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1.
PeerJ ; 9: e12428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760397

RESUMO

Several main families of Ranunculales are rich in alkaloids and other medicinal compounds; many species of these families are used in traditional and folk medicine. Dichocarpum is a representative medicinal genus of Ranunculaceae, but the genetic basis of its metabolic phenotype has not been investigated, which hinders its sustainable conservation and utilization. We use the third-generation high-throughput sequencing and metabolomic techniques to decipher the full-length transcriptomes and metabolomes of five Dichocarpum species endemic in China, and 71,598 non-redundant full-length transcripts were obtained, many of which are involved in defense, stress response and immunity, especially those participating in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites such as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). Twenty-seven orthologs extracted from trancriptome datasets were concatenated to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree, which was verified by the clustering analysis based on the metabolomic profile and agreed with the Pearson correlation between gene expression patterns of Dichocarpum species. The phylogenomic analysis of phytometabolite biosynthesis genes, e.g., (S)-norcoclaurine synthase, methyltransferases, cytochrome p450 monooxygenases, berberine bridge enzyme and (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase, revealed the evolutionary trajectories leading to the chemodiversity, especially that of protoberberine type, aporphine type and bis-BIA abundant in Dichocarpum and related genera. The biosynthesis pathways of these BIAs are proposed based on full-length transcriptomes and metabolomes of Dichocarpum. Within Ranunculales, the gene duplications are common, and a unique whole genome duplication is possible in Dichocarpum. The extensive correlations between metabolite content and gene expression support the co-evolution of various genes essential for the production of different specialized metabolites. Our study provides insights into the transcriptomic and metabolomic landscapes of Dichocarpum, which will assist further studies on genomics and application of Ranunculales plants.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5159-5165, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738415

RESUMO

Withania somnifera, also known as Indian ginseng, is an important traditional medicine in the Ayurvedic medical system of India, which has a significant effect of adaptation. Modern studies have shown that the main chemical components of W. somnifera are withanolides, which have antioxidant, anti-tumor, enhancing immunity, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, anti-stress, anti-stress reaction and hypoglycemic activities. Studies on human, animal, mutagenesis, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity and drug interaction showed that W. somnifera had good safety. Clinical trials have proved that W. somnifera is effective in treating a variety of human diseases. As a famous traditional medicine and modern dietary supplement, it has a high reputation and market in the international health product market, but in China, there is little scientific research, market development, product introduction and application. In this paper, the traditional application, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, safety evaluation and clinical study of the plant were introduced, so as to increase the understanding of the dual use of the plant, and to provide reference for the future introduction of the product, the service to the health of the Chinese people and the promotion of the "double cycle" of the trade of health products between China and the international community.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Withania , Vitanolídeos , Animais , China , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4344-4359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581037

RESUMO

The Solanaceae plants distributed in China belong to 105 species and 35 varietas of 24 genera. Some medicinal plants of Solanaceae are rich in tropane alkaloids(TAs), which have significant pharmacological activities. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, pharmacological activities, and biosynthetic pathways of TAs in Solanaceous plants were summarized. Besides, the phylogeny of medicinal plants belonging to Solanaceae was visualized by network diagram. Fourteen genera of Solanaceae plants in China contain TAs and have medical records. TAs mainly exist in Datura, Anisodus, Atropa, Physochlaina, and Hyoscyamus. The TAs-containing species were mainly concentrated in Southwest China, and the content of TAs was closely related to plant distribution area and altitude. The Solanaceae plants containing TAs mainly have antispasmodic, analgesic, antiasthmatic, and antitussive effects. Modern pharmacological studies have proved the central sedative, pupil dilating, glandular secretion-inhibiting, and anti-asthma activities of TAs. These pharmacological activities provide a reasonable explanation for the traditional therapeutic efficacy of tropane drugs. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, and modern pharmacological activities of TAs-containing species in Solanaceae were analyzed for the first time. Based on these data, the genetic relationship of TAs-containing Solanaceae species was preliminarily discussed, which provided a scientific basis for the basic research on TAs-containing solanaceous species and was of great significance for the development of natural medicinal plant resources containing TAs.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Solanaceae , Vias Biossintéticas , Filogenia , Solanaceae/genética , Tropanos
4.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(5): 321-338, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941338

RESUMO

Cephalotaxus is the only genus of Cephalotaxaceae family, and its natural resources are declining due to habitat fragmentation, excessive exploitation and destruction. In many areas of China, folk herbal doctors traditionally use Cephalotaxus plants to treat innominate swollen poison, many of which are cancer. Not only among Han people, but also among minority ethnic groups, Cephalotaxus is used to treat various diseases, e.g., cough, internal bleeding and cancer in Miao medicine, bruises, rheumatism and pain in Yao medicine, and ascariasis, hookworm disease, scrofula in She medicine, etc. Medicinal values of some Cephalotaxus species and compounds are acknowledged officially. However, there is a lack of comprehensive review summarizing the ethnomedicinal knowledge of Cephalotaxus, relevant medicinal phytometabolites and their bioactivities. The research progresses in ethnopharmacology, chemodiversity, and bioactivities of Cephalotaxus medicinal plants are reviewed and commented here. Knowledge gaps are pinpointed and future research directions are suggested. Classic medicinal books, folk medicine books, herbal manuals and ethnomedicinal publications were reviewed for the genus Cephalotaxus (Sanjianshan in Chinese). The relevant data about ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology were collected as comprehensively as possible from online databases including Scopus, NCBI PubMed, Bing Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). "Cephalotaxus", and the respective species name were used as keywords in database search. The obtained articles of the past six decades were collated and analyzed. Four Cephalotaxus species are listed in the official medicinal book in China. They are used as ethnomedicines by many ethnic groups such as Miao, Yao, Dong, She and Han. Inspirations are obtained from traditional applications, and Cephalotaxus phytometabolites are developed into anticancer reagents. Cephalotaxine-type alkaloids, homoerythrina-type alkaloids and homoharringtonine (HHT) are abundant in Cephalotaxus, e.g., C. lanceolata, C. fortunei var. alpina, C. griffithii, and C. hainanensis, etc. New methods of alkaloid analysis and purification are continuously developed and applied. Diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, lignans, phenolics, and other components are also identified and isolated in various Cephalotaxus species. Alkaloids such as HHT, terpenoids and other compounds have anticancer activities against multiple types of human cancer. Cephalotaxus extracts and compounds showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, immunomodulatory activity, antimicrobial activity and nematotoxicity, antihyperglycemic effect, and bone effect, etc. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies of Cephalotaxus are increasing. We should continue to collect and sort out folk medicinal knowledge of Cephalotaxus and associated organisms, so as to obtain new enlightenment to translate traditional tips into great therapeutic drugs. Transcriptomics, genomics, metabolomics and proteomics studies can contribute massive information for bioactivity and phytochemistry of Cephalotaxus medicinal plants. We should continue to strengthen the application of state-of-the-art technologies in more Cephalotaxus species and for more useful compounds and pharmacological activities.


Assuntos
Cephalotaxus , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Cephalotaxus/química , China , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1326-1332, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787128

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn(Hippophae rhamnoides) is widely distributed, with abundant resources, a long history of application, and rich nutrition and high medicinal value. Therefore, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers at home and abroad. The focus of attention is mainly on sea buckthorn fruit, but with weak research and development of sea buckthorn leaves. In order to develop and utilize abundant resources of sea buckthorn leaves, this paper systematically reviewed domestic and foreign literatures and summarized the current application, harvesting and processing, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of sea buckthorn leaves. Sea buckthorn leaves have a wide development and utilization value in food raw materials(like a substituting-for-tea plant), pharmaceutical raw materials and animal feed. Modern studies have shown that the leaves of sea buckthorn are rich in polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, as well as vitamins(especially vitamin C), proteins, amino acids and mineral elements. It has various pharmacological effects, such as anti-obesity, hypoglycemia, anti-oxidation, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular diseases. Domestic and foreign studies have showed that sea buckthorn leaves have important development and utilization prospects, and are worth further study and development.


Assuntos
Hippophae , Animais , Flavonoides , Frutas , Folhas de Planta , Polifenóis
6.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170942

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have provided numerous medicinal active ingredients for thousands of years and these ingredients have been used in Chinese medicine (CM) and traditional pharmacologies worldwide. Recently, the exploitation and utilisation of medicinal plant resources has increased significantly. The results of the studies have led to the identification of many active components, such as steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and glycosides, in various medicinal plants with different evolutionary levels. Moreover, research on the chemical classification, molecular phylogeny, and pharmacological activity of medicinal plants is increasing in popularity. Pharmacophylogeny is an interdisciplinary topic that studies the correlation between plant phylogeny, chemical composition, and curative effects (pharmacological activity and the traditional curative effect) of medicinal plants. In addition, it provides the basic tools to enable research and development of CM resources. This literature review, based on the genetic relationship between phytogroup and species, highlights the formation process, research content, applications, and future directions of pharmacophylogeny.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 557400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193139

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially high molecular weight PAHs, are carcinogenic and mutagenic organic compounds that are difficult to degrade. Microbial remediation is a popular method for the PAH removal in diverse environments and yet it is limited by the lack of electron acceptors. An emerging solution is to use the microbial electrochemical system, in which the solid anode is used as an inexhaustible electron acceptor and the microbial activity is stimulated by biocurrent in situ to ensure the PAH removal and avoid the defects of bioremediation. Based on the extensive investigation of recent literatures, this paper summarizes and comments on the research progress of PAH removal by the microbial electrochemical system of diversified design, enhanced measures and functional microorganisms. First, the bioelectrochemical degradation of PAHs is reviewed in separate and mixed PAH degradation, and the removal performance of PAHs in different system configurations is compared with the anode modification, the enhancement of substrate and electron transfer, the addition of chemical reagents, and the combination with phytoremediation. Second, the key functional microbiota including PAH degrading microbes and exoelectrogens are overviewed as well as the reduced microbes without competitive advantage. Finally, the typical representations of electrochemical activity especially the internal resistance, power density and current density of systems and influence factors are reviewed with the correlation analysis between PAH removal and energy generation. Presently, most studies focused on the anode modification in the bioelectrochemical degradation of PAHs and actually more attentions need to be paid to enhance the mass transfer and thus larger remediation radius, and other smart designs are also proposed, especially that the combined use of phytoremediation could be an eco-friendly and sustainable approach. Additionally, exoelectrogens and PAH degraders are partially overlapping, but the exact functional mechanisms of interaction network are still elusive, which could be revealed with the aid of advanced bioinformatics technology. In order to optimize the efficacy of functional community, more advanced techniques such as omics technology, photoelectrocatalysis and nanotechnology should be considered in the future research to improve the energy generation and PAH biodegradation rate simultaneously.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 2180-2185, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495569

RESUMO

Stilbenes is a class of natural polyphenols with 1,2-diphenylethylene as the skeleton structure which have structural and active diversity. However, there are fewer studies on their metabolic process, which limits the in-depth research and development of such components. An UPLC-MS/MS method simultaneously determining contents of ten stilbenes was firstly established in this study and applied to study the ten stilbenes of peony seed coats in the serum of C57 mice.Piceatannol was the internal standard, and methanol was used for protein precipitation, UPLC-MS/MS with negative ion mode was used for analysis, and the method was validated.The serum samples were collected and detected after mice being oral administered with 800 mg·kg~(-1) peony seed coat extracts for 8 weeks. The results showed that suffruticosol A, suffruticosol B, suffruticosol C, trans-ε-viniferin, cis-gnetin H, trans-suffruticosol D and trans-gnetin H were detected in serum samples, and the highest is suffruticosol A. The method is simple and quick with high specificity and sensitivity, and it is suitable for quantitative determination of ten stilbenes in the serum of mice.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Estilbenos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Camundongos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4405-4411, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872625

RESUMO

The application of chemical fingerprint to evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicine has been widely accepted and used in many countries. However,only by analyzing the type and content of its chemical components to evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicines,the gold standard of quality evaluation by evaluating pharmacodynamic effects is ignored. The study of Chinese medicinal spectrum-effect relationships combining the chemical composition with the pharmacodynamic activity of traditional Chinese medicine,which can evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicine from more comprehensive and different angles,has been applied in many fields of traditional Chinese medicine research. This paper mainly summarizes the research methods of the Chinese medicinal spectrum-effect relationships and its application in the field of traditional Chinese medicine study,and provides reference for the research,development and application of the Chinese medicinal spectrum-effect relationships.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Curr Drug Metab ; 20(7): 556-574, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The representative cardiovascular herbs, i.e. Panax, Ligusticum, Carthamus, and Pueraria plants, are traditionally and globally used in the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Modern phytochemical studies have found many medicinal compounds from these plants, and their unique pharmacological activities are being revealed. However, there are few reviews that systematically summarize the current trends of Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetic (DMPK) investigations of cardiovascular herbs. METHODS: Here, the latest understanding, as well as the knowledge gaps of the DMPK issues in drug development and clinical usage of cardiovascular herbal compounds, was highlighted. RESULTS: The complicated herb-herb interactions of cardiovascular Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herb pair/formula significantly impact the PK/pharmacodynamic performance of compounds thereof, which may inspire researchers to develop a novel herbal formula for the optimized outcome of different cardiovascular diseases. While the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME/T) of some compounds has been deciphered, DMPK studies should be extended to more cardiovascular compounds of different medicinal parts, species (including animals), and formulations, and could be streamlined by versatile omics platforms and computational analyses. CONCLUSION: In the context of systems pharmacology, the DMPK knowledge base is expected to translate bench findings to clinical applications, as well as foster cardiovascular drug discovery and development.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Inativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica/fisiologia , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Interações Ervas-Drogas/fisiologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Panax/química
11.
Pol J Microbiol ; 67(4): 417-430, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550228

RESUMO

We isolated three laccase-producing fungus strains from Taxus rhizosphere. Myrotheium verrucaria strain DJTU-sh7 had the highest laccase activity of 216.2 U/ml, which was increased to above 300 U/ml after optimization. DJTU-sh7 had the best decolorizing effect for three classes of reactive dyes. The DJTU-sh7-containing fungal consortium displayed the robust decolorizing ability. Both color removal efficiency and chemical oxygen demand were increased in the consortium mediated biotransformation. Transcriptome changes of M. verrucaria elicited by azo dye and phenolic were quantified by the high throughput transcriptome sequencing, and the activities of the selected oxidases and reductases were determined. The possible involvement of oxidases and reductases, especially laccase, aryl alcohol oxidase, and ferric reductase in the biotransformation of dye and phenolic compounds was revealed at both transcriptomic and phenotypic levels. Revealing the transcriptomic mechanisms of fungi in dealing with organic pollutants facilitates the fine-tuned manipulation of strains in developing novel bioremediation and biodegradation strategies.We isolated three laccase-producing fungus strains from Taxus rhizosphere. Myrotheium verrucaria strain DJTU-sh7 had the highest laccase activity of 216.2 U/ml, which was increased to above 300 U/ml after optimization. DJTU-sh7 had the best decolorizing effect for three classes of reactive dyes. The DJTU-sh7-containing fungal consortium displayed the robust decolorizing ability. Both color removal efficiency and chemical oxygen demand were increased in the consortium mediated biotransformation. Transcriptome changes of M. verrucaria elicited by azo dye and phenolic were quantified by the high throughput transcriptome sequencing, and the activities of the selected oxidases and reductases were determined. The possible involvement of oxidases and reductases, especially laccase, aryl alcohol oxidase, and ferric reductase in the biotransformation of dye and phenolic compounds was revealed at both transcriptomic and phenotypic levels. Revealing the transcriptomic mechanisms of fungi in dealing with organic pollutants facilitates the fine-tuned manipulation of strains in developing novel bioremediation and biodegradation strategies.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Taxus/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Compostos Azo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotransformação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lacase/biossíntese , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Future Med Chem ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499690

RESUMO

Around 70-80% of drugs used in traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) come from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the majority of which are plants. The biological and medicinal culture diversity on Qinghai Tibet Plateau are amazing and constitute a less tapped resource for innovative drug research and development. Meanwhile, the problem of the exhausting Tibetan medicine resources is worrying. Here, the latest awareness, as well as the gaps of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant issues in drug development and clinical usage of TTM compounds, was systematically reviewed and highlighted. The TTM resource studies should be enhanced within the context of deeper and more extensive investigations of molecular biology and genomics of TTM plants, phytometabolites and metabolomics and ethnopharmacology-based bioactivity, thus enabling the sustainable conservation and exploitation of Tibetan medicinal resource.

13.
Chin Med ; 13: 57, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479654

RESUMO

Modern studies have shown that adaptogens can non-specifically enhance the resistance of human body under a wide range of external stress conditions with a multi-targeted and multi-channel network-like manner, especially by affect the immune-neuro-endocrine system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This review article draws the attention to the relationships of adaptogens, tonics from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and ginseng-like herbs worldwide, which all have similar plant sources and clinical applications. To clarify the sources and pharmacological mechanisms of these plant-originated adaptogens, which will provide useful information for the utilization of adaptogens to improve the human health. Meanwhile, the TCMs and the world-wide ginseng-like herbs from each region's ethnopharmacology will be beneficial modernization and globalization.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 2899-2907, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111048

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to combine morphological, microscopic, UHPLC multiple-component assay and fingerprinting studies in order to evaluate the quality of Moutan Cortex (MC) systematically. The root system of Paeonia suffruticosa was measured to compare the morphological variation and the chemical composition of different grades of MC was discussed according to previous studies. The difference between the main microscopic features of MC powder and the xylem powder is dramatic, the MC powder contains great amount of starch granules and clusters of calcium oxalate, while the xylem powder displays considerable vessels. Interestingly, the growth rings of P. suffruticosa was first reported in the xylem of the root transection, this can help to determine the growth years of the plant. Moreover, through the assay of 16 component, MC produced in Tongling and Bozhou in Anhui province were compared, content of PGG in MC produced in Bozhou was significantly higher than MC produced in Tongling (P<0.01). MC with different growth years, MC with xylem and unprocessed MC and MC decoction pieces were compared respectively by combining the results of 16 compounds assay and fingerprinting. It is proposed that the quality evaluation standard include the assay of paeoniflorin. Above all, the holistic quality difference can be evaluated more comprehensively by combining multiple analytical methods.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Paeonia
15.
Chin Med ; 13: 33, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946351

RESUMO

In recent years, studies of traditional medicinal plants have gradually increased worldwide because the natural sources and variety of such plants allow them to complement modern pharmacological approaches. As computer technology has developed, in silico approaches such as virtual screening and network analysis have been widely utilized in efforts to elucidate the pharmacological basis of the functions of traditional medicinal plants. In the process of new drug discovery, the application of virtual screening and network pharmacology can enrich active compounds among the candidates and adequately indicate the mechanism of action of medicinal plants, reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of the whole procedure. In this review, we first provide a detailed research routine for examining traditional medicinal plants by in silico techniques and elaborate on their theoretical principles. We also survey common databases, software programs and website tools that can be used for virtual screening and pharmacological network construction. Furthermore, we conclude with a simple example that illustrates the whole methodology, and we present perspectives on the development and application of this in silico methodology to reveal the pharmacological basis of the effects of traditional medicinal plants.

16.
J Basic Microbiol ; 58(6): 501-512, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676472

RESUMO

In the present study, the shotgun high throughput metagenomic sequencing was implemented to globally capture the features of Taxus rhizosphere microbiome. Total reads could be assigned to 6925 species belonging to 113 bacteria phyla and 301 species of nine fungi phyla. For archaea and virus, 263 and 134 species were for the first time identified, respectively. More than 720,000 Unigenes were identified by clean reads assembly. The top five assigned phyla were Actinobacteria (363,941 Unigenes), Proteobacteria (182,053), Acidobacteria (44,527), Ascomycota (fungi; 18,267), and Chloroflexi (15,539). KEGG analysis predicted numerous functional genes; 7101 Unigenes belong to "Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism." A total of 12,040 Unigenes involved in defense mechanisms (e.g., xenobiotic metabolism) were annotated by eggNOG. Talaromyces addition could influence not only the diversity and structure of microbial communities of Taxus rhizosphere, but also the relative abundance of functional genes, including metabolic genes, antibiotic resistant genes, and genes involved in pathogen-host interaction, bacterial virulence, and bacterial secretion system. The structure and function of rhizosphere microbiome could be sensitive to non-native microbe addition, which could impact on the pollutant degradation. This study, complementary to the amplicon sequencing, more objectively reflects the native microbiome of Taxus rhizosphere and its response to environmental pressure, and lays a foundation for potential combination of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation.


Assuntos
Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Taxus/microbiologia , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Genes Arqueais/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Genes Virais/genética , Filogenia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 219: 50-70, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501674

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The review aims to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explicit the material basis and pharmacological action, promote the safety of medical use, and suggest the future research potentials of Codonopsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on the studies of Codonopsis was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic data search (PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Researchgate, ACS, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI). Meanwhile, it was also obtained from published works of material medica, folk records, ethnopharmacological literatures, Ph.D. and Masters Dissertation. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: Codonopsis has been used for medicinal purposes all around the world. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis mainly are polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Extract of Codonopsis exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, including immune function regulation, hematopoiesis improvement, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, gastrointestinal function regulation, endocrine function regulation, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects, anti-aging and anti-oxidation, etc. Almost no obvious toxicity or side effect are observed and recorded for Codonopsis. CONCLUSIONS: The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis are reviewed in this paper. Species of the genus have long been used as traditional medicines and food materials, they are reported with a large number of chemical constituents with different structures, extensive pharmacological activities in immune system, blood system, digestive system, etc. and almost no toxicity. More profound studies on less popular species, pharmacodynamic material basis and pharmacological mechanism, and quality assurance are suggested to be carried out to fulfil the research on the long-term clinical use and new drug research of Codonopsis.


Assuntos
Codonopsis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/tendências , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Curr Drug Targets ; 19(1): 1-20, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27924725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvia displays diverse anticancer properties, which are attributable to their diterpene and phenolic contents. There is no comprehensive review on the anticancer diversity and molecular targets of Salvia components. OBJECTIVE: We investigate the diversity and molecular targets of Salvia phytometabolites responsible for the prevention and treatment of cancer and sarcoma. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Traditional therapeutic knowledge suggests that Salvia species can be used to develop anticancer drugs. Lots of concerns have been raised for tanshinone (Tan) IIA and cryptotanshinone. Some Salvia compounds disturb cell cycle and induce apoptosis of tumor cells or enhance immune activities, while others inhibit the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, or reverse the multi-drug resistance of cancer cells. Salvia phytometabolites regulate most cancer hallmarks defined by Hanahan and Weinberg. The same class of phytometabolite could exert the anticancer activity via multiple pathways. ADME/T properties and pharmacokinetic bebaviors of some phytometabolites have been revealed. Fluorescent probes are powerful tools for screening substrates, inhibitors or inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes/transporters from Salvia phytometabolites. Omics platform will greatly help mining more potentially useful phytometabolites from Salvia plants. More Salvia plants have application potential in pharmaceutical industry and clinical cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Descoberta de Drogas , Metabolômica , Salvia/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Salvia/classificação
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(20): 3963-3968, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243434

RESUMO

To provide a scientific evidence for the quality control of Codonopsis Radix, a method was established for determining the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. The developed method showed good linearity. The calibration curves were linear within the range of 2.312 5-18.500 0 µg for sucrose, 1.500 0-12.000 0 µg for glucose, and 2.000 0-16.000 0 µg for fructose, resgectwely. The recoveries varied between 96.31%-101.8%. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for determining the content of sucrose, glucose and fructose of Codonopsis Radix. The results showed that different cultivation measures had an effect on the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. According to the content of sucrose, using Zhuanggenling>not using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving. According to the content of glucose and fructose, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>not pinching, shelving>pinching, not shelving. In consideration of the differences of sweetness and content of the three free carbohydrates in Codonopsis Radix, we recommend that the content of free carbohydrates could be considered as the marker to evaluate the quality of Codonopsis Radix.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Codonopsis/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Codonopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade
20.
Curr Drug Metab ; 18(12): 1071-1084, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvia is the largest genus of family Lamiaceae and has nearly 1000 species. This genus produces several representative phytometabolites, e.g., diterpenoids and phenolic acids. The traditional uses in ethnomedicine and contemporary experimental studies have corroborated extensive therapeutic efficacy of Salvia plants. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of Salvia natural products and their derivatives are indispensable in the optimization of lead compounds. New chemical entity with improved DMPK profiles is preferred. So far, there are few summaries concerning about the DMPK features of Salvia derived medicinal compounds. Tanshinones and Salvianolic acids raise concerns of herb-drug interaction. DMPK studies of various Salvia species, especially Salvia miltiorrhiza, are swiftly increasing. OBJECTIVE: Here, the latest awareness, as well as the gaps of the DMPK issues in drug development and clinical usage of Salvia compounds, was highlighted. CONCLUSION: Herb-herb interactions of Salvia-containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) medicine pair/formula significantly impact the PK/pharmacodynamic performance of compounds thereof, which may inspire researchers to develop novel herbal formula. While the absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity (ADME/T) of some tanshinones and Salvianolic acids have been outlined, DMPK studies should be extended to more compounds, Salvia species, and Salvia-containing formulations. In the context of systems pharmacology, the DMPK knowledgebase is expected to streamline the Salvia-based drug discovery and development.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Salvia/química , Animais , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/química
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