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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136518, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050380

RESUMO

Antibiotics used for human and veterinary purposes are released into the environment, resulting in potential adverse effects, including the development and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Here we investigated the dynamic fate of 36 antibiotics in a large river basin Dongjiang in South China, and discussed their potential antibiotic resistance selection risk. Based on the usage, excretion rate, wastewater treatment rate, human population and animal numbers the emissions of 36 frequently detected antibiotics were estimated for the Dongjiang River Basin. The total usage of the 36 antibiotics in the basin was 623.4 tons, which included 37% for human use and the rest for veterinary purposes. After being metabolized and partially treated, the amount of antibiotics excreted and released into the environment decreased to 267.6 tons. By allocating the high-precision antibiotic discharge inventory to 42 sewage plants and 17 livestock farms, an improved GREAT-ER (Geography referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) model for the Dongjiang River Basin, with a well calibration river flow network based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), was established to simulate the dynamic fate of 36 antibiotics. The simulation results showed that antibiotics contaminated >50% of the river sections. The modelled concentrations in water were almost within an order of magnitude of the measured concentrations. Antibiotic contamination in the dry season was obviously higher than that in the wet season. The concentrations of the antibiotics were always higher at the discharge zones and lower reaches of the river basin than the other reaches. The antibiotic resistance risk assessment showed that 23 out of the 36 antibiotics (nearly 65%) could pose high risks in the river basin. For those river reaches with high risks, the risk levels could mostly be reduced to low risk levels with a certain distance (15 km) from the pollution source. Therefore, more attention should be paid to those impact zones in term of antibiotic resistance.

2.
Food Chem ; 315: 126270, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028199

RESUMO

An electrochemistry coupled to online quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (EC/Q-TOF/MS) was applied to investigate the oxidative transformation and metabolic pathway of five phenolic acids in Danshen sample. Simulation of the phase I oxidative metabolism was carried out in an electrochemical reactor equipped with a glassy carbon working electrode. The phase II reactivity of the generated oxidative products towards biomolecules (such as glutathione) was investigated by ways of covalent adduct formation experiments. The results obtained by EC/MS were compared with well-known in vitro studies by conducting rat liver microsome incubations. Structures of the electrochemically produced metabolites were identified by accurate mass measurement and previously results in vivo metabolites. It was indicated that the electrochemical oxidation was in good accordance with similar products found in vivo experiments. In conclusion, this work confirmed that EC/Q-TOF/MS was a promising analytical tool in the prediction of metabolic transformations of functional foods.

3.
Neuroscience ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The spontaneous action potential of isolated sinoatrial node (SAN) cells is regulated by a coupled-clock system of two clocks: the calcium clock and membrane clock. However, it remains unclear whether calcium clock inhibitors have a direct effect on the membrane clock. The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct effect of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a selective calcium clock inhibitor, on the function of the membrane clock of SAN cells. METHODS: at SAN cells were isolated by trypsinization and identified based on morphology and electrophysiology. If and HCN currents were recorded via patch clamp technique. The expression of the HCN channel protein was determined by Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: The diastolic depolarization rate of spontaneous action potentials and the current densities of If were reduced by exposure to 10 µM CPA. The inhibitory effect of CPA was concentration-dependent with an IC50 value of 16.3 µM and a Hill coefficient of 0.98. The effect of CPA on If current was also time-dependent, and the If current amplitude was partially restored after washout. Furthermore, the steady-state activation curve of the If current was shifted to a negative potential, indicating that channel activation slowed down. Finally, the protein expression of HCN4 in HEK293 cells was markedly downregulated by CPA. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the direct inhibition effect of CPA on the If current in SAN cells is both concentration- and time-dependent. The underlying mechanisms may involve slowing down steady-state activation and the downregulation of pacemaker channel protein expression.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932646

RESUMO

Sunitinib is an oral small molecule multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which is currently used to treat severe cancers. Clinical research has shown that patients treated with sunitinib develop hypertension. As soon as sunitinib-induced hypertension appears, it is usual to administer anti-hypertension agent. But this treatment may cause acute blood pressure fluctuation which may lead to additional cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study is to establish a mathematical model for managing sunitinib-induced hypertension and blood pressure fluctuation. A mechanism-based PK/PD model was developed based on animal experiments. Then this model was used to perform simulations, thus to propose an anti-hypertension indication, according to which the anti-hypertension treatment might yield relative low-level AUC and fluctuation of blood pressure. The simulation results suggest that the anti-hypertension agent may yield low-level AUC and fluctuation of blood pressure when relative ET-1 level ranges from -15% to 5% and relative NO level is more than 10% compared to control group. Finally, animal experiments were conducted to verify the simulation results. Macitentan (30 mg/kg) was administered based on the above anti-hypertension indication. Compared with the untreated group, the optimized treatment significantly reduced the AUC of blood pressure; meanwhile the fluctuation of blood pressure in optimized treatment group was 70% less than that in immediate treatment group. This work provides a novel model with potential translational value for managing sunitinib-induced hypertension.

5.
Plant Signal Behav ; 15(2): 1714189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933409

RESUMO

The 70-kD heat shock proteins (HSP70s or HSC70s) function as molecular chaperones and are involved in diverse cellular processes. We recently demonstrated the roles of mitochondrial HSC70-1 (mtHSC70-1) in the establishment of cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-dependent respiration and redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Defects in COX assembly were observed in the mtHSC70-1 knockout lines. The levels of Cox2 (COX subunit 2) proteins in COX complex were markedly lower in the mutants than in wild-type plants; however, the levels of total Cox2 proteins in the mutants were not obviously different from those in wild-type plants, suggesting that the stability of COX or the availability of Cox2 was impaired in the mtHSC70-1 mutants. Here, we further detected the interaction between mtHSC70-1 and Cox2 proteins through co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down and firefly luciferase complementation imaging assays. The results showed that mtHSC70-1 could directly combine Cox2 in vivo and in vitro, providing supporting evidence for the role of mtHSC70-1 in COX assembly.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 33, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), as the smallest member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, has been verified to be implicated in cancer progression, especially metastasis. However, its expression pattern and function in tongue cancer is not clear. METHODS: The expression of MMP7 in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) specimens compared with their respective paired nontumour tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The effect of MMP7 on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion of tongue cancer cells was tested in appropriate ways after MMP7 siRNA knockdown or overexpression. The effect of MMP7 on lymph node metastasis in vivo was analyzed using a high-metastasis orthotopic nude mouse tongue transplanted tumour model. RESULTS: We found markedly elevated expression of MMP7 in human TSCC specimens compared with their respective paired nontumour tissues, and this high expression was correlated with the patients' lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, the results of molecular functional assays confirmed that MMP7 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion of TSCC cells. Knockdown of MMP7 inhibited lymph nodes metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: MMP7 plays an oncogenic role in carcinogenesis and metastasis of tongue cancer, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for tongue cancer.

7.
Cancer Biomark ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958078

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Anaplastic thyroid cancer/ATC is highly lethal malignancy without reliable chemotherapeutic drug. Resveratrol possesses anti-ATC activities but encounters resistance in some cases due to certain unknown reason(s). OBJECTIVE: Because signal transducer and activator of transcription/STAT3 signaling is critical for ATC cell survival and the main molecular target of resveratrol, its roles in determining the fates of resveratrol-treated ATC cells were investigated here. METHODS: Human THJ-11T, THJ-16 and THJ-21T ATC cell lines were treated by 100 µM resveratrol and their growth, statuses of STAT3 signaling and STAT3-related gene expression were examined. The relevance of STAT3 activation with resveratrol resistance was elucidated using STAT selective inhibitor AG490. Leukemia inhibitory factor/LIF expression and phosphorylated-STAT3/p-STAT3 nuclear translocation in ATC tissues were immunohistochemically analyzed. RESULTS: Resveratrol inhibited proliferation, p-STAT3 nuclear translocation as well as LIF and STAT3 expression of THJ-16T and THJ-21T but not THJ-21T cells which showed LIF upregulation and more frequent p-STAT3 nuclear translocation. AG490 significantly prevent p-STAT3 nuclear translocation, and reversed the resveratrol tolerance of THJ-11T cells. Immonohistochemical staining revealed 14.3% (4/28) of LIF and 3.6% (1/28) of p-STAT3 detection in noncancerous ATC-surrounding tissues, which increased to 89.5% (17/19) and 52.6% (10/19) respectively among ATC specimens. The correlative analysis indicated the relevance of LIF expression and STAT3 activation (r= 0.825; P< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The status of STAT3 activation and LIF expression are closely correlated with the therapeutic effect of resveratrol on ATCs. Frequent LIF upregulation and STAT3 activation are the unfavorable factors of ATCs and the potential targets of anti-ATC therapy.

8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis with gastric cancer remains challenging. This study explored the abnormal computed tomography (CT) signs of occult peritoneal metastasis (OPM) and evaluated it by region-to-region comparison using staging laparoscopy, from which a 4-point CT score system was developed. METHODS: Patients with advanced gastric cancer (stage cT ≥ 2M0) diagnosed by CT were enrolled in the study. Occult peritoneal metastasis detected during staging laparoscopy was compared with preoperative CT to investigate the presence of abnormal signs by a region-to-region comparison. A 4-point CT score system was developed to define the radiologic characteristics. Subsequently, the diagnostic efficacy of the CT score system was prospectively verified. RESULTS: In this study, 57 OPM regions were detected by staging laparoscopy in 33 of the 385 enrolled patients. The greater omentum was the most frequent site of OPM (38.60%, 22/57), which usually exhibited a smudge-like ground-glass opacity (S-GGO) (90.91%, 20/22) with a mean CT score of 2.14. The parietal and perihepatic peritoneum was the second most common site (22.81%, 13/57). A 4-point CT score system was developed based on the results. A cutoff CT score of 2 or higher was associated with a false-negative rate of 2% (2/99). This CT score system had a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 76.4% for an OPM-positive diagnosis (area under the curve, 0.848). The agreement between two radiologists on the assigned final score was 76.2% (kappa, 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OPM mostly exhibited S-GGO on CT, which should be interpreted cautiously. The 4-point CT score system may improve the pretreatment evaluation of occult peritoneal metastasis, and staging laparoscopy might not be necessary for patients with a score lower than 2.

9.
Thorac Cancer ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to develop a deep learning (DL) algorithm to evaluate the pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 302 breast cancer patients in this retrospective study were randomly divided into a training set (n = 244) and a validation set (n = 58). Tumor regions were manually delineated on each slice by two expert radiologists on enhanced T1-weighted images. Pathological results were used as ground truth. Deep learning network contained five repetitions of convolution and max-pooling layers and ended with three dense layers. The pre-NAC model and post-NAC model inputted six phases of pre-NAC and post-NAC images, respectively. The combined model used 12 channels from six phases of pre-NAC and six phases of post-NAC images. All models above included three indexes of molecular type as one additional input channel. RESULTS: The training set contained 137 non-pCR and 107 pCR participants. The validation set contained 33 non-pCR and 25 pCR participants. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of three models was 0.553 for pre-NAC, 0.968 for post-NAC and 0.970 for the combined data, respectively. A significant difference was found in AUC between using pre-NAC data alone and combined data (P < 0.001). The positive predictive value of the combined model was greater than that of the post-NAC model (100% vs. 82.8%, P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: This study established a deep learning model to predict PCR status after neoadjuvant therapy by combining pre-NAC and post-NAC MRI data. The model performed better than using pre-NAC data only, and also performed better than using post-NAC data only. KEY POINTS: Significant findings of the study. It achieved an AUC of 0.968 for pCR prediction. It showed a significantly greater AUC than using pre-NAC data only. What this study adds This study established a deep learning model to predict PCR status after neoadjuvant therapy by combining pre-NAC and post-NAC MRI data.

10.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911638

RESUMO

Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) is an indole alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophyll (UR) that has been used for the treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. An early study in a glutamate-induced mouse seizure model demonstrated that GM was one of the active ingredients of UR. In this study, electrophysiological technique was used to explore the mechanism underlying the antiepileptic activity of GM. We first showed that GM (1-30 µmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the spontaneous firing and prolonged the action potential duration in cultured mouse and rat hippocampal neurons. Given the pivotal roles of ion channels in regulating neuronal excitability, we then examined the effects of GM on both voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels in rat hippocampal neurons. We found that GM is an inhibitor of multiple neuronal channels: GM potently inhibited the voltage-gated sodium (NaV), calcium (CaV), and delayed rectifier potassium (IK) currents, and the ligand-gated nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) currents with IC50 values in the range of 1.3-13.3 µmol/L. In contrast, GM had little effect on the voltage-gated transient outward potassium currents (IA) and four types of ligand-gated channels (γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate/kainite (AMPA/KA receptors)). The in vivo antiepileptic activity of GM was validated in two electricity-induced seizure models. In the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced mouse seizure model, oral administration of GM (50-100 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In 6-Hz-induced mouse seizure model, oral administration of GM (100 mg/kg) reduced treatment-resistant seizures. Thus, we conclude that GM is a promising antiepileptic candidate that inhibits multiple neuronal channels.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917604

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested that betaine and choline may be beneficial for body composition. But no longitudinal study has been conducted to illustrate whether choline and betaine have long-term effects on changes in body composition. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between serum choline and betaine concentrations and 3-year changes in body composition in community-dwelling Chinese adults. This present analysis used data from 1384 women and 554 men aged 40-75 years. Serum concentrations of betaine and choline at baseline were assessed using HPLC-MS. Body composition parameters, i.e. muscle mass (MM), fat mass (FM) and body fat percentage (FM%), were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the first and the second follow-ups. After adjustment for potential cofounders, higher serum choline concentrations was associated with a lower decrease in MM in men (ß=0.022, P=0.025) and a less increase in FM and FM% in women with baseline choline concentrations below 21.5 µmol/L (all P for non-linearity=0.007); higher serum betaine concentrations were associated with a lower decline in MM and a less increase in FM and FM% among men whose betaine concentrations were lower than 55 µmol/L (all P for non-linearity<0.05). These findings suggest that higher concentrations of serum choline and betaine may be associated with favorable changes in body composition profiles among men and women who have relatively low concentrations, especially in men. Novelty bullets: ●Higher concentrations of serum choline and betaine were associated with favorable changes in body composition. ●Such favorable associations were more pronounced in men.

12.
Hum Gene Ther ; 31(1-2): 119-128, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822134

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates that the onset of myocardial infarction (MI) shows obvious circadian rhythmicity. Clinical studies have shown that MIs that occur in the early morning have a poor prognosis, but the mechanisms involved are still unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression level of Period 2 (per2) in the heart of mice is lower in the early morning than at noon and that increasing the expression of per2 in H9C2 cells and rat cardiomyocytes increases autophagy levels. Further studies indicated that overexpression of per2 after an MI improved cardiac function by increasing autophagy. In summary, this study has shown that the circadian clock protein, per2, may be a regulator of MI.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111864, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767136

RESUMO

A series of indazolyl-substituted piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidines (IPAPYs) were designed from two potent HIV-1 NNRTIs piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidine 3c and diaryl ether 4 as the lead compounds by molecular hybridization strategy. The target molecules 5a-q were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities and cytotoxicities in MT-4 cells. 5a-q displayed moderate to excellent activities against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 with EC50 values ranging from 1.5 to 0.0064 µM. Among them, 5q was regarded as the most excellent compound against WT HIV-1 (EC50 = 6.4 nM, SI = 2500). And also, it displayed potent activities against K103 N (EC50 = 0.077 µM), Y181C (EC50 = 0.11 µM), E138K (EC50 = 0.057 µM), and moderate activity against double mutants RES056 (EC50 = 8.7 µM). Moreover, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were summarized, and the molecular docking was performed to investigate the binding mode of IPAPYs and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

14.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(1): 51-55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways, and chronic rhinosinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. It can be induced by infection, allergy, or autoimmune problems. Diagnosis of these two diseases is made primarily based on clinical symptoms, allergen test, and imaging. The allergen test is invasive and expensive. The imaging test is harmful to children. Measurement of nasal nitric oxide (NNO) was noninvasive, without radiation, and inexpensive. This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of NNO in preschool children with nasal inflammatory diseases. METHODS: A total of 55 cases of allergic rhinitis, including 35 mild cases and 20 moderate to severe cases, and 33 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis, including 18 mild cases and 15 moderate to severe cases were selected as the experimental group. Fifty healthy preschool children were chosen as the control group. The levels of NNO in all children were measured. The differences in the levels of NNO among allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and the control group were compared. The levels of NNO in the control group were also analyzed. RESULTS: The levels of NNO were significantly higher in preschool children with allergic rhinitis than in the control group, and the differences were significant. However, the levels of NNO in preschool children with chronic rhinosinusitis were lower than in the control group. In the control group, the levels of NNO were not significantly different between genders, and no significant correlation between NNO levels and the children's height was found. CONCLUSION: As a noninvasive method for detecting nasal inflammatory diseases, measuring the levels of NNO had a high clinical significance in preschool children.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Rinite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Expiração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 64(2): 67-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804966

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Molecular mechanisms underlying ER stress and/or mitochondrial dysfunction that cause metabolic disorders and hepatic steatosis remain to be fully understood. Here, we found that a high fat diet (HFD) or chemically induced ER stress can stimulate mitochondrial stress protein HSP60 expression, impair mitochondrial respiration, and decrease mitochondrial membrane potential in mouse hepatocytes. HSP60 overexpression promotes ER stress and hepatic lipogenic protein expression and impairs insulin signaling in mouse hepatocytes. Mechanistically, HSP60 regulates ER stress-induced hepatic lipogenesis via the mTORC1-SREBP1 signaling pathway. These results suggest that HSP60 is an important ER and mitochondrial stress cross-talking protein and may control ER stress-induced hepatic lipogenesis and insulin resistance.

16.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(1): e23033, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To prevent Treponema Pallidum (TP) transmission from blood transfusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) for anti-TP has been widely used in routine blood donation screening in China for many years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Abbott CMIA assay for detection of anti-TP in Chinese blood donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2420 plasma samples, already routinely screened for anti-TP by two different EIAs, from four blood Centers were tested for anti-TP by Abbott CMIA. Subsequently, all samples with positive results by one or both EIAs and/or by Abbott CMIA were subjected to confirmatory testing (CT) using recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) or Treponema Pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA). TP infection was defined by a RIBA or TPPA positive. RESULTS: Compared with two EIAs strategy, Abbott CMIA showed a relatively best sensitivity as 98.80% (95% CI: 97.44%-100.16%) and a relatively best specificity as 99.58% (95% CI: 99.30%-99.85%), yielding the best consistency (99.49%) between anti-TP CT results with the highest κ value of .98. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to evaluate the performance of the Abbott CMIA assays for detection of syphilis in Chinese blood donors. Our results suggested that CMIA performed better than both EIAs, and implementation of CMIA replacing two different EIA reagents might help to further reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted TP infection, decrease unnecessary blood waste and loss of blood donors.

17.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125182, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678853

RESUMO

To effectively improve the heavy metal removal efficiency and stability of biomass adsorbents, a novel biochar colloids-mycelial pellets (BC-MP) composite was prepared via a biological assembly method. BC-MP was successfully produced with increased surface area and multisorption sites by physical adsorption, electrostatic interaction and hydrogen-bond formation between BC and extracellular polymers on MP. To investigate the performance and mechanisms of heavy metal adsorption by BC-MP, batch experiments were conducted with cadmium (Cd (II)) as the model pollutant. Results showed that BC-MP had higher removal efficiency (57.66%) compared to BC (5.45%) and MP (38.45%), respectively, due to the synergistic effect. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd (II) on BC-MP was 102.04 mg/g based on Langmuir isotherm model. Adsorption kinetics analysis indicated that chemical sorption was the key factor controlling the adsorption of Cd (II) onto BC-MP. Multiple characterization tests revealed that the main mechanisms of the adsorption process were surface complexation, cation exchange and precipitation. The BC-MP composite showed excellent heavy metal removal efficiency with long-term adsorption stability, suggesting its potential as a promising biosorbent for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater.

18.
Electrophoresis ; 41(1-2): 123-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674686

RESUMO

A novel micro matrix solid phase dispersion method was successfully used for the extraction of quaternary alkaloids in Phellodendri chinensis cortex. The elution of target compounds was accomplished with sodium hexanesulfonate as the eluent solvent. A neutral ion pair was formed between ion-pairing reagent and positively charged alkaloids in this process, which was beneficial for selectively extraction of polar alkaloids. Several parameters were optimized and the optimal conditions were listed as follows: silica gel as the sorbent, silica to sample mass ratio of 1:1, the grinding time of 1 min. The exhaustive elution of targets was achieved by 200 µL methanol/water (9:1) containing 150 mM sodium hexane sulfonate at pH 4.5. The method validation covered linearity, recovery, precision of intraday and interday, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and repeatability. This established method was rapid, simple, environmentally friendly, and highly sensitive.

20.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 146: 222-233, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711983

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the progression of acute lung injury (ALI). Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has important anti-inflammatory properties in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, arthritis, uveitis, and hepatitis. However, whether Gal-1 could protect against ALI is still poorly elucidated. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Gal-1 against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and the underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, we found that pretreatment with Gal-1 attenuated the lung tissue injury induced by LPS, with the recovery of lung function, protecting against the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. We also confirmed the therapeutic potential of Gal-1 on the survival rate of LPS-challenged mice. In vitro studies demonstrated the protective effects of exogenous Gal-1 through downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines release and oxidative stress in primary macrophages challenged by LPS. In addition, Gal-1 suppressed TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome activation in ALI mice and LPS-treated primary macrophages partly through directly binding to the NLRP3 protein. Gal-1 alleviated LPS-induced lung injury via activation of Nrf-2, which may be associated with AMPK phosphorylation. Collectively, our experimental results firstly provided the support that Gal-1 effectively protected against LPS-induced ALI via suppression of inflammation response and oxidative stress, which were largely dependent on the upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway via phosphorylation of AMPK. These results suggest that Gal-1 could be a valuable therapeutic candidate in the treatment of ALI.

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