efficacy of the platform. The top five clinically valid biomarkers, including proline, L-kynurenine, spermidine, taurine and palmitoyl-L-carnitine, were selected as the evaluation indices to obtain a suitable lung cancer mouse model for clinical metabolomics research by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). RESULTS: The platform was successfully established, achieving 100% tumour development rate and 0% surgery mortality. P.A and CDDP had significant anti-lung cancer efficacy in the platform. Compared with the control group, four biomarkers in the orthotopic model and two biomarkers in the metastatic model had significantly higher abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a significant separation between the orthotopic/metastatic model and the control/subcutaneous/KRAS transgenic model. The platform was mainly involved in arginine and proline metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to simulate clinical metabolomics by comparing the metabolic phenotype of plasma in different lung cancer mouse models. We found that the orthotopic model was the most suitable for tumour metabolism. Furthermore, the anti-tumour drug efficacy was verified in the platform. The platform can very well match the clinical reality, providing better lung cancer diagnosis and securing more precise evidence for drug evaluation in the future.

17.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2101235, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791825

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are important in tumor microenvironment (TME) driven cancer progression. However, CAFs are heterogeneous and still largely underdefined, better understanding their origins will identify new therapeutic strategies for cancer. Here, the authors discovered a new role of macrophage-myofibroblast transition (MMT) in cancer for de novo generating protumoral CAFs by resolving the transcriptome dynamics of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) with single-cell resolution. MMT cells (MMTs) are observed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) associated with CAF abundance and patient mortality. By fate-mapping study, RNA velocity, and pseudotime analysis, existence of novel macrophage-lineage-derived CAF subset in the TME of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model is confirmed, which is directly transited via MMT from M2-TAM in vivo and bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) in vitro. Adoptive transfer of BMDM-derived MMTs markedly promote CAF formation in LLC-bearing mice. Mechanistically, a Smad3-centric regulatory network is upregulated in the MMTs of NSCLC, where chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing(ChIP-seq) detects a significant enrichment of Smad3 binding on fibroblast differentiation genes in the macrophage-lineage cells in LLC-tumor. More importantly, macrophage-specific deletion and pharmaceutical inhibition of Smad3 effectively block MMT, therefore, suppressing the CAF formation and cancer progression in vivo. Thus, MMT may represent a novel therapeutic target of CAF for cancer immunotherapy.

18.
J BUON ; 26(5): 2059-2066, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761617

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the significance of miR-410 expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and its biological function in CCRCC. METHODS: A total of 113 patients with CCRCC admitted to our hospital and 113 healthy individuals over the same period were enrolled. MiR-410 in the tissues and serum of patients with CCRCC was quantified, and the diagnostic value of miR-410 in CCRCC and the relationship between miR-410 and prognosis of patients with CCRCC were analyzed. In addition, miR-410 mimic and miR-410 inhibitor were adopted to regulate miR-410 in CCRCC cells (Caki-2), and then the changes in the proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle of Caki-2 cells were determined. Moreover, tumorigenicity in nude mice was carried out to determine the effect of miR-410 on the tumor growth of CCRCC. RESULTS: MiR-410 was expressed at a high level in CCRCC patients, and had a high diagnostic accuracy [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.916]. In addition, miR-410 was an independent risk factor for the survival prognosis of patients with CCRCC, and its high expression indicated poor prognosis of the patients. Inhibiting miR-410 suppressed cell proliferation, cycle progression, migration, invasion and tumor growth in vivo and promoted cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: MiR-410 is a possible biological indicator for the diagnosis and prognosis of CCRCC, and is also an independent risk factor for the survival prognosis of CCRCC patients. In addition, miR-410 plays a role as an oncogene in CCRCC and promotes the malignant progression of CCRCC.

19.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(10): 1506-1517, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tubular adenocarcinoma of the colon, which originates from the epithelium of the glands, is a major health concern worldwide. However, it is difficult to detect at an early stage. The lack of biomarkers is a main barrier to the diagnosis and treatment of tubular adenocarcinoma. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a secreted protein that induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and is involved in various tumors. NGAL and MMP-9 have been reported to be associated with tumorigenesis and development. They may have potential as biomarkers for diagnosis of tubular adenocarcinoma of the colon. AIM: To determine whether NGAL and MMP-9 can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate the progression of tubular adenocarcinoma of the colon. METHODS: Samples were collected from surgically excised tissue from various patients. The content of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (pro-GRP) in the serum was measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The expression patterns of NGAL and MMP-9 and the relationship between NGAL and MMP-9 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: In this study, we found that NGAL and MMP-9 can be used as biomarkers for the detection of tubular adenocarcinoma of the colon and that their combination improved diagnostic accuracy. By analyzing the expression of NGAL in tubular adenocarcinoma at different levels, we found that NGAL expression was significantly upregulated in primary tubular adenocarcinoma tissues compared with normal tissues. The upregulation of NGAL expression was strongly correlated with both the degree of differentiation and the disease stage (I-III), indicating that NGAL could serve as a diagnostic biomarker for tubular adenocarcinoma. When using NGAL as a biomarker for diagnosis, the accuracy was similar to that achieved with the widely used biomarker pro-GRP, suggesting that NGAL is reliable. Moreover, the expression of MMP-9 was also strongly correlated with the differentiation stage, demonstrating that MMP-9 could be used as a biomarker to indicate the progression of tubular adenocarcinoma of the colon. More importantly, the combination of NGAL and MMP-9 produced a more accurate diagnosis of tubular adenocarcinoma, and these results were further confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that both NGAL and MMP-9 can be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of colon tubular adenocarcinoma and that the results could be further improved by combining them.

20.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(5): 682-689, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722183

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Screening for hepatopulmonary syndrome in cirrhotic patients is limited due to the need to perform contrast enhanced echocardiography (CEE) and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. We aimed to develop a simple and quick method to screen for the presence of intrapulmonary vascular dilation (IPVD) using noninvasive and easily available variables with machine learning (ML) algorithms. Methods: Cirrhotic patients were enrolled from our hospital. All eligible patients underwent CEE, ABG analysis and physical examination. We developed a two-step model based on three ML algorithms, namely, adaptive boosting (termed AdaBoost), gradient boosting decision tree (termed GBDT) and eXtreme gradient boosting (termed Xgboost). Noninvasive variables were input in the first step (the NI model), and for the second step (the NIBG model), a combination of noninvasive variables and ABG results were used. Model performance was determined by the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics (AUCROCs), precision, recall, F1-score and accuracy. Results: A total of 193 cirrhotic patients were ultimately analyzed. The AUCROCs of the NI and NIBG models were 0.850 (0.738-0.962) and 0.867 (0.760-0.973), respectively, and both had an accuracy of 87.2%. For both negative and positive cases, the recall values of the NI and NIBG models were both 0.867 (0.760-0.973) and 0.875 (0.771-0.979), respectively, and the precisions were 0.813 (0.690-0.935) and 0.913 (0.825-1.000), respectively. Conclusions: We developed a two-step model based on ML using noninvasive variables and ABG results to screen for the presence of IPVD in cirrhotic patients. This model may partly solve the problem of limited access to CEE and ABG by a large numbers of cirrhotic patients.

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