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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9891, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972640

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have their own advantages in electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. An effective combination of these materials is ideal for preparing transparent conductive films to replace the traditional indium tin oxide films. At present, the preparation conditions of rGO are usually harsh and some of them have toxic effects. In this paper, an SnCl2/ethanol solution was selected as the reductant because it requires mild reaction conditions and no harmful products are produced. The whole process of rGO preparation was convenient, fast and environmentally friendly. Then, SEM, XPS, Raman, and XRD were used to verify the high reduction efficiency. CNTs were introduced to improve the film conductive property. The transmittance and sheet resistance were the criteria used to choose the reduction time and the content ratios of GO/CNT. Thanks to the post-treatment of nitric acid, not only the by-product (SnO2) and dispersant in the film are removed, but also the doping effect occurs, which are all conducive to reducing the sheet resistances of films. Ultimately, by combining rGO, GO and CNTs, transparent conductive films with a bilayer and three-dimensional structure were prepared, and they exhibited high transmittance and low sheet resistance (58.8 Ω/sq. at 83.45 T%, 47.5 Ω/sq. at 79.07 T%), with corresponding [Formula: see text] values of 33.8 and 31.8, respectively. In addition, GO and rGO can modify the surface and reduce the film surface roughness. The transparent conductive films are expected to be used in photoelectric devices.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969840

RESUMO

Herein, we report a one-step synthesis of a hollow Fe-N/C catalyst via a hard-templating strategy, in which FeNx sites are well dispersed on the carbon sphere. In particular, we found an optimal iron ratio on the catalyst surface for an enhanced alkaline oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The catalyst with a high specific surface area of 311.71 m2 g-1 exposes abundant electroactive sites that facilitate the adsorption of oxygen intermediates, thus exhibiting superior ORR activity in alkaline solution.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104916, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957537

RESUMO

Three unprecedented dimeric clerodane diterpenoids, dodovisdimers A-C (1-3), along with six known clerodane monomers (4-9), were isolated from Dodonaea viscosa. Compounds 1-3 may be biosynthetically formed via an intermolecular Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition between the coexisting monomers 4-7. The structures of these clerodanes were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, X-ray crystallographic study, and ECD calculations. Some isolates exerted antiviral effects on human influenza A virus (H3N2) in vitro.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856193

RESUMO

Miniaturized and manipulable optical probes are the foundation for developing in situ characterization devices in confined space. We developed two methods for fabricating free-standing single Ag nanowires (AgNWs) directly at the tip of a glass capillary either by chemical or electrochemical reduction. The electrochemical nature of both methods resulted in a rapid growth rate of AgNWs up to 1.38 µm/s and a controllable length from 5 to 450 µm. The AgNWs with a unique anisotropic structure allow localized surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon waveguides in the radial direction and axial direction, respectively. We verified the possibility of using single AgNWs as an optical dispersion device and waveguide probe. By controlling the experimental conditions, rough-surface AgNWs with high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity were also fabricated. These SERS-active probes also exhibited advantages in acquiring molecular information from a single living cell.

5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2396-2401, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884810

RESUMO

In this work, the redox potential, dissolved oxygen, and phosphate microelectrodes were used to quantitatively study the in-situ activity of dephosphorization bacteria and the impact of the organic matter concentration on denitrifying phosphorus removal in sludge aggregates in a sequencing batch reactor. The results showed that the maximum net volume release rate of phosphorus was 3.29 mg·(cm3·h)-1 in the initial anaerobic sludge aggregates, which was approximately 3 times the maximum net volume uptake rate of phosphorus at the initial anoxic stage. The release rate of phosphorus clearly decreased at the final anaerobic stage, and the maximum net volume release rate of phosphorus was only half of that at the initial anaerobic stage. At the final anoxic stage, the maximum net volume uptake rate of phosphorus decreased to 0.14 mg·(cm3·h)-1, and the phenomenon of secondary phosphorus release occurred in the deep area below 1800 µm. When the concentration of COD decreased from 350 mg·L-1 to 250 mg·L-1 and 150 mg·L-1, the maximum net volume release rate of phosphorus of dephosphorization bacteria decreased from 3.27 mg·(cm3·h)-1 to 2.44 mg·(cm3·h)-1 and 2.01 mg·(cm3·h)-1, respectively, and the rapid uptake area of phosphorus narrowed to the surface of the sludge aggregates.

6.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(1): 43-53, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834690

RESUMO

The cingulo-opercular network (CON), dorsal attention network (DAN), and ventral attention network (VAN) are prominently activated during attention tasks. The function of these task-positive networks and their interplay mechanisms in attention is one of the central issues in understanding how the human brain manipulates attention to better adapt to the external environment. This study aimed to clarify the CON, DAN, and VAN's functional hierarchy by assessing causal interactions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from human participants performing a visual-spatial attention task and correlating Granger causal influences with behavioral performance revealed that CON exerts behavior-enhancing influences upon DAN and VAN, indicating a higher level of CON in top-down attention control. By contrast, the VAN exerts a behavior-degrading influence on CON, indicating external disruption of the CON's control set.

7.
Acta Odontol Scand ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish and verify models predictive of thin periodontal phenotype and alveolar fenestration/dehiscence in the anterior teeth of patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective data of 669 anterior teeth (305 in maxillae and 364 in mandibles) from 80 patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion before augmented corticotomy were collected. Distribution of thin periodontal phenotype and alveolar fenestration and dehiscence were evaluated and their associations with potential influencing factors were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. The predictive models were visualized as nomograms, the accuracy of which was tested by receiver operating curve analyses. RESULTS: Thin phenotype was associated with Mazza bleeding index, sex, tooth type, probing depth and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG). Labial dehiscence was associated with age, jaw, labial bone thickness, mandibular plane angle, sagittal root position (SRP), sex, tooth type, and WKG. Labial fenestration was associated with sex, tooth type, SRP, and periodontal phenotype. The areas under the curves of nomogram prediction models for periodontal phenotype, alveolar dehiscence, and alveolar fenestration were 0.84, 0.81, and 0.73, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, lateral incisor, and limited WKG may be risk factors for thin periodontal phenotype. Age, canine, male sex, mandible, thin labial bone thickness, and root positioned against the labial plate may be risk factors for labial dehiscence; and female sex, thick phenotype, root positioned against the labial plate, lateral incisor, and canine may be risk factors for labial fenestration. The predictive performance of the models was acceptable.

8.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 121: 104106, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878364

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), most of which are small proteins, are necessary for innate immunity against pathogens. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) with a conserved lipopolysaccharide binding domain (LBD) can bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutralize LPS activity. The antibacterial mechanism of ALF, especially its role in bacteria, needs to be further investigated. In this study, the antibacterial role of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (PcALF5) derived from Procambarus clarkii was analyzed. PcALF5 could inhibit the replication of the microbiota in vitro and enhance the bacterial clearance ability in crayfish in vivo. Far-western blot assay results indicated that PcALF5 bound to two proteins of E. coli (approximately 25 kDa and 15 kDa). Mass spectrometry (MS), far-western blot assay, and pull-down results showed that 30S ribosomal protein S4 (RPS4, 25 kD) interacted with PcALF5. Further studies revealed that another E. coli protein binding to PcALF5 could be the large mechanosensitive channel (MscL), which is reported to participate in the transport of peptides and antibiotics. Additional assays showed that PcALF5 inhibited protein synthesis and promoted the transcription of ribosomal component genes in E. coli. Overall, these results indicate that PcALF5 could transfer into E. coli by binding to MscL and inhibit protein synthesis by interacting with RPS4. This study reveals the mechanism underlying ALF involvement in the antibacterial immune response and provides a new reference for the research on antibacterial drugs.

9.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Now that the debate about the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic versus open surgery is over, attention has turned to innovations that can verify whether minimizing the impact of laparoscopy on the abdominal wall can further reduce pain, improve patient comfort, lead to superior cosmesis, and reduce morbidity. The aim of this study was to further explore the application value of totally laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with transcolonic natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) and to evaluate the short-term efficacy of transcolonic NOSE surgery for resecting specimens of ascending colon cancer. METHODS: From January 2016 to May 2017, a retrospective study was conducted in Guangxi. Propensity score matching was used to minimize the bias from nonrandomized treatment assignment. Patients were followed up through May 2020. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients underwent totally laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with transcolonic NOSE, and 116 patients underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with mini-laparotomy (ML) procedures at our institution. After propensity score matching, each group included 45 patients, and all the covariate imbalances were alleviated. The transcolonic NOSE group and the ML group did not differ significantly in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. The transcolonic NOSE group was associated with a shorter time to first flatus (NOSE 1.8 ± 0.5 vs ML 3.2 ± 0.8, p=0.032), a shorter length of hospital stay (NOSE 11.3 ± 2.5 days vs ML 13.0 ± 3.1 days, p=0.034), a shorter time to first liquid intake (NOSE 2.6 ± 0.8 vs ML 3.8 ± 0.9, p=0.068), less pain (NOSE 1.8 ± 0.8 vs ML 4.2 ± 0.7, p=0.013), less analgesia requirement (NOSE 6 (13.3%) vs ML 21 (46.7%), p=0.001), lower CRP levels on POD1 (NOSE 3.6 ± 1.7 vs ML 8.2 ± 2.2, p=0.001) and POD3 (NOSE 2.4 ± 1.4 vs ML 4.6 ± 1.7, p=1.7 vs ML 8.2 ± 2.2, p=0.001) than the POSE group. The median follow-up was 28.4 months (interquartile range, 18.0-36.0 months). The 3-year overall survival rates were similar between the transcolonic NOSE group and the ML group. CONCLUSION: In total, laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with transcolonic specimen extraction appears to be safe for selected patients with ascending colon cancer as a minimally invasive surgery.

10.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(2): 145-151, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of sildenafil on monocrotaline-induced right ventricular (RV) remodeling and investigate the possible mechanism. METHODS: Rats were subcutaneously injected with monocrotaline to establish an RV remodeling model and then administered sildenafil (25 mg/kg) from days 1 to 28. After 28 days of administration, the RV systolic pressure and the RV hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. The morphology of the right ventricle was observed by H&E staining. The ultrastructure of the right ventricle was observed using a transmission electron microscope. The myocardial apoptosis of the right ventricle was evaluated by TUNEL staining. The protein expression of apoptosis-related proteins and PPARs were examined by western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: The results indicated that sildenafil decreased the RV systolic pressure and RVHI, and improved the microstructure and ultrastructure of the right ventricle in monocrotaline-induced rats. In addition, sildenafil suppressed myocardial apoptosis and promoted the protein expression of PPARs of the right ventricle in monocrotaline-induced rats. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil inhibits RV remodeling in monocrotaline-induced rats, which might be partially mediated by reducing myocardial apoptosis and activating PPARs.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112123, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721666

RESUMO

Alexandrium pacificum is a toxin-producing dinoflagellate with allelopathic effects. The elucidation of allelopathic mechanism of A. pacificum is of great significance for understanding A. pacificum blooms. To this end, using the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana as a target species, we observed changes in physiological, biochemical and gene transcription of T. pseudonana upon being co-cultured with A. pacificum. We found reciprocal effects between A. pacificum and T. pseudonana, and corroborated A. pacificum's allelopathy on T. pseudonana by observing inhibitory effects of filtrate from A. pacificum culture on the growth of T. pseudonana. We also found that co-culturing with A. pacificum, the expression of T. pseudonana genes related to photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, antioxidant system, nutrient absorption and energy metabolism were drastically influenced. Coupled with the alterations in Fv/Fm (the variable/maximum fluorescence ratio), activity of superoxide dismutase, contents of malondialdehyde, neutral lipid and total protein in T. pseudonana co-cultured with A. pacificum, we propose that A. pacificum allelopathy could reduce the efficiency of photosynthesis and energy metabolism of T. pseudonana and caused the oxidative stress, while the nutrient absorption was also affected by allelopathic effects. The resultant data potentially uncovered the allelopathic molecular mechanism of A. pacificum to model alga T. pseudonana. The changes in nutrient uptake and even energy metabolism in T. pseudonana, as an adaptation to environmental conditions, may prevent it from stress-related injuries. Our finding might advance the understanding of allelopathic mechanism of A. pacificum.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Laboratórios , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nature ; 592(7853): 296-301, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731931

RESUMO

Clonal haematopoiesis, which is highly prevalent in older individuals, arises from somatic mutations that endow a proliferative advantage to haematopoietic cells. Clonal haematopoiesis increases the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke independently of traditional risk factors1. Among the common genetic variants that give rise to clonal haematopoiesis, the JAK2V617F (JAK2VF) mutation, which increases JAK-STAT signalling, occurs at a younger age and imparts the strongest risk of premature coronary heart disease1,2. Here we show increased proliferation of macrophages and prominent formation of necrotic cores in atherosclerotic lesions in mice that express Jak2VF selectively in macrophages, and in chimeric mice that model clonal haematopoiesis. Deletion of the essential inflammasome components caspase 1 and 11, or of the pyroptosis executioner gasdermin D, reversed these adverse changes. Jak2VF lesions showed increased expression of AIM2, oxidative DNA damage and DNA replication stress, and Aim2 deficiency reduced atherosclerosis. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of Jak2VF lesions revealed a landscape that was enriched for inflammatory myeloid cells, which were suppressed by deletion of Gsdmd. Inhibition of the inflammasome product interleukin-1ß reduced macrophage proliferation and necrotic formation while increasing the thickness of fibrous caps, indicating that it stabilized plaques. Our findings suggest that increased proliferation and glycolytic metabolism in Jak2VF macrophages lead to DNA replication stress and activation of the AIM2 inflammasome, thereby aggravating atherosclerosis. Precise application of therapies that target interleukin-1ß or specific inflammasomes according to clonal haematopoiesis status could substantially reduce cardiovascular risk.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1065-1072, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742902

RESUMO

With the rapid development of China's economy and society, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of surface soil has attracted increasing attention. Based on a systematic review, this study identified 166 relevant papers (published from 2000 to 2020) dealing with the contamination of 16 PAHs in the surface soil of China and summarized the pollution level, temporal, and spatial distribution influencing factors of PAHs with statistics, spatial interpolation analysis, and source analysis methods. The results showed that the surface soil of China has been polluted by human-caused PAHs, with a median concentration of 675.70 µg·kg-1. Although the overall condition is good, some sampling points have been seriously polluted. Among the monomers of PAHs, the concentrations of fluoranthene (Fla) and pyrene (Pyr) are high, while acenaphthylene (Acy) and acenaphthene (Ace) are relatively low. During the survey period, the concentration data of surface soil PAHs are generally within the moderate pollution levels of 313.10-1070.45 µg·kg-1, while the annual changes of PAHs do not show obvious fluctuations and are less affected by oil production and consumption. Statistics and spatial interpolation results show that PAH pollution in the surface soil of China has regional characteristics, where the concentration decreases in order from northwest, north, east, northeast, southwest, and south-central China. The pollution level in most provinces is "contaminated" or "weakly contaminated." From the source analysis results, PAH pollution in surface soils in most areas of China comes from the high-temperature combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum, biomass, and coal. Heilongjiang and some northwestern regions (e.g., Xinjiang and Tibet) were mainly represented by oil source pollution. Such results could provide a reference for soil environmental management and PAH pollution control in China.

14.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(9): e2002143, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694329

RESUMO

Nanoparticles, that can be enriched in the tumor microenvironment and deliver the payloads into cancer cells, are desirable carriers for theranostic agents in cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, efficient targeted delivery and enhanced endocytosis for probes and drugs in theranostics are still major challenges. Here, a nanoparticle, which is capable of charge reversal from negative to positive in response to matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in tumor microenvironment is reported. This nanoparticle is based on a novel charge reversible amphiphilic molecule consisting of hydrophobic oleic acid, MMP9-cleavable peptide, and glutamate-rich segment (named as OMPE). The OMPE-modified cationic liposome forms an intelligent anionic nanohybrid (O-NP) with enhanced endocytosis through surface charge reversal in response to MMP9 in vitro. Successfully, O-NP nanohybrid performs preferential accumulation and enhances the endocytosis in MMP9-expressing xenografted tumors in mouse models, which improve the sensitivity of diagnosis agents and the antitumor effects of drugs in vivo by overcoming their low solubility and/or nonspecific enrichment. These results indicate that O-NP can be a promising delivery platform for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1930-1938, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742828

RESUMO

In order to clarify the characteristics of anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (ANAMMOX) sludge and the succession rule of bacteria based on particle size differentiation, the performance change and microbial community structure of ANAMMOX floc sludge during the formation of particles in the reaction system of a high ammonia-nitrogen biofilter were studied. The results indicated that the specific activity (SAA) and tolerance of the ANAMMOX granular sludge (AnGS) were significantly improved by increasing the particle size, and the SAA of R4(>4.75 mm) was up to 426.8 mg·(g·d)-1, but it also had adverse effects on mass transfer. The results of the high-throughput sequencing showed that dynamic changes between bacterial genera were common. When the particle size was less than 4.75 mm, the increase in particle size strengthened the stability of the bacterial flora, the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) with more flocs were eliminated, and the nitrogen removal ratio gradually stabilized. R3 (2.8-4.75 mm) exhibited the most specific flora composition, and the functional bacteria Candidatus Kuenenia accounted for 52.7%, while the R4 community complexity increased. Furthermore, the proportion of functional bacteria decreased, and the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria increased, which negatively affected the particle structure. In addition, the R3 microorganism has the best gene function expression level, which is significantly better than small particles in gene replication repair and energy conversion. Finally, the evolution of AnGS was analyzed through the OTU matrix between the samples. These results have some guiding significance for the optimization of the AnGS system and will be helpful for the application of the ANAMMOX process.


Assuntos
Amônia , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula
16.
Pharmacol Res ; : 105541, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711434

RESUMO

Diversiform ways of intercellular communication are vital links in maintaining homeostasis and disseminating physiological states. Among intercellular bridges, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) discovered in 2004 were recognized as potential pharmacology targets related to the pathogenesis of common or infrequent neurodegenerative disorders. The neurotoxic aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases including scrapie prion protein (PrPSc), mutant tau protein, amyloid-beta (Aß) protein, alpha-synuclein (α-syn) as well as mutant Huntington (mHTT) protein could promote TNT formation via certain physiological mechanisms, in turn, mediating the intercellular transmission of neurotoxicity. In this review, we described in detail the skeleton, the formation, the physicochemical properties, and the functions of TNTs, while paying particular attention to the key role of TNTs in the transport of pathological proteins during neurodegeneration.

17.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(6): 472-489, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582931

RESUMO

Oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes greatly to the development of hypertension. The recombinant nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1) regulates the transcription of several genes related to mitochondrial respiratory chain function or antioxidant expression, and thus may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Here we show that in the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats the transcription level of Nrf1 was elevated comparing to the normotensive controls. Knocking down of Nrf1 in the PVN of 2K1C rats can significantly reduce their blood pressure and level of plasma norepinephrine (NE). Analysis revealed significant reduction of superoxide production level in both whole cell and mitochondria, along with up-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn-SOD), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and glutathione synthesis rate-limiting enzyme (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and modifier subunit (Gclm)), and down-regulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI c (Cox6c) transcription after Nrf1 knock-down. In addition, the reduced ATP production and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the PVN of 2K1C rats were reinstated with Nrf1 knock-down, together with restored expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), coiled-coil myosin-like BCL2-interacting protein (Beclin1), and Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), which are related to the mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and autophagy. Together, the results indicate that the PVN Nrf1 is associated with the development of 2K1C-induced hypertension, and Nrf1 knock-down in the PVN can alleviate hypertension through intervention of mitochondrial function and restorement of the production-removal balance of superoxide.

18.
Environ Res ; 195: 110836, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some evidence suggests that residential greenness may prevent hypertension in urban areas, limited attention has been paid to urban-rural disparities in the association of greenness with hypertension in rapidly urbanizing developing countries. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the association between the amount of neighbourhood greenness and hypertension among middle and older aged people in Chinese urban and rural areas. It further examined whether PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) mediated the association of greenness with hypertension. METHODS: We used data from 11 486 adults aged 50 years or above within the first wave of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in China during 2007-2010. Hypertension was assessed by criterion-based measures of blood pressure. Residential greenness was characterized by satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We employed multilevel generalized structural equation models to estimate the association between neighbourhood greenness and hypertension in urban and rural areas. Serial mediation models have been performed to test potential pathways linking greenness to hypertension. RESULTS: In rural areas, a greater amount of residential greenness was directly associated with a decrease in the odds of hypertension (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.89). No direct association was observed in urban areas (odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.94-1.89). Serial mediation models showed that the association of greenness with hypertension was completely mediated by PM2.5 concentrations in urban areas, while the association of greenness with hypertension was only partially mediated by PM2.5 concentrations and serial PM2.5 concentrations-physical activity path in rural areas. There was no evidence that physical activity, air pollution-BMI path, air pollution-physical activity-BMI path, and physical activity-BMI path mediated the association in both urban and rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Higher neighbourhood greenness was directly associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension among middle and older aged adults in rural China but not in urban areas. The association of greenness with hypertension was completely mediated by air pollution (without any mediation effect of physical activity and BMI) in urban areas. In contrast, the association was partly mediated by air pollution, physical activity, and other unobservables in rural areas. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to prove a cause-and-effect association, which may help policymakers and practitioners to conduce effective interventions to prevent and control the prevalence of hypertension and the attendant disease burden.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hipertensão , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(7): e2000885, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547879

RESUMO

SCOPE: Gut dysbiosis and dysregulation of the gut-brain-axis contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Vitamin C (VC) is a common dietary supplement that shows the ability to lower the elevated blood pressure in hypertensive animals. Thus, the hypothesis that the gut microbiota is involved in the anti-hypertensive effect of VC is proposed. METHODS AND RESULTS: The changes of the gut microbiota and pathology in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model after daily oral intake of VC in dosage of 200 or 1000 mg kg-1 are examined. After 4 weeks, the elevated blood pressure of SHRs in both VC-treated groups is attenuated. Sequencing of the gut microbiota shows improvement in its diversity and abundance. Bioinformatic analysis suggests restored metabolism and biosynthesis-related functions of the gut, which are confirmed by the improvement of gut pathology and integrity. Analysis of the hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the central pivot of blood pressure regulation, also shows reduced inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced blood pressure, enriched gut microbiota, improved gut pathology and integrity, and reduced inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in the PVN together suggest that the anti-hypertensive effects of VC involve reshaping of gut microbiota composition and function.

20.
Exp Eye Res ; 206: 108520, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617852

RESUMO

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by gut microbiota as fermentation products of digestion-resistant oligosaccharides and fibers. Their primary roles are functioning as major energy sources for colon cells and assisting in gut homeostasis by immunomodulation. Recent evidence suggests that they affect various organs both at cellular and molecular levels, and regulate functions in distance sites including gene expression, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. In this study, we examined whether SCFAs are present in the mouse eye and whether SCFAs affect inflammatory responses of the eye and retinal astrocytes (RACs). We observed that intra-peritoneal injected SCFAs were detected in the eye and reduced intraocular inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, SCFAs displayed two disparate effects on LPS-stimulated RACs - namely, cytokine and chemokine production was reduced, but the ability to activate T cells was enhanced. Our results support the existence of gut-eye cross talk and suggest that SCFAs can cross the blood-eye-barrier via the systemic circulation. If applied at high concentrations, SCFAs may reduce inflammation and impact cellular functions in the intraocular milieu.

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