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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 269-74, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ginger-separated moxibustion on fatigue state and intestinal flora in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHODS: A total of 62 patients with CFS were randomly divided into an observation group (31 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (31 cases, 2 cases dropped off). The patients in the control group were treated with normal diet and moderate exercise; on the basis of the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with ginger-separated moxibustion at Zhongwan (CV 12), Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4), 30 min each time, once every other day, three times a week. Both groups were intervened for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, the fatigue scale-14 (FS-14) was used to observe the improvement of fatigue state, and 16S rRNA detection technology was used to detect the distribution of intestinal flora. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the FS-14 score was reduced after treatment in the observation group (P<0.01), and the reduction in the observation group was larger than that in the control group (P<0.01). The relative abundance of intestinal flora was similar between the observation group and control group at the phylum and genus level before treatment. After treatment, there was no significant change of intestinal flora in the control group. However, the enterobacteriaceae, corynebacterium, erysipelothrix, actinomycetes were increased in the observation group (P<0.05), and actinomycetes, ruminococcus, lactarius had obvious flora advantages compared with the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The ginger-separated moxibustion could significantly improve the fatigue state in CFS patients, which may be related to the regulation of intestinal flora structure and the repair of intestinal barrier.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gengibre , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/terapia , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 508-514, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological features of intestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: The clinical features, pathological morphology, immunophenotype, and EBER in situ hybridization of 136 DLBCL patients diagnosed in Jinan People's Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University from January 2007 to October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 136 DLBCL samples were obtained, the DLBCL sites were categorized as: duodenum (n=23), ileocecal region (n=63), other small intestine (n=29), rectum (n=7), and other large intestine (n=14). Survival curves for the DLBCL patients were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method and judged by the Log-rank test. RESULTS: Patients with DLBCL of the ileocecal region and other small intestine except duodenum were mainly male (P=0.042), and had a higher proportion of limited-stage tumors(P=0.015), and lower International Prognostic Index (IPI) (P=0.001). Patients with DLBCL of ileocecal region had higher incidence of lactate dehydrogenase elevation (P=0.007), and higher incidence of intestinal obstruction or perforation (P<0.001) than those with DLBCL of other regions. The 5-year overall survival and 5-year progression-free survival of patients with DLBCL in ileocecal and other small intestine sites were higher than those in other sites, but the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.135, 0.459). Fifty percent of intestinal DLBCL were germinal center B cell-like (GCB) subtypes. A low-grade B-cell lymphoma was found in 21% of 136 tumor samples. In ileocecal and other small intestinal specimens, the proportion of low-grade B-cell lymphoma was 29%, and the difference was statistically significant(P=0.025). About 16% of 136 DLBCL samples expressed follicular lymphoma while no mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma . The Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-1 (EBER1) positive rate of duodenal DLBCL was significantly higher than that of other sites (5/23, 22% vs 2/63, 3%, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: The intestinal DLBCL is commonly observed in male, and ileocecal is the most primary site. Patients with DLBCL of the ileocecal region and small intestine except duodenum have low IPI, high proportion of limited-stage tumors, low level of lactate dehydrogenase, high incidence of intestinal obstruction or perforation, and low incidence of inert lymphoma. The EBER1 positive rate of DLBCL in duodenal is higher.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(2): 231-236, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825389

RESUMO

Accurate CT simulation is the key link of precision radiotherapy, and the performance of the localization couch of CT simulator directly affects the accuracy of radiotherapy. With the rapid development of precision radiotherapy, conventional large aperture radiotherapy special CT simulator is difficult to meet the needs of precision radiotherapy localization, so most radiotherapy centers choose high-end diagnostic CT machines equipped with a flat tabletop for radiotherapy localization. In clinical work, the performance testing of the CT simulator localization couch is easy to be ignored. In addition, there are some problems such as insufficient precision in transforming the cradle-shaped couch top of diagnostic CT into a special flat couch top for radiotherapy. This paper provided an in-depth description of the improved design and performance test of the localization couch of the first special GE Revolution CT simulator for radiotherapy introduced by West China Hospital of Sichuan University. After the improvement, all the acceptance tests of the localization couch are in line with the standard, and the performance meets the high-precision radiotherapy localization needs of patients with different body weight in the center.


Assuntos
Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , China , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas
4.
Water Res ; 197: 117080, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813171

RESUMO

The broad application of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) has attracted global concern regarding their adverse environmental effects. The possible removal processes of PFAAs in constructed wetlands were excavated and quantified using two typical submerged macrophytes (rooted Potamogeton wrightii and rootless Ceratophyllum demersum). Our results showed that 33.59-88.99% of PFAAs could be removed via not only sediment sorption or phytoextraction but also by the bioaccumulation of microbiota. The sediment acts as a vital sink for PFAAs, preloading 23.51-50.09% and 16.65-52.18% of PFAAs in treatments with P. wrightii (Pw1) and C. demersum (Cd1), respectively. C. demersum showed a better capacity to accumulate PFAAs (0.91-32.03%) than P. wrightii (<10%). Considerable PFAAs were observed to be distributed in microbes, underlining the non-negligible role of microbiota in bioaccumulating PFAAs. The contributions of planktonic microbes, biofilm microbes, and extracellular polymeric substances in biofilms were 0.39-20.96%, 0.03-7.95%, and 0.39-14.15% in Pw1 and 0.23-15.68%, 0.01-15.68%, and 0.53-26.77% in Cd1, respectively. The adsorption/uptake was significantly correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length (p<0.05), except for the uptake of biofilms in C. demersum. Furthermore, PFAAs and submerged macrophytes could decrease the richness of microbiota but increase the relative abundance of some strains in Betaproteobacteriales, Sphingomonadales, and Cytophagales. Our results were helpful for understanding the removal processes of PFAAs in constructed wetlands and their linkages with PFAA properties, thus further providing insight into the management and removal of emerging organic contaminants.

5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 952-959, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742891

RESUMO

Peppers are a high Cd-enriched vegetable. On the basis of a preliminary screening experiment of 91 pepper varieties and soil culture experiments during the entire growth period of 26 varieties, a high Cd variety (X15), medium Cd variety (X39), and two low varieties (X45 and X55) were selected to study the effect of different cadmium levels (0, 5, and 10 mg·kg-1 Cd) on enrichment, transport, and accumulation as well as its subcellular distribution and chemical form. Based on the results, 5 mg·kg-1 and 10 mg·kg-1 of Cd inhibited shoot dry weights of four pepper varieties but increased the root dry weights of X15, X45, and X55 varieties. Sodium chloride-bound cadmium and acetate-bound cadmium are the main forms of cadmium in the pepper fruits. Subcellular cadmium concentrations in the roots, leaves, and fruits of pepper plants were ranked in order cytoplasm > cell wall > organelle, and in the stems the order was cell wall > cytoplasm > organelle. Cd compartmentalization plays an important role in pepper resistance to cadmium stress. Under dosages of 5 mg·kg-1 Cd and 10 mg·kg-1 Cd, Cd concentrations in stems and leaves were ranked in order X39 > X15 > X55 > X45, with fruit Cd concentrations ranked in order X15 > X39 > X55 > X45. The Cd concentration was lowest in the roots of X15 whereas this variety has the highest concentrations in its fruit. The Cd concentrations in the roots, stems, and leaves of X39 were the highest among the four varieties whereas the concentration in the fruit was lower than in the X15 variety. The concentration of Cd in pepper fruits depends on the Cd transport capacity redistribution ability to the shoots.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Frutas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Verduras
6.
Phys Med Biol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765665

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in assessing development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by providing structural information of disease-associated regions (e.g., atrophic regions). In this paper, we propose a light-weight cross-view hierarchical fusion network (CvHF-net), consisting of local patch and global subject subnets, for joint localization and identification of the discriminative local patches and regions in the whole brain MRI, upon which feature representations are then jointly learned and fused to construct hierarchical classification models for AD diagnosis. Firstly, based on the extracted class-discriminative 3D patches, we employ the local patch subnets to utilize multiple 2D views to represent 3D patches by using an attention-aware hierarchical fusion structure in a divide-and-conquer manner. Since different local patches are with various abilities in AD identification, the global subject subnet is developed to bias the allocation of available resources towards the most informative parts among these local patches to obtain global information for AD identification. Besides, an instance declined pruning (IDP) algorithm is embedded in the CvHF-net for adaptively selecting most discriminant patches in a task-driven manner. The proposed method was evaluated on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset and the experimental results show that our proposed method can achieve good performance on AD diagnosis.

7.
Org Lett ; 23(7): 2538-2542, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739847

RESUMO

Compounds bearing fluorinated moieties are pervasive in a wide range of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. The installation of fluorinated units is a persistently vital task in synthetic chemistry, where facile and manipulable assays are highly demanding. Herein, we establish a general and programmable fluorination strategy for the modular assembly of mono- and difluoromethylarenes through the controllable deprotonation and fluorination of phosphonium ylides. Moreover, the rational combination of the reaction sequence allows the rapid construction of diversified fluorine-containing arenes.

8.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760146

RESUMO

Platelet mitophagy is a major pathway involved in the clearance of injured mitochondria during hemostasis and thrombosis. Prohibitin 2 (PHB2) has recently emerged as an inner mitochondrial membrane receptor involved in mitophagy. However, the mechanisms underlying PHB2­mediated platelet mitophagy and activation are not completely understood. PHB2 is a highly conserved inner mitochondrial membrane protein that regulates mitochondrial assembly and function due to its unique localization on the mitochondrial membrane. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism underlying PHB2 in platelet mitophagy and activation. Phorbol­12­myristate­13­acetate (PMA) was used to induce MEG­01 cells maturation and differentiate into platelets following PHB2 knockdown. Cell Counting Kit­8 assays were performed to examine platelet viability. Flow cytometry was performed to assess platelet mitochondrial membrane potential. RT­qPCR and western blotting were conducted to measure mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Subsequently, platelets were exposed to CCCP and the role of PHB2 was assessed. The results of the present study identified a crucial role for PHB2 in platelet mitophagy and activation, suggesting that PHB2­mediated regulation of mitophagy may serve as a novel strategy for downregulating the expression of platelet activation genes. Although further research into mitophagy is required, the present study suggested that PHB2 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for thrombosis­related diseases due to its unique localization on the mitochondrial membrane.

9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725137

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A mitochondria-localized pentatricopeptide repeat protein was identified by positional cloning and transferred into the hau CMS line, where it successfully restored fertility Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that can be controlled by restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes present in the nucleus. The hau CMS was identified as a new form of CMS associated with the mitochondrial transcript orf288; however, a lack of a restorer gene has limited its utilization in Brassica crops. Here, the combination of Brassica 60 K array with bulk segregant analysis and map-based cloning was used to delimit the Rfh locus to an 82.2-kb region on chromosome A09. A candidate gene encoding a mitochondria-localized pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein was identified and transferred into the hau CMS line, where it successfully restored the fertility of the hau CMS plants. Furthermore, the expression analysis showed that Rfh was highly expressed in the flower buds, and the sequence analysis results implied that functional divergence between RFH and rfh could be due to 59 amino acid residue differences in the deduced protein sequences. In addition, a co-separated molecular marker was developed based on the divergent sequences between the dominant and recessive alleles. These results will help enable the heterosis of Brassica crops in the future.

10.
Stem Cells ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662168

RESUMO

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recognized as key controllers and effectors of type 2 inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to alleviate type 2 inflammation by modulating T lymphocyte subsets and decreasing TH 2 cytokine levels. However, the effects of MSCs on ILC2s have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the potential immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on ILC2s in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic rhinitis patients and healthy subjects. We further investigated the mechanisms involved in the MSC modulation using isolated lineage negative (Lin- ) cells. PBMCs and Lin- cells were cocultured with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) under the stimulation of epithelial cytokines IL-25 and IL-33. And the ILC2 levels and functions were examined and the possible mechanisms were investigated based on regulatory T (Treg) cells and ICOS-ICOSL pathway. iPSC-MSCs successfully decreased the high levels of IL-13, IL-9, and IL-5 in PBMCs in response to IL-25, IL-33, and the high percentages of IL-13+ ILC2s and IL-9+ ILC2s in response to epithelial cytokines were significantly reversed after the treatment of iPSC-MSCs. However, iPSC-MSCs were found directly to enhance ILC2 levels and functions via ICOS-ICOSL interaction in Lin- cells and pure ILC2s. iPSC-MSCs exerted their inhibitory effects on ILC2s via activating Treg cells through ICOS-ICOSL interaction. The MSC-induced Treg cells then suppressed ILC2s by secreting IL-10 in the coculture system. This study revealed that human MSCs suppressed ILC2s via Treg cells through ICOS-ICOSL interaction, which provides further insight to regulate ILC2s in inflammatory disorders.

11.
Trials ; 22(1): 218, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is an important opportunistic infection (OI) occurring mainly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and has the potential to cause severe visual impairment and blindness among AIDS patients. Subsequent to the adoption and implementation of widespread antiretroviral therapy (ART), the prognosis of AIDS-associated CMVR has been substantially improved. Nevertheless, the equivocal clinical evidence as regards the optimal timing for ART initiation in patients with an established CMVR diagnosis is required. We therefore designed the present study in order to investigate the optimal timing for ART initiation in AIDS/CMVR patients. METHODS: This will be a prospective, randomized controlled trial to be performed at 17 hospitals in mainland China. A total of 300 participants with CMVR will be randomly assigned to an early ART initiation group (ART initiation within 2 weeks after anti-CMV therapy), or a deferred ART initiation group (initiation of ART more than 2 weeks after anti-CMV therapy) at a 1:1 ratio. All participants will receive 48 weeks of follow-up after anti-CMV therapy initiation. Our primary outcome will be the incidence of visual loss (to a visual acuity worse than 20/40 or 20/200) in the two groups during the 48-week follow-up period. Secondary outcomes will include changes in HIV virological suppression and serum CD4+ T-cell counts, the incidence of mortality, retinitis progression (movement of the peripheral border of a CMV lesion ≥ ½ disc diameter, or occurrence of a new CMV lesion), retinal detachment, immune recovery uveitis (IRU), and other OIs and adverse events between the two study groups during the 48 weeks of follow-up. DISCUSSION: The study aims to investigate the optimal timing for ART initiation in AIDS/CMVR patients. We hope to be able to extract robust clinical evidence for use in optimal AIDS/CMVR management should our trial be successful. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This research was registered as one of the twelve clinical trials under the name of a general project "A study for precision diagnosing and treatment strategies in difficult-to-treat AIDS cases and HIV-infected patients with highly fatal or highly disabling opportunistic infections", ChiCTR1900021195. Registered on 1 February 2019, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=35362 .

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4936, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654201

RESUMO

Fish culture in paddy fields is a traditional aquaculture mode, which has a long history in East Asia. Large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus) fast growth is suitable for paddy fields aquaculture in China. The objective of this study was to identify differential expression genes (DEGs) in the brain, liver and muscle tissues between large (LG, top 5% of maximum total length) and small (SG, top 5% of minimum total length) groups using RNA-seq. In total, 150 fish were collected each week and 450 fish were collected at twelfth week from three paddy fields for all the experimental. Histological observation found that the muscle fibre diameter of LG loaches was greater than that of SG loaches. Transcriptome results revealed that the high expression genes (HEGs) in LG loaches (fold change ≥ 2, p < 0.05) were mainly concentrated in metabolic pathways, such as "Thyroid hormone signalling pathway", "Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)", "Carbon metabolism", "Fatty acid metabolism", and "Cholesterol metabolism", and the HEGs in SG loaches were enriched in the pathways related to environmental information processing such as "Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)", "ECM- receptor interaction" and "Rap1 signalling pathway"; cellular processes such as "Tight junction", "Focal adhesion", "Phagosome" and "Adherens junction". Furthermore, IGFs gene family may play an important role in loach growth for their different expression pattern between the two groups. These findings can enhance our understanding about the molecular mechanism of different growth and development levels of loaches in paddy fields.

13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) has been proven to be an efficient way to control postoperative pain. This study explored whether the use of continuous SAPB in combination with flurbiprofen could improve early pulmonary function in lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). METHODS: From July 2019 to April 2020, patients who scheduled for elective lung resection undergoing thoracoscopic surgery were randomly allocated to receive patient-controlled SAPB in combination with intravenous flurbiprofen or patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. Postoperative pulmonary function parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and forced vital capacity were collected before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Pain intensity was measured at rest and on coughing. Comfort score during breathing exercises, postoperative pulmonary complications and adverse events were recorded. RESULTS: A substantial reduction in lung function was exhibited in both groups after surgery (P < 0.001), but lung function parameters in continuous SAPB group were significantly higher (P < 0.001) throughout postoperative period up to 72 hours, regardless of the surgery type. Meanwhile, there were significant differences of pain intensity at rest and on coughing between both groups (P < 0.001). The incidence of pneumonia, pulmonary atelectasis, hypoxemia, vomiting and the comfort score in continuous SAPB group was significantly lower (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative acute pain treatment with continuous SAPB in combination with flurbiprofen enhanced pulmonary function and reduced postoperative pulmonary complications in lung cancer patients undergoing VATS.

14.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify genes that are related to delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) in patients by RNA-Seq analysis. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University (Shanghai, China). PARTICIPANTS: We collected the entire vestibular system from four patients with DEH who underwent labyrinthectomy. Three control samples were collected from patients with acoustic neuroma or facial neuroma treated via the translabyrinthine approach. High-throughput RNA-Seq analysis was performed to investigate gene expression in the pathological vestibular system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Our bioinformatic analysis identified 17 genes that were upregulated and eight genes that were downregulated in patients with DEH compared with the controls. RESULTS: The altered gene expression profile suggested that DEH is closely related to neuropathy and autoimmune disease. In addition, many of the differentially regulated genes were involved in cell adhesion, suggesting a role of cell adhesion in DEH. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the expression of PMP2 and CLDN19 in the cytoplasm of hair cells and scattered expression of MPZ at cell junctions. The protein expression levels were higher in specimens from patients with Ménière's disease and DEH compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: The protein expression profile of vestibular organs in patients with endolymphatic hydrops exhibited a degree of similarity to that of Ménière's disease. Endolymphatic hydrops is characterised by autoimmune abnormalities. DEH and Ménière's disease are likely to be different manifestations of the same disease, with disparate clinical symptoms. RNA-Seq is a useful analytical tool to characterise the vestibular pathology based on its transcriptome.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5386, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686158

RESUMO

Atom segmentation and localization, noise reduction and deblurring of atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images with high precision and robustness is a challenging task. Although several conventional algorithms, such has thresholding, edge detection and clustering, can achieve reasonable performance in some predefined sceneries, they tend to fail when interferences from the background are strong and unpredictable. Particularly, for atomic-resolution STEM images, so far there is no well-established algorithm that is robust enough to segment or detect all atomic columns when there is large thickness variation in a recorded image. Herein, we report the development of a training library and a deep learning method that can perform robust and precise atom segmentation, localization, denoising, and super-resolution processing of experimental images. Despite using simulated images as training datasets, the deep-learning model can self-adapt to experimental STEM images and shows outstanding performance in atom detection and localization in challenging contrast conditions and the precision consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art two-dimensional Gaussian fit method. Taking a step further, we have deployed our deep-learning models to a desktop app with a graphical user interface and the app is free and open-source. We have also built a TEM ImageNet project website for easy browsing and downloading of the training data.

16.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the pulse width of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in rats and examine the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway during EA. METHODS: Sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), muscle wet weight and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed after treatment in model rats with EA of various pulse widths (0.5, 50, 100 and 200 ms). The apoptosis index (AI) and paired box (PAX)3 and PAX7 protein expression were also determined. Further, the mRNA and protein expressions of components of IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway and their downstream targets were determined, along with the inhibiting effect of the pathway with a PI3-specific inhibitor. RESULTS: EA with a pulse width of 200 ms was found to have the best effect with regard to increasing SFI, CSA and muscle weight, decreasing AI, and increasing the expression of PAX3 and PAX7. The IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be activated by denervation, although the downstream forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway was not suppressed by its activation. The PI3K/Akt pathway and its downstream molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were up-regulated further by EA to promote muscle protein synthesis. Meanwhile, the expressions of downstream FoxO and F-box protein 32 (ATROGIN-1) were down-regulated to reduce protein degradation. CONCLUSIONS: EA with 200-ms pulse width was found to have a more significant effect than 0.5-ms EA. The positive effects of EA disappeared after inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

17.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651685

RESUMO

The fusion of multi-modal data (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)) has been prevalent for accurate identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by providing complementary structural and functional information. However, most of the existing methods simply concatenate multi-modal features in the original space and ignore their underlying associations which may provide more discriminant characteristics for AD identification. Meanwhile, how to overcome the overfitting issue caused by high-dimensional multi-modal data remains appealing. To this end, we propose a relation-induced multi-modal shared representation learning method for AD diagnosis. The proposed method integrates representation learning, dimension reduction, and classifier modeling into a unified framework. Specifically, the framework first obtains multi-modal shared representations by learning a bi-directional mapping between original space and shared space. Within this shared space, we utilize several relational regularizers (including feature-feature, feature-label, and sample-sample regularizers) and auxiliary regularizers to encourage learning underlying associations inherent in multi-modal data and alleviate overfitting, respectively. Next, we project the shared representations into the target space for AD diagnosis. To validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, we conduct extensive experiments on two independent datasets (i.e., ADNI-1 and ADNI-2), and the experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art methods.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 185, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771972

RESUMO

Chronic stress is an environmental risk factor for depression and causes neuronal atrophy in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain regions. It is still unclear about the molecular mechanism underlying the behavioral alterations and neuronal atrophy induced by chronic stress. We here report that phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is a mediator for chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors and neuronal atrophy in mice. One-month chronic restraint stress (CRS) up-regulated PTEN signaling pathway in the PFC of mice as indicated by increasing levels of PTEN, p-MEK, and p-ERK but decreasing levels of p-AKT. Over-expression of Pten in the PFC led to an increase of depression-like behaviors, whereas genetic inactivation or knockdown of Pten in the PFC prevented the CRS-induced depression-like behaviors. In addition, systemic administration of PTEN inhibitor was also able to prevent these behaviors. Cellular examination showed that Pten over-expression or the CRS treatment resulted in PFC neuron atrophy, and this atrophy was blocked by genetic inactivation of Pten or systemic administration of PTEN inhibitor. Furthermore, possible causal link between Pten and glucocorticoids was examined. In chronic dexamethasone (Dex, a glucocorticoid agonist) treatment-induced depression model, increased PTEN levels were observed, and depression-like behaviors and PFC neuron atrophy were attenuated by the administration of PTEN inhibitor. Our results indicate that PTEN serves as a key mediator in chronic stress-induced neuron atrophy as well as depression-like behaviors, providing molecular evidence supporting the synaptic plasticity theory of depression.

19.
Adv Mater ; 33(13): e2008194, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645858

RESUMO

Oxygen-redox of layer-structured metal-oxide cathodes has drawn great attention as an effective approach to break through the bottleneck of their capacity limit. However, reversible oxygen-redox can only be obtained in the high-voltage region (usually over 3.5 V) in current metal-oxide cathodes. Here, we realize reversible oxygen-redox in a wide voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V in a P2-layered Na0.7 Mg0.2 [Fe0.2 Mn0.6 □0.2 ]O2 cathode material, where intrinsic vacancies are located in transition-metal (TM) sites and Mg-ions are located in Na sites. Mg-ions in the Na layer serve as "pillars" to stabilize the layered structure during electrochemical cycling, especially in the high-voltage region. Intrinsic vacancies in the TM layer create the local configurations of "□-O-□", "Na-O-□" and "Mg-O-□" to trigger oxygen-redox in the whole voltage range of charge-discharge. Time-resolved techniques demonstrate that the P2 phase is well maintained in a wide potential window range of 1.5-4.5 V even at 10 C. It is revealed that charge compensation from Mn- and O-ions contributes to the whole voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V, while the redox of Fe-ions only contributes to the high-voltage region of 3.0-4.5 V. The orphaned electrons in the nonbonding 2p orbitals of O that point toward TM-vacancy sites are responsible for reversible oxygen-redox, and Mg-ions in Na sites suppress oxygen release effectively.

20.
Biosci Rep ; 41(3)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645621

RESUMO

An-Chuan Granule (ACG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is an effective treatment for asthma but its pharmacological mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, network pharmacology was applied to explore the potential mechanism of ACG in the treatment of asthma. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Toll-like receptor (TLR), and Th17 cell differentiation-related, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor, and NF-kappaB pathways were identified as the most significant signaling pathways involved in the therapeutic effect of ACG on asthma. A mouse asthma model was established using ovalbumin (OVA) to verify the effect of ACG and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that ACG treatment not only attenuated the clinical symptoms, but also reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus secretion and MUC5AC production in lung tissue of asthmatic mice. In addition, ACG treatment notably decreased the inflammatory cell numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and TGF-beta) in lung tissue of asthmatic mice. In addition, ACG treatment remarkably down-regulated the expression of TLR4, p-P65, NLRP3, Caspase-1 and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) in lung tissue. Further, ACG treatment decreased the expression of receptor-related orphan receptor (RORγt) in lung tissue but increased that of Forkhead box (Foxp3). In conclusion, the above results demonstrate that ACG alleviates the severity of asthma in a ´multi-compound and multi-target' manner, which provides a basis for better understanding of the application of ACG in the treatment of asthma.

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