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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800983

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is widely studied as a medicinal and edible fungus. Recent studies have shown that H. erinaceus has protective effects for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer, which are related to gut microbiota. To investigate the benefits of H. erinaceus intake on gut microbiota and blood indices in adulthood, we recruited 13 healthy adults to consume H. erinaceus powder as a dietary supplement. Blood changes due to H. erinaceus consumption were determined by routine hematological examination and characterized by serum biochemical markers. Microbiota composition was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results showed that daily H. erinaceus supplementation increased the alpha diversity within the gut microbiota community, upregulated the relative abundance of some short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (Kineothrix alysoides, Gemmiger formicilis, Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), and downregulated some pathobionts (Streptococcus thermophilus, Bacteroides caccae, Romboutsia timonensis). Changes within the gut microbiota were correlated with blood chemical indices including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), uric acid (UA), and creatinine (CREA). Thus, we found that the gut microbiota alterations may be part of physiological adaptations to a seven-day H. erinaceus supplementation, potentially influencing beneficial health effects.

2.
Org Lett ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843237

RESUMO

In contrast with the well-developed radical thiol-ene reaction to access anti-Markovnikov-type products, the research on the catalytic Markovnikov-selective hydrothiolation of alkenes is very restricted. Because of the catalyst poisoning of metal catalysts by organosulfur compounds, limited examples of transition-metal-catalyzed thiol-ene reactions have been reported. However, in this work, a directing-group-assisted hydrothiolation of styrenes with thiols by photoredox/cobalt catalysis is found to proceed smoothly to afford Markovnikov-type sulfides with excellent regioselectivity.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822930

RESUMO

Chronic increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines in older adults, known as inflammaging, is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the aging population. It has been suggested that circadian disruption may play a role in chronic inflammation, but there has been limited study that investigated the overall profile of 24-hour rest-activity rhythms in relation to inflammation using longitudinal data. In the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study, we applied the extended cosine model to derive multiple rest-activity rhythm characteristics using multi-day actigraphy, and examined their associations with six inflammatory markers (i.e., CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, TNF-α-sRII, IL-1 ß, IFN-γ) measured from fasting blood. We assessed both the cross-sectional association between rest-activity rhythms and inflammatory markers measured at baseline, and the prospective association between baseline rest-activity rhythms and changes in in inflammatory markers over 3.5 years of follow up. We found that multiple rest-activity characteristics, including lower amplitude and relative amplitude, and decreased overall rhythmicity, were associated with higher levels of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and TNF-α-sRII, but not IL-1ß and IFN-γ at baseline. Moreover, the lowest quartile of these three rest-activity characteristics was associated with an approximately two-fold increase in the odds of having elevated inflammation (i.e. having three or more markers in the highest quartile) at baseline. However, we found little evidence supporting a relationship between rest-activity rhythm characteristics and changes in inflammatory markers. Future studies should clarify the dynamic relationship between rest-activity rhythms and inflammation in different populations, and evaluate the effects of improving rest-activity profiles on inflammation and related disease outcomes.

4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adding clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or letrozole (LE) to in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles for mild ovarian stimulation is a general approach. Although lots of researches have demonstrated partial benefits of the strategy, all-around effects of oral medications remained deficient. This paper aims to assess whether an addition of oral medication will result in considerable outcomes on T-Gn (total dose of gonadotropin), Gn days, total retrieved ova, high quality embryos, blastocyst number, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rate, clinical pregnancy rate and cumulative pregnancy rate, even if it was not conventional mild/minimal stimulations. RESULTS: Participants were categorized to three diverse populations as high responders, normal responders and poor responders according to basal antral follicle count. T-Gn in patients treated with CC/LE distinctly decreased from 2496.96 IU/d to 1827.68 IU/d, from 2860.28 IU/d to 2119.99 IU/d, and from 3182.15 IU/d to 1802.84 IU/d, respectively. For high ovary responders and normal responders, the OHSS incidence rate also declined from 29.2 to 4.3% (P < 0.001) and from 1.1 to 0.0% (P = 0.090). Other, there was no statistical difference with respect to the T-retrieved ova (total retrieved ova), high quality embryos, cultured blastocyst and blastocyst number in high responders. For normal responders and poor ovary responders, T-Gn, Gn days, T-retrieved ova, high quality embryos, cultured blastocyst and blastocysts number in oral medications group all apparently decreased. Clinical pregnancy rate per fresh cycle of poor responders with prior oral medications was significantly decreased (25.7% vs. 50.8%, P = 0.005), and no significant differences in high responders and normal responders were expressed (52.5% vs. 44.2%, P = 0.310; 51.9% vs. 42.4%, P = 0.163) between two groups of participants. The numbers of cumulative pregnancy rates were lower in the conventional group compared to the add group for high (75.90% versus 81.03%, P = 0.279), normal (62.69% versus 71.36%, P = 0.016) and poor (39.74% versus 68.21%, P < 0.001) responders. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of CC/LE to the ovulation induction during IVF has certain efficacy in terms of low cost, low OHSS incidence. CC/LE deserves more recommendations as a responsible strategy in high responders due to advantageous pregnancy outcomes. For normal responders, the strategy needs to be considered with more comprehensive factors.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114045, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831463

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Dang-Gui-Si-Ni (DGSN) decoction as a classic prescription has been widely used for thousands of years in the clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Especially in recent years, the potential efficacy of TCM for the treatment of Raynaud's syndrome has attracted great attention as there are still no specific remedies for this disease. However, the active constituents and underlying mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic benefits are not well understood, which makes it difficult to ensure quality control or to design research and drug development strategies. To identify the potential pharmacodynamic ingredients (PPIs) of TCM will help to achieve suitable process control procedures for industrial production and large-scale manufacturing. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we propose a multi-dimensional qualitative analysis method combining water-decoction spectra, in-vitro intestinal absorption spectra, in-vivo plasma spectra, and molecular docking of components to quickly identify the PPIs for the DGSN decoction of TCM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water-based decoctions of DGSN were prepared in accordance with the clinical use registered in ancient books. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS) coupled with computerized modelling activity screening was used to quickly identify the PPIs of the DGSN decoction. Bioactive compounds absorbed in vitro were identified using the everted intestinal sac model from rats and compounds absorbed in vivo were confirmed in portal vein blood samples obtained following oral administration in rats. Molecular docking validation experiments were adopted to predict the binding activity to coagulation factors I, II, VII, X, and IX. The active components were further confirmed by pharmacodynamics analysis. The anticoagulant activity of the DGSN decoction was verified using rat models. RESULTS: Thirty-one compounds were identified in the DGSN decoction. According to the in vivo experiments, 22 compounds that could be absorbed in vivo were detected by the everted intestinal sac model in rats. This model greatly reduces the scope of PPIs and is easy to perform. Ten compounds were detected in the portal vein blood in rats. The compounds detected in plasma provide stronger evidence supporting the PPIs. Molecular docking in vitro experiments indicated that 7 compounds exhibited better binding activity with coagulation factors I, II, VII, X, and IX. The animal experiments confirmed that the DGSN decoction could improve the microcirculation, providing indirect proof of anticoagulant activity suggested by the molecular docking studies. Finally, based on the multi-dimensional methods, 9 potential compounds present in the DGSN decoction were identified as PPIs (i.e., ferulic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, cinnamaldehyde and glycyrrhizic acid). CONCLUSION: Overall, this study combined the water-decoction spectra, intestinal absorption spectra in vitro, plasma spectra in vivo, and molecular docking studies to establish a multi-dimensional qualitative analysis method of the DGSN decoction. Meanwhile, 9 compounds in DGSN decoction were identified as PPIs using this method, and are proposed for application as quality standards for complex TCM prescriptions.

6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850274

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a life-threatening chronic connective tissue disease with the characteristics of skin fibrosis, vascular injury, and inflammatory infiltrations. Though inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) has been turned out to be an effective strategy in suppressing inflammation through promoting the accumulation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), little is known about the functional modes of inhibiting PDE4 by apremilast on the process of SSc. The present research aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanism of apremilast on SSc. Herein, we found that apremilast could markedly ameliorate the pathological manifestations of SSc, including skin dermal thickness, deposition of collagens, and increased expression of α-SMA. Further study demonstrated that apremilast suppressed the recruitment and activation of macrophages and T cells, along with the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which accounted for the effects of apremilast on modulating the pro-fibrotic processes. Interestingly, apremilast could dose-dependently inhibit the activation of M1 and T cells in vitro through promoting the phosphorylation of CREB. In summary, our research suggested that inhibiting PDE4 by apremilast might provide a novel therapeutic option for clinical treatment of SSc patients.

7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tai chi is considered a safe and low-cost treatment for improving balance ability among an older population. However, there is no existing evidence on the optimal exercise parameters of tai chi for improving balance in older adults. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the optimal parameters of a tai chi intervention to improve balance performance of older adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SETTING: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical and China Biology Medicine were searched from inception until November 30, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 60 years and over. MEASUREMENTS: Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of the included studies according to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were conducted to elucidate the impact of tai chi training programs on balance measures. RESULTS: Twenty-six eligible RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that tai chi has moderate effects for improving proactive balance (weighted mean standardized mean differences [SMDwm ] = 0.61, 95% CI 0.33-0.89) and static steady-state balance (SMDwm = 0.62, 95% CI 0.30-0.95) and small effects for improving dynamic steady-state balance (SMDwm = 0.38, 95% CI 0.03-0.73) and balance test batteries (SMDwm = 0.47, 95% CI 0.13-0.81) in adults over 60 years of age. The practice frequency could predict the effects of tai chi on static steady-state balance, and the 24-form simplified Yang style tai chi (45-60 min/session, more than four sessions per week and at least 8 weeks) was the most optimal. CONCLUSIONS: Tai chi is effective at improving the balance ability of adults over 60 years of age. A medium duration and high frequency of 24-form tai chi may be the optimal program for improving balance, but this evidence should be recommended with caution due to limitations of the methodology and small sample sizes.

8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(7): 3585-3600, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751819

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with biological dysfunction in skeletal muscle. As a condition of obesity accompanied by muscle mass loss and physical dysfunction, sarcopenic obesity (SO) has become a novel public health problem. Human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) plays a therapeutic role in metabolic diseases. However, the protective effects of FGF19 on skeletal muscle in obesity and SO are still not completely understood. Our results showed that FGF19 administration improved muscle loss and grip strength in young and aged mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Increases in muscle atrophy markers (FOXO-3, Atrogin-1, MuRF-1) were abrogated by FGF19 in palmitic acid (PA)-treated C2C12 myotubes and in the skeletal muscle of HFD-fed mice. FGF19 not only reduced HFD-induced body weight gain, excessive lipid accumulation and hyperlipidaemia but also promoted energy expenditure (PGC-1α, UCP-1, PPAR-γ) in brown adipose tissue (BAT). FGF19 treatment restored PA- and HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (IRS-1, GLUT-4) and mitigated the PA- and HFD-induced decrease in FNDC-5/irisin expression. However, these beneficial effects of FGF19 on skeletal muscle were abolished by inhibiting AMPK, SIRT-1 and PGC-1α expression. Taken together, this study suggests that FGF19 protects skeletal muscle against obesity-induced muscle atrophy, metabolic derangement and abnormal irisin secretion partially through the AMPK/SIRT-1/PGC-α signalling pathway, which might be a potential therapeutic target for obesity and SO.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1168-1178, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787112

RESUMO

Triterpenoids are one of the most active constituents in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, but only oleanolic acid has been mostly studied. In recent years, a growing number of studies have shown that other triterpenes from Ligustri Lucidi Fructus also have various biological activities, so it is necessary to build up a detailed profile of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm) with mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-0.2% formic acid for gradient elution. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm, with a flow rate of 0.5 mL·min~(-1), and the column temperature of 25 ℃. The HPLC fingerprint of triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus was built by testing 21 batches of samples from different sources. The structures of the total 15 common chromatographic peaks were elucidated with UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS technique and six of them were identified as tormentic acid, pomolic acid, maslinic acid, botulin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid by comparison to the reference substances. Under the same chromatographic condition, four main triterpenes(podocarboxylic acid, hawthorn acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid) were quantified and the results of system adaptability and methodology investigation all met the requirements of content determination. Meanwhile, with oleanolic acid(A) as the internal reference substance, quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method was used to analyze the above four components. The relative correction factor of oleanolic acid(B), hawthorn acid(C) and ursolic acid(D) to oleanolic acid was f_(B/A)=1.12, f_(C/A)=1.02 and f_(D/A)=0.88, respectively, and the relative retention values of these three to oleanolic acid was RRV_(B/A)=0.46, RRV_(C/A)=0.70 and RRV_(D/A)=1.03, respectively. The contents determined by two methods were similar. In conclusion, the method built in this paper is proved to be simple, reliable and specific for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, which can lay foundation for further assays of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and the relative products.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ligustrum , Triterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(2): 391-397, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645127

RESUMO

This paper aims to solve the problems of complicated-unstable test solution preparation process and insufficient extraction of the active ingredient astragaloside Ⅳ in the legal method for the determination of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix. The continuous single-factor analysis of seven main factors affecting the content of astragaloside Ⅳ was carried out by HPLC-ELSD, and then the pre-paration method of test solution was optimized. This optimized method exhibited excellent performance in precision, repeatability and stability. The average recovery rate of astragaloside Ⅳ was 99.65% with RSD 2.2%. Astragaloside Ⅳ showed a good linearity between the logarithm of peak area and the logarithm of injection quantity in the range of 0.46-9.1 µg(r=0.999 6). The contents of astragaloside Ⅳ in 29 batches of Astragali Radix were determined by the new and the legal methods. The results showed that the average content of astragaloside Ⅳ in these Astragali Radix samples determined by the former method was 1.458 times than that of the latter one, indicating the new method was simple, reliable and more adequate to extract target compound. According to the results, it is suggested to improve the content standard of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix in the new edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta) , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Triterpenos/análise
11.
J Adv Nurs ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675076

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the beneficial effects of virtual reality (VR) interventions on upper- and lower-limb motor function, balance, gait, cognition and daily function outcomes in stroke patients. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses) and Chinese databases (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, WANFANG, CNKI) and the Clinical Trial Registry Platform were systematically searched from inception until December 2019. Additionally, reference lists of the included studies were manually searched. REVIEW METHODS: The methodological quality of studies was scored with the Cochrane 'risk-of-bias tool' and PEDro scale from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database by two independent evaluators. RESULTS: In total, 87 studies with 3540 participants were included. Stroke patients receiving VR interventions showed significant improvements in Fugl-Meyer assessment of Upper Extremity, Action Research Arm Test, Wolf Motor Function Test, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity, Functional Ambulation Classification, Berg Balance Scale, Time Up and Go, Velocity, Cadence, Modified Barthel Index and Functional Independence Measure. However, differences between VR intervention and traditional rehabilitation groups were not significant for Box-Block Test, 10 m Walk Test, Auditory Continuous Performance Test, Mini-Mental State Examination and Visual Continuous Performance Test. CONCLUSION: This review suggests that VR interventions effectively improve upper- and lower-limb motor function, balance, gait and daily function of stroke patients, but have no benefits on cognition. IMPACT: This review identified the positive effects of VR-assisted rehabilitation on upper- and lower-limb motor function, balance, gait and daily function of stroke patients. And, we verified the duration of VR intervention affects some health benefits. The benefit of VR on cognitive function requires further investigation through large-scale multicentre RCTs.

12.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660687

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most frequent and important neuropsychiatric problem afflicting these patients. Anemia is common in many of these individuals presenting with acute stroke. This study determined whether there is a relationship between anemia on hospital admission and PSD. Two hundred eighty-four acute stroke patients were included in the study. Among them, there were 88 PSD patients, whereas another 196 were non-PSD patients. Clinical depression symptoms were diagnosed according to DSM-4 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria and a HAMD-17 (the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale) score ≥8 at 1 month after stroke. In the PSD patients, 27.3% of them presented with anemia, whereas only 12.8% of the non-PSD patients had this condition. There was a negative correlation between hemoglobin level and HAMD-17 score in all patients. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that anemia was independently associated with PSD after adjustment for sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, mRS (modified Rankin Scale) scores, BI (Barthel Index) scores, RBC (red blood cell), and hematocrit. In conclusion, anemia at admission is associated with PSD seen in these patients 1 month later. Therefore, anemia is a possible predictor of PSD.

13.
Laterality ; 26(1-2): 213-237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622187

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to understand what is transferred between hemispheres through the commissura anterior during a colour discrimination task in pigeons. We transiently blocked neuronal activity of the arcopallium of one hemisphere to interrupt interhemispheric communication. Before and during this intervention, we recorded from arcopallial neurons of the non-anaesthetized side while the animals discriminated stimuli ipsilateral to the recorded neurons. Due to the complete crossover of optic nerves in birds, we assumed that these neurons were at least in part requiring information from the other hemisphere to properly run the task. While lidocaine injections in both hemispheres caused some performance reductions, deficits of right arcopallial neurons were much larger when blocking interhemispheric transfer. Our results make it likely that visual information is exchanged through the commissura anterior in an asymmetrical manner with the left hemisphere providing the other side more information about the right visual half-field than vice versa.

14.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595911

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that can lead to cognitive dysfunction. The hippocampus plays an important role in the cognitive function. Research has identified correlations between hippocampal impairment and diabetes, yet their intermediate remains unclear. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme that degrades epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have multiple protective effects by suppressing inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress. In this study, under diabetic conditions both hippocampal injury and cognitive decline are accompanied by upregulation of sEH. Moreover, the sEH inhibitor trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-y1-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB) prevents cognitive dysfunction and decreased ROS accumulation and apoptosis in the diabetic hippocampus. t-AUCB treatment restored neuronal synaptic plasticity by restoring the expression of the postsynaptic proteins Postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD95) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), the levels of which were positively correlated with Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) levels under diabetic conditions. Thus, we suggest that hippocampal protection via sEH inhibition might be a potential therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of cognitive decline in diabetes.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2036809, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544146

RESUMO

Importance: Studying long-term changes in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) may help to better understand the associations between neighborhood exposure and weight outcomes and provide evidence supporting neighborhood interventions. Little previous research has been done to examine associations between neighborhood SES and weight loss, a risk factor associated with poor health outcomes in the older population. Objective: To determine whether improvements in neighborhood SES are associated with reduced likelihoods of excessive weight gain and excessive weight loss and whether declines are associated with increased likelihoods of these weight outcomes. Design, Study, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP (formerly known as the American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health study (1995-2006). The analysis included a cohort of 126 179 adults (aged 50-71 years) whose neighborhoods at baseline (1995-1996) were the same as at follow-up (2004-2006). All analyses were performed from December 2018 through December 2020. Exposures: Living in a neighborhood that experienced 1 of 8 neighborhood SES trajectories defined based on a national neighborhood SES index created using data from the US Census and American Community Survey. The 8 trajectory groups, in which high, or H, indicated rankings at or above the sample median of a specific year and low, or L, indicated rankings below the median, were HHH (ie, high in 1990 to high in 2000 to high in 2010), or stable high; HLL, or early decline; HHL, or late decline; HLH, or transient decline; LLL, or stable low; LHH, or early improvement; LLH, or late improvement; and LHL, or transient improvement. Main Outcomes and Measures: Excessive weight gain and loss were defined as gaining or losing 10% or more of baseline weight. Results: Among 126 179 adults, 76 225 (60.4%) were men and the mean (SD) age was 62.1 (5.3) years. Improvements in neighborhood SES were associated with lower likelihoods of excessive weight gain and weight loss over follow-up, while declines in neighborhood SES were associated with higher likelihoods of excessive weight gain and weight loss. Compared with the stable low group, the risk was significantly reduced for excessive weight gain in the early improvement group (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) and for excessive weight loss in the late improvement group (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00). Compared with the stable high group, the risk of excessive weight gain was significantly increased for the early decline group (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.31) and late decline group (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.24) and for excessive weight loss in the early decline group (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28). The increases in likelihood were greater when the improvement or decline in neighborhood SES occurred early in the study period (ie, 1990-2000) and was substantiated throughout the follow-up (ie, the early decline and early improvement groups). Overall, we found a linear association between changes in neighborhood SES and weight outcomes, in which every 5 percentile decline in neighborhood SES was associated with a 1.2% to 2.4% increase in the risk of excessive weight gain or loss (excessive weight gain: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02 for women; OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03 for men; excessive weight loss: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03 for women; OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03 for men; P for- trend < .0001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that changing neighborhood environment was associated with changes in weight status in older adults.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Idoso , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Habitação/tendências , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Pública/tendências , Família de Pais Solteiros , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego/tendências , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 140, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT) is a clinical complication for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, very few clinicians value it and few methods can predict early IDDVT. This study aimed to establish and validate an individualized predictive nomogram for the risk of early IDDVT in AIS patients. METHODS: This study enrolled 647 consecutive AIS patients who were randomly divided into a training cohort (n = 431) and a validation cohort (n = 216). Based on logistic analyses in training cohort, a nomogram was constructed to predict early IDDVT. The nomogram was then validated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and calibration plots. RESULTS: The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, lower limb paralysis, current pneumonia, atrial fibrillation and malignant tumor were independent risk factors of early IDDVT; these variables were integrated to construct the nomogram. Calibration plots revealed acceptable agreement between the predicted and actual IDDVT probabilities in both the training and validation cohorts. The nomogram had AUROC values of 0.767 (95% CI: 0.742-0.806) and 0.820 (95% CI: 0.762-0.869) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Additionally, in the validation cohort, the AUROC of the nomogram was higher than those of the other scores for predicting IDDVT. CONCLUSIONS: The present nomogram provides clinicians with a novel and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of the individualized risk of IDDVT in the early stages of AIS, which would be helpful to initiate imaging examination and interventions timely.

17.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113762, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that BD patients exhibited impairment when performing a verbal fluency task (VFT) and abnormal prefrontal cortex activation during this task. However, no study has specifically examined whether patients with type II BD demonstrate difficulty in performing VFT and impairments in relevant neural correlates or whether these are related to psychotic symptoms, the present study aimed to examine these issues. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with type II BD (21 patients with psychotic symptoms [BDIIp] and 28 patients without psychotic symptoms [BDIIn]) and 45 matched healthy controls (HCs) participated the study and completed the VFTs, while their brain activity was recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). RESULTS: Both BDIIp and BDIIn patients showed poorer performance on VFTs than HCs. In addition, BDII patients showed lower brain activation than HCs in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right frontal pole, these results were mainly driven by BDIIn patients. Moreover, subjective psychotic symptoms were positively significantly correlated with left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in BDII patients. CONCLUSIONS: Type II BD patients showed significant impairment when performing VFTs and reduced activation in the prefrontal cortex, and subjective psychotic symptoms were associated with brain activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in BDII patients.

18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517923

RESUMO

A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 83, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526783

RESUMO

Running exercise has been shown to alleviate depressive symptoms, but the mechanism of its antidepressant effect is still unclear. Astrocytes are the predominant cell type in the brain and perform key functions vital to central nervous system (CNS) physiology. Mounting evidence suggests that changes in astrocyte number in the hippocampus are closely associated with depression. However, the effects of running exercise on astrocytes in the hippocampus of depression have not been investigated. Here, adult male rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 5 weeks followed by treadmill running for 6 weeks. The sucrose preference test (SPT) was used to assess anhedonia of rats. Then, immunohistochemistry and modern stereological methods were used to precisely quantify the total number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ astrocytes in each hippocampal subregion, and immunofluorescence was used to quantify the density of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+ and GFAP+ cells in each hippocampal subregion. We found that running exercise alleviated CUS-induced deficit in sucrose preference and hippocampal volume decline, and that CUS intervention significantly reduced the number of GFAP+ cells and the density of BrdU+/GFAP+ cells in the hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus (DG), while 6 weeks of running exercise reversed these decreases. These results further confirmed that running exercise alleviates depressive symptoms and protects hippocampal astrocytes in depressed rats. These findings suggested that the positive effects of running exercise on astrocytes and the generation of new astrocytes in the hippocampus might be important structural bases for the antidepressant effects of running exercise.

20.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536570

RESUMO

Gastric-tube feeding and post-pyloric feeding are the two most common forms of enteral nutrition, each with advantages and disadvantages. To explore the effects and safety of gastric-tube versus post-pyloric feeding in critical patients by comparing pulmonary aspiration- and nutrition-related outcomes, a meta-analysis was conducted. It was performed by systematically searching the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, BMJ best practice, ProQuest dissertations and theses, CINAHL, web of science, SinoMed, WANFANG, CNKI, and the platform of clinical trial registration. The databases were searched through December 31, 2019, and studies were evaluated by two independent researchers. Review Manager software was used for data analysis. We included 41 studies conducted in ten countries and involving 3248 participants. Meta-analysis showed that post-pyloric feeding had a lower incidence rate of pulmonary aspiration, gastric reflux, and pneumonia (P < 0.001, all), less incidence of gastrointestinal complications including vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal distension, high gastric residual volume, and constipation (P < 0.05, all), more optimal gastrointestinal nutrition including the percentage of total nutrition provided to the patient, the time to tolerate enteral nutrition, the time required to start feeding and the time required to reach nutritional targets (P < 0.05, all), shorter length of mechanical ventilation, stay in ICU and stay in hospital (P < 0.001, all), compared with gastric-tube feeding. No significant differences were shown in the time of gastrointestinal function recovery, mortality, or hospitalization expenses between the two feeding routes. This review provides evidence that post-pyloric feeding appears to be the safer and more effective choice, as compared to gastric-tube feeding among critical patients.

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