Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 417
Filtrar
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2022, 2021 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention and control (P&C) of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a critical task in most countries and regions. However, there are many single evaluation indexes to assess the quality of COVID-19 P&C. It is necessary to synthesize the single evaluation indexes reasonably to obtain the overall evaluation results. METHODS: This study was divided into three steps. Step 1: In February 2020, the improved Delphi method was used to establish the quality evaluation indexes system for COVID-19 P&C. Step 2: in March 2020, the CRITIC method was used to adjust the Order Relation Analysis (G1) method to obtain the subjective and objective (S&O) combination weights. The comprehensive evaluation value was obtained using the weighted Efficacy Coefficient (EC) method, weighted TOPSIS method, weighted rank-sum ratio (RSR) method, and weighted Grey Relationship Analysis (GRA) method. Finally, the linear normalization method was used to synthesize the evaluation values of different evaluation methods. Step 3: From April 2020 to May 2021, this evaluation method was used to monitor and assess COVID-19 P&C quality in critical departments prospectively. The results were reported to the departments monthly. RESULT: A quality evaluation indexes system for COVID-19 P&C was established. Kendall's consistency test shows that the four evaluation method had good consistency (χ2 = 43.429, P<0.001, Kendall's consistency coefficient = 0.835). The Spearman correlation test showed that the correlation between the combined evaluation results and the original method was statistically significant(P < 0.001). According to the Mann-Kendall test, from March 2020 to May 2021, the mean value of COVID-19 P&C quality in all critical departments showed an upward trend (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The combined comprehensive evaluation method based on the S&O combined weight was more scientific and comprehensive than the single weighting and evaluation methods. In addition, monitoring and feedback of COVID-19 P&C quality were helpful for the improvement of P&C quality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitais Gerais , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828043

RESUMO

The enteric parasite, Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhoeal illness in humans and animals worldwide. No effective therapeutics or vaccines are available and therefore control is dependent on understanding transmission dynamics. The development of molecular detection and typing tools has resulted in the identification of a large number of cryptic species and genotypes and facilitated our understanding of their potential for zoonotic transmission. Of the 44 recognised Cryptosporidium species and >120 genotypes, 19 species, and four genotypes have been reported in humans with C. hominis, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. canis and C. felis being the most prevalent. The development of typing tools that are still lacking some zoonotic species and genotypes and more extensive molecular epidemiological studies in countries where the potential for transmission is highest are required to further our understanding of this important zoonotic pathogen. Similarly, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and amplicon next-generation sequencing (NGS) are important for more accurately tracking transmission and understanding the mechanisms behind host specificity.

4.
Food Funct ; 12(23): 11760-11776, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747421

RESUMO

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, a precious edible and medicinal plant in China, has attracted extensive research attention in recent years due to its high traditional value for the treatment of various diseases. In vitro digestion and colonic fermentation models were established to evaluate the stability of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum leaves (THL) phenolics by the HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were degraded during digestion and fermentation. 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, orientin and (iso)vitexin were metabolized by digestive enzymes and the gut microbiota, and absorbed in the form of glycosides and smaller phenolic acids for hepatic metabolism. The protective effects of THL on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and potential mechanisms were explored. The results showed that THL supplementation increased the body weight and colon length, and the expression levels of tight junction proteins including occludin, claudin-1 and ZO-1 were up-regulated by THL. The secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines containing IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly suppressed, whereas the content of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was promoted in the THL treated group. In addition, THL treatment activated the nuclear transfer of Nrf2, improved the expression of SOD, CAT, HO-1, NQO1 and GCLC, and decreased the content of MPO and MDA. It is worth noting that THL treatment significantly increased the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), increased the abundance of Ruminococcaceae, and decreased the abundance of Verrucomicrobia which is positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results indicated that THL effectively inhibited DSS-induced colitis by maintaining the intestinal epithelial barrier, mitigated oxidative stress through regulating the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and regulated the imbalance of the intestinal flora structure.

5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4199-4218, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623485

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in various hosts, with the disease giardiasis being a zoonosis. The use of molecular typing tools has improved our understanding of the distribution and zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis genotypes in different animals. The present review summarizes recent data on the distribution of G. duodenalis genotypes in humans and animals in different areas. The dominance of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B in humans and common occurrence of host-adapted assemblages in most domesticated animals suggests that zoonotic giardiasis is probably less common than believed and could be attributed mainly to contact with or contamination from just a few species of animals such as nonhuman primates, equines, rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and beavers. Future studies should be directed to advanced genetic characterization of isolates from well-designed epidemiological investigations, especially comparative analyses of isolates from humans and animals living in the same household or community. This will likely lead to better understanding of zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis in different environmental and socioeconomic settings.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Cobaias , Cavalos , Tipagem Molecular , Coelhos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683387

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium bovis is a common enteric pathogen in bovine animals. The research on transmission characteristics of the pathogen is hampered by the lack of subtyping tools. In this study, we retrieve the nucleotide sequence of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) from the whole genome sequences of C. bovis we obtained previously and analyze its sequence characteristics. Despite a typical structure of the GP60 protein, the GP60 of C. bovis had only 19.3-45.3% sequence identity to those of other Cryptosporidium species. On the basis of the gene sequence, a subtype typing tool was developed for C. bovis and used in the analysis of 486 C. bovis samples from dairy cattle, yaks, beef cattle, and water buffalos from China. Sixty-eight sequence types were identified from 260 subtyped samples, forming six subtype families, namely XXVIa to XXVIf. The mosaic sequence patterns among subtype families and the 121 potential recombination events identified among the sequences both suggest the occurrence of genetic recombination at the locus. No obvious host adaptation and geographic differences in the distribution of subtype families were observed. Most farms with more extensive sampling had more than one subtype family, and the dominant subtype families on a farm appeared to differ between pre- and post-weaned calves, indicating the likely occurrence of multiple episodes of C. bovis infections. There was an association between XXVId infection and occurrence of moderate diarrhea in dairy cattle. The subtyping tool developed and the data generated in the study might improve our knowledge of the genetic diversity and transmission of C. bovis.

7.
Int J Parasitol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715087

RESUMO

The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are significant causes of diarrhoea worldwide and are responsible for numerous waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diseases. Over the last 50 years, the development of improved detection and typing tools has facilitated the expanding range of named species. Currently at least 44 Cryptosporidium spp. and >120 genotypes, and nine Giardia spp., are recognised. Many of these Cryptosporidium genotypes will likely be described as species in the future. The phylogenetic placement of Cryptosporidium at the genus level is still unclear and further research is required to better understand its evolutionary origins. Zoonotic transmission has long been known to play an important role in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, and the development and application of next generation sequencing tools is providing evidence for this. Comparative whole genome sequencing is also providing key information on the genetic mechanisms for host specificity and human infectivity, and will enable One Health management of these zoonotic parasites in the future.

8.
Trends Parasitol ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474945
9.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 178, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nematodes are a widespread and diverse group comprising free-living and parasitic species, some of which have major detrimental effects on crops, animals, and human health. Genomic comparisons of nematodes may help reveal the genetic bases for the evolution of parasitic lifestyles. Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) are thought to be unique to nematodes and play essential roles in their development, reproduction, infection, and possibly parasitism through promoting the uptake, transport, and distribution of lipid and retinol. However, the evolution of FAR family proteins across the phylum Nematoda remains elusive. RESULTS: We report here the evolutionary relationship of the FAR gene family across nematodes. No FAR was found in Trichocephalida species and Romanomermis culicivorax from Clade I, and FAR could be found in species from Clades III, IV, and V. FAR proteins are conserved in Clade III species and separated into three clusters. Tandem duplications and high divergence events lead to variable richness and low homology of FARs in Steinernema of Clade IVa, Strongyloides of Clade IVb, and intestinal parasitic nematodes from Clades Vc and Ve. Moreover, different richness and sequence variations of FARs in pine wood, root-knot, stem, and cyst nematodes might be determined by reproduction mode or parasitism. However, murine lungworm Angiostrongylus and bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus from Clade Vd have only 3-4 orthologs of FAR. RNA-seq data showed that far genes, especially far-1 and far-2, were highly expressed in most nematodes. Angiostrongylus cantonensis FAR-1 and FAR-3 have low sequence homology and distinct ligand-binding properties, leading to differences in the cavity volume of proteins. These data indicate that FAR proteins diverged early and experienced low selective pressure to form genus-level diversity. The far genes are present in endophyte or root-colonized bacteria of Streptomyces, Kitasatospora sp., Bacillus subtilis, and Lysobacter, suggesting that bacterial far genes might be derived from plant-parasitic nematodes by horizontal gene transfer. CONCLUSIONS: Data from these comparative analyses have provided insights into genus-level diversity of FAR proteins in the phylum Nematoda. FAR diversification provides a glimpse into the complicated evolution history across free-living and parasitic nematodes.

11.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203099

RESUMO

Rabbits are increasingly farmed in Egypt for meat. They are, however, known reservoirs of infectious pathogens. Currently, no information is available on the genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in rabbits in Egypt. To understand the prevalence and genetic identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in these animals, 235 fecal samples were collected from rabbits of different ages on nine farms in El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia, and Damietta Provinces, Egypt during the period from July 2015 to April 2016. PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene was used to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. The overall detection rate was 11.9% (28/235). All 28 samples were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The 16 samples successfully subtyped by the sequence analysis of the partial 60 kDa glycoprotein gene belonged to two subtypes, VbA19 (n = 1) and VbA33 (n = 15). As C. cuniculus is increasingly recognized as a cause of human cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium spp. in rabbits from Egypt have zoonotic potential.

12.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202513

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrhea in sheep and goats. Among the over 40 established species of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium xiaoi is one of the dominant species infecting ovine and caprine animals. The lack of subtyping tools makes it impossible to examine the transmission of this pathogen. In the present study, we identified and characterized the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene by sequencing the genome of C. xiaoi. The GP60 protein of C. xiaoi had a signal peptide, a furin cleavage site of RSRR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, and over 100 O-glycosylation sites. Based on the gp60 sequence, a subtyping tool was developed and used in characterizing C. xiaoi in 355 positive samples from sheep and goats in China. A high sequence heterogeneity was observed in the gp60 gene, with 94 sequence types in 12 subtype families, namely XXIIIa to XXIIIl. Co-infections with multiple subtypes were common in these animals, suggesting that genetic recombination might be responsible for the high diversity within C. xiaoi. This was supported by the mosaic sequence patterns among the subtype families. In addition, a potential host adaptation was identified within this species, reflected by the exclusive occurrence of XXIIIa, XXIIIc, XXIIIg, and XXIIIj in goats. This subtyping tool should be useful in studies of the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of C. xiaoi.

13.
Earth Sci Inform ; : 1-13, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276829

RESUMO

In order to study the dominant seepage channel of the third member of Weizhou formation (Ew 3) in Weizhou 12-X oilfield, Weixinan Sag, Beibu Gulf Basin, and tap the potential of remaining oil. The distribution and causes of the anomalously high permeability zones in Weizhou Formation were studied by using conventional core physical property analysis, scanning electron microscope, laser particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and thin section microscopic identification. As the results show, vertically,there are three anomalously high permeability zones in the A1 1, A1 2 and A2 1 micro-stage of the middle diagenetic stage, with the depth range of 2300 m ~ 2400 m, 2400 m ~ 2600 m, 2600 m ~ 2900 m respectively. Grain size, sorting, dissolution and early emplacement of hydrocarbons are the main causes of anomalously high permeability zones. Although both grain size and sorting affect porosity and permeability, the effect of grain size on permeability is stronger than sorting, and sorting has a stronger effect on porosity than grain size. Magmatic hydrothermal and organic acid promote dissolution and concomitant porosity and permeability increase by dissolving unstable minerals. The early emplacement of hydrocarbons retard the cementation and accompanying porosity and permeability reduction by reducing the water-rock ratio. Finally, sandstone reservoirs in the Ew 3 are characterized by anomalously high permeability zones.

14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2887-2895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331137

RESUMO

Few data are available on the genetic identity of enteric protists Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans in Thailand. In this study, 254 stool samples were collected from primary school children from Ratchaburi Province at the Thai-Myanmar border and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis using PCR techniques. The genotype identity of the pathogens was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium felis was found in 1 stool sample, G. duodenalis in 19 stool samples, and E. bieneusi in 4 stool samples. For G. duodenalis, sub-assemblage AII was the dominant genotype, but one infection with assemblage F was found. The E. bieneusi genotypes found included known genotypes D and J, and one novel genotype (HPTM1). Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in any samples. Results of the preliminary study indicate that children at the Thai-Myanmar border from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand are infected with diverse zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Mianmar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4073-4074, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142224
16.
One Health ; 13: 100269, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113708

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. are common protozoan pathogens in mammals. With pet rodents being integrated into modern life, the potential roles of them in transmitting parasites to humans need assessments. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet rodents in Guangdong, south China. A total of 697 fecal samples were collected from 11 species of rodents in seven pet shops, one pet market and one farm. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified by PCR analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. An overall infection rate of 36.9% (257/697) was obtained, with infection rates varying from 9.3% in chinchillas, 52.3% in guinea pigs, 57.1% in squirrels, to 68.4% in cricetid animals. Nine Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were identified, including C. wrairi (in 129 guinea pigs), C. andersoni (in 34 hamsters), C. homai (in 32 guinea pigs), Cryptosporidium hamster genotype (in 30 hamsters), C. ubiquitum (in 24 chinchillas and squirrels), C. parvum (in 2 chinchillas), Cryptosporidium ferret genotype (in 2 chipmunks), C. muris (in 1 hamster and 1 guinea pig), and Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype V (in 1 chinchilla and 1 chipmunk). Sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene identified three subtype families of C. ubiquitum, including family XIId in 15 chinchillas, XIIa in 5 chinchillas, and a new subtype family (XIIi) in 1 squirrel. The identification of C. parvum and C. ubiquitum in pet rodents suggests that these animals, especially chinchillas, could serve as reservoirs of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium spp. Hygiene should be practiced in the rear and care of these animals, and One Health measures should be developed to reduce the occurrence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium infections due to contact with pet rodents.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 651512, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093467

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in humans and animals. Its compact genome contains 22 genes encoding divergent insulinase-like proteases (INS), which are poorly characterized. In this study, two small members of this family, INS-21 encoded by cgd7_2080 and INS-23 encoded by cgd5_3400, were cloned, expressed, and characterized to understand their functions. Recombinant INS-21 and INS-23 were expressed in Escherichia coli and polyclonal antibodies against these two proteins were prepared. The cgd7_2080 gene had a high transcription level during 0-2 h of in vitro C. parvum culture, while cgd5_3400 was highly transcribed at 0-6 h. INS-21 was mostly located in the apical region of sporozoites and merozoites whereas INS-23 was found as spots in sporozoites and merozoites. The immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the expression of INS-21 in the apical region of sporozoites while INS-23 appeared to be expressed in the dense granules of sporozoites. The neutralization efficiency was approximately 35%, when the cultures were treated with anti-INS23 antibodies. These results suggest that INS-21 and INS-23 are expressed in different organelles and might have different functions in the development of C. parvum.

18.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799445

RESUMO

The NaxWO3 nanoparticles with different x were synthesized by a solvothermal method and the absorption behavior in visible and near-infrared light (NIR) region was studied. Well-crystallized nanoparticles with sizes of several tens of nanometers were confirmed by XRD, SEM and TEM methods. The absorption valley in visible region shifted from 555 nm to 514 nm and the corresponding absorption peak in NIR region shifted from 1733 nm to 1498 nm with the increasing x. In addition, the extinction behavior of NaxWO3 nanoparticles with higher x values were simulated by discrete dipole approximation method and results showed that the changing behavior of optical properties was in good agreement with the experimental results. The experimental and theoretical data indicate that the transparency and NIR-shielding properties of NaxWO3 nanoparticles in the visible and NIR region can be continuously adjusted by x value in the whole range of 0 < x < 1. These tunable optical properties of nanocrystalline NaxWO3 will expand its application in the fields of transparent heat-shielding materials or optical filters.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25440, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) caused by Klebsiella pneumonia (KP) is a common nosocomial infection (NI). However, the reports on the economic burden of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia (KP-HAP) were scarce. The study aims to study the direct economic loss caused by KP-HAP with the method of propensity score matching (PSM) to provide a basis for the cost accounting of NI and provide references for the formulation of infection control measures. METHODS: A retrospective investigation was conducted on the hospitalization information of all patients discharged from a tertiary group hospital in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China, from June 2016 to August 2019. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were divided into the HAP group and noninfection group, the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) positive KP infection group, and the ESBLs-negative KP infection group. After the baselines of each group were balanced with the PSM, length of stay (LOS) and hospital cost of each group were compared. RESULTS: After the PSM, there were no differences in the baselines of each group. Compared with the noninfection group, the median LOS in the KP-HAP group increased by 15 days (2.14 times), and the median hospital costs increased by 7329 yuan (0.89 times). Compared with the ESBLs-negative KP-HAP group, the median LOS in the ESBLs-positive KP-HAP group increased by 7.5 days (0.39 times), and the median hospital costs increased by 22,424 yuan (1.90 times). CONCLUSION: KP-HAP prolonged LOS and increased hospital costs, and HAP caused by ESBLs-positive KP had more economic losses than ESBLs-negative, which deserves our attention and should be controlled by practical measures.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Klebsiella/economia , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Tempo de Internação/economia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/economia
20.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 14: 241-247, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898224

RESUMO

Several species of wild mammals are farmed in China as part of the rural development and poverty alleviation, including fur animals, bamboo rats, and macaque monkeys. Concerns have been raised on the potential dispersal of pathogens to humans and other farm animals brought in from native habitats. Numerous studies have been conducted on the genetic identity and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in these newly farmed exotic animals. The data generated have shown a high prevalence of the pathogens in farmed wildlife, probably due to the stress from the short captivity and congregation of large numbers of susceptible animals. Host adaptation at species/genotype and subtype levels has reduced the potential for cross-species and zoonotic transmission of pathogens, but the farm environment appears to favor the transmission of some species, genotypes, and subtypes, with reduced pathogen diversity compared with their wild relatives. Most genotypes and subtypes of the pathogens detected appear to be brought in from their native habitats. A few of the subtypes have emerged as human pathogens. One Health measures should be developed to slow the dispersal of indigenous pathogens among farmed exotic animals and prevent their spillover to other farm animals and humans.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...